Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw

Last updated

Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw was an Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologist Kim Ryholt, he was the sixteenth king of the dynasty, reigning for 3 years, from 1775 BC until 1772 BC. [2] Thomas Schneider, on the other hand, places his reign from 1752 BC until 1746 BC. [3] Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the third king of the dynasty. [4] [5] [6] As a ruler of the early 13th Dynasty, Khabaw would have ruled from Memphis to Aswan and possibly over the western Nile Delta. [7]

Contents

Attestations

Cylinder-seal of Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw, Petrie Museum UC 11527. Khabaw2.png
Cylinder-seal of Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw, Petrie Museum UC 11527.

Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw is not listed on the Turin canon nor on any other ancient king list. [10] According to Ryholt, Khabaw's name was lost in a wsf (literally "missing") lacuna of the Turin canon reported in Column 7, line 17 of the document. The redactor of this king list, which was written in the early Ramesside period, wrote wsf when the older document from which he was copying the list had a lacuna. [2]

Khabaw is however well attested through archaeological finds. Fragments of a red granite architrave measuring 2 feet 6 inches (0.76 m) by 5 feet 11 inches (1.80 m) bearing his Horus name and prenomen were discovered during excavations at Bubastis in 1891 conducted by Édouard Naville for the Egypt Exploration Society. [1] [11] The architrave is now in the British Museum, under the catalog number BM EA 1100. Another architrave discovered in Tanis shows Khabaw's name together with that of pharaoh Hor of the 13th Dynasty. Darrell Baker and Ryholt suggest that this close association might mean that Khabaw was Hor's son and may have been his coregent. [7]

Ryholt and Baker believe that both architraves did not originate from the Delta region but from Memphis. The architraves could have come to their find spots after the fall of the 13th Dynasty, when the Hyksos moved a large number of monuments from Memphis to Avaris and other cities of the Nile Delta such as Bubastis and Tanis. [7] Alternatively, the architraves may have stayed in Avaris until the reign of Ramses II, when this king built his capital at Pi-Ramesses using material from Avaris. Pi-Ramesses was subsequently dismantled during the 21st Dynasty and its monuments scattered in the Delta region. [2] [12]

Finally, Khabaw is attested by a cylinder-seal now in the Petrie Museum (UC 11527), [9] 4 seal impressions from Uronarti and one from Mirgissa, both places being Egyptian fortresses in Nubia. [2]

Identity

The nomen of Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw is unknown and his identity is therefore not completely established. Ryholt has proposed Khabaw's nomen could have been "Sobek", as this nomen is attested from artifacts which must belong to a king of the first half of the 13th Dynasty. Only two kings of this time period have their nomina unknown: Khabaw and Nerikare. "Sobek" may thus possibly be the nomen of Khabaw. [2]

On the other hand, Jürgen von Beckerath identified Khabaw's nomen as Pantjeny, thereby equating Khabaw with Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny, who is otherwise attested by a single stele. [6] However, this hypothesis has been invalidated in a recent study of stele by Marcel Marée. Marée has shown that the stele was produced by the same workshop (and possibly the same person) who produced the stelae of Wepwawetemsaf and Rahotep. The latter is firmly dated to the early 17th Dynasty c. 1580 BC and thus Pantjeny must have ruled c. 1600 BC, possibly at the end of the 16th Dynasty. [13] Alternatively, Pantjeny could be a member of the Abydos Dynasty, which ruled over central Egypt from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC. [2]

Wolfgang Helck and Stephen Quirke have equated Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw with Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep, called Sobekhotep I or Sobekhotep II depending on the scholar. This hypothesis is considered incorrect by most Egyptologists including von Beckerath, Detlef Franke, Ryholt and Anthony Spalinger [14] Von Beckerath and Franke point out that although both kings have the same throne name, their other names are completely different. Spalinger argues that the Nile records of Nubia associated to Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep cannot be attributed to Khabaw. [14] Responding to these arguments, Stephen Quirke pointed out that the Horus and gold names of Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep are known from a single block from Medamud, the attribution of which is not entirely certain. [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Merneferre Ay Egyptian pharaoh

Merneferre Ay was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the mid 13th Dynasty. The longest reigning pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty, he ruled a likely fragmented Egypt for over 23 years in the early to mid 17th century BC. A pyramidion bearing his name shows that he possibly completed a pyramid, probably located in the necropolis of Memphis.

Merhotepre Sobekhotep Egyptian pharaoh

Merhotepre Sobekhotep was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirtieth pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its twenty-ninth ruler. In older studies, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke identified Merhotepre Sobekhotep with Merhotepre Ini, thereby making him Sobekhotep VI and the twenty-eighth ruler of the 13th dynasty.

Sekhemkare Egyptian pharaoh

Sekhemkare Amenemhat V was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the 4th king of the dynasty, reigning from 1796 BC until 1793 BC. The identity of Amenemhat V is debated by a minority of Egyptologists, as he could be the same person as Sekhemkare Amenemhat Sonbef, the second ruler of the 13th Dynasty.

Semenkare Nebnuni Egyptian pharaoh

Semenkare Nebnuni is a poorly attested pharaoh of the early 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to Egyptologists Darrell Baker and Kim Ryholt, Nebnuni was the ninth ruler of the 13th dynasty. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the eighth king of the dynasty.

Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty

Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period, who reigned for at least three years c. 1800 BC. His chronological position is much debated, Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep being either the founder of the dynasty, in which case he is called Sobekhotep I, or its twentieth ruler, in which case he is called Sobekhotep II. In his 1997 study of the Second Intermediate Period, the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt makes a strong case for Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep as the founder of the dynasty, a hypothesis that is now dominant in Egyptology. His tomb was believed to have been discovered in Abydos in 2013, but its attribution is now questioned.

Sobekhotep VIII Pharaoh of Egypt

Sekhemre Seusertawy Sobekhotep VIII was possibly the third king of the 16th Dynasty of Egypt reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Alternatively, he may be a ruler of the 13th or 17th Dynasty. If he was a king of the 16th Dynasty, Sobekhotep VIII would be credited 16 years of reign by the Turin canon, starting c. 1650 BC, at the time of the Hyksos invasion of Egypt.

Aperanat ancient Egyptian king of the Second Intermediate Period

'Aper-'Anati was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period in the mid-17th century BC. According to Jürgen von Beckerath he was the second king of the 16th Dynasty and a vassal of the Hyksos kings of the 15th Dynasty. This opinion was recently rejected by Kim Ryholt. In his 1997 study of the Second Intermediate Period, Ryholt argues that the kings of the 16th Dynasty ruled an independent Theban realm c. 1650–1580 BC. Consequently, Ryholt sees 'Aper-'Anati as an early Hyksos king of the 15th Dynasty, perhaps its second ruler. This analysis has convinced some egyptologists, such as Darrell Baker and Janine Bourriau, but not others including Stephen Quirke.

Sobekhotep VI Egyptian pharaoh

Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirty-first pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its thirtieth ruler. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the twenty-fifth king of the dynasty.

Merdjefare Egyptian pharaoh

Merdjefare was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th Dynasty, Merdjefare would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Merkawre Sobekhotep was the thirty-seventh pharaoh of the 13th dynasty during the second intermediate period. He probably reigned over Middle and perhaps Upper Egypt during the mid-17th century BC from 1664 BC until 1663 BC. Alternatively, the German Egyptologist Thomas Schneider dates this short-lived king's reign from 1646 BC to 1644 BC

Seth Meribre ancient Egyptian sovereign

Seth Meribre was the twenty-fourth pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. Seth Meribre reigned from Memphis, ending in 1749 BC or c. 1700 BC. The length of his reign is not known for certain; the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposes that he reigned for a short time, certainly less than 10 years.

Sonbef 13th dynasty pharaoh

Mehibtawy Sekhemkare Amenemhat Sonbef was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the 2nd king of the dynasty, reigning from 1800 BC until 1796 BC.

Nerikare Egyptian pharaoh

Nerikare was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the third king of the dynasty, reigning for a short time in 1796 BC. Alternatively Jürgen von Beckerath sees Nerikare as the twenty-third king of the 13th Dynasty, reigning after Sehetepkare Intef.

Wepwawetemsaf Egyptian pharaoh

Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within this dynasty undetermined. Alternatively, the Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath sees Wepwawetemsaf as a king of the late 13th Dynasty, while Marcel Marée proposes that he was a king of the late 16th Dynasty.

Snaaib Egyptian pharaoh

Menkhaure Snaaib was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within the dynasty undetermined. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees Snaaib as a king reigning near the end of the 13th Dynasty.

Pantjeny Egyptian pharaoh

Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within this dynasty undetermined. Alternatively, Pantjeny could be a king of the late 16th Dynasty. According to Jürgen von Beckerath, Pantjeny is to be identified with Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw, whom he sees as the third king of the 13th Dynasty.

Wazad Egyptian pharaoh

Wazad was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Wazad was a member of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt reigning c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th dynasty, he would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well. The Memphis-based 13th Dynasty reigned over Middle and Upper Egypt at the same time. Alternatively, according to Jürgen von Beckerath and Wolfgang Helck, Wazad was a ruler of the 16th Dynasty and a vassal of the Hyksos 15th Dynasty. This view is debated in egyptology, in particular because Ryholt and others have argued that the 16th Dynasty was an independent Theban kingdom rather than a vassal dynasty of the Hyksos.

Sewahenre Senebmiu Egyptian pharaoh

Sewahenre Senebmiu is a poorly attested Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath, he was the forty-first king of the 13th dynasty. Alternatively, Darrell Baker proposes that he may have been its fifty-seventh ruler. Kim Ryholt only specifies that Senebmiu's short reign dates to between 1660 BC and 1649 BC.

Merkheperre Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty of Egypt

Merkheperre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period reigning some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC. As such Merkheperre would have reigned either over Upper Egypt from Thebes or over Middle and Upper Egypt from Memphis. At the time, the Eastern Nile Delta was under the domination of the 14th Dynasty.

Bebnum is a poorly known ruler of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, reigning in the early or mid 17th century BC.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Wallis Budge: Hieroglyphic Texts, V (1914) see p. 7 and pl. 18, available copyright-free online.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800 – 1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online here.
  3. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN   3-491-96053-3, p. 255 and 259
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  5. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  6. 1 2 Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49, Philip Von Zabern. (1999)
  7. 1 2 3 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 289-290
  8. Flinders Petrie: Scarabs and cylinders with names (1917), available copyright-free here, pl. XVIII
  9. 1 2 Seal of Khabaw, catalog of the Petrie Museum.
  10. Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 166-167
  11. E. Naville: Bubastis, 1891, 15, pl. XXXIII, available copyright-free online
  12. See a similar situation for the colossi of Imyremeshaw.
  13. Marcel Marée: A sculpture workshop at Abydos from the late Sixteenth or early Seventeenth Dynasty, in: Marcel Marée (editor): The Second Intermediate period (Thirteenth-Seventeenth Dynasties), Current Research, Future Prospects, Leuven, Paris, Walpole, MA. 2010 ISBN   978-90-429-2228-0. p. 247, 268
  14. 1 2 A. Spalinger: Sobekhotep II, in: Wolfgang Helck editor: Lexikon der Ägyptologie, vol. 5. Harrasowitz, Wiesbaden 1984, ISBN   3-447-02489-5
  15. Stephen Quirke: In the Name of the King: on Late Middle Kingdom Cylinders, in: E. Czerny, I. Hein, H. Hunger, D. Melman, A. Schwab (editors): Timelines, Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak, Volume I, Leuven, Paris/ Dufdley, MA ISBN   9789042917309, p. 263-274.
Preceded by
Hor
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Djedkheperew