Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

Last updated
Egypt
380 BC–343 BC
NectaneboI-Stele.png
Stele of Nectanebo I
Capital Sebennytos
Common languages Egyptian language
Religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
Government Absolute monarchy
Historical era Classical antiquity
 Deposition of Nefaarud II
380 BC
343 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg

The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXX, alternatively 30th Dynasty or Dynasty 30) is usually classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. It was founded after the overthrow of Nepherites II in 380 BC by Nectanebo I, and was disestablished upon the invasion of Egypt by the Achaemenid emperor Artaxerxes III in 343 BC. This is the final native dynasty of ancient Egypt; after the deposition of Nectanebo II, Egypt fell under foreign domination.

Late Period of ancient Egypt time period of Ancient Egypt

The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period in the 26th Saite Dynasty founded by Psamtik I, but includes the time of Achaemenid Persian rule over Egypt after the conquest by Cambyses II in 525 BC as well. The Late Period existed from 664 BC until 332 BC, following a period of foreign rule by the Nubian 25th dynasty and beginning with a short period of Neo-Assyrian suzerainty, with Psamtik I initially ruling as their vassal. The Late Period ended with the conquests of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic dynasty by his general Ptolemy I Soter, one of the Hellenistic diadochi from Macedon in northern Greece. With the Macedonian Greek conquest in the latter half of the 4th century BC, the age of Hellenistic Egypt began.

Nepherites II or Nefaarud II was the last pharaoh of the feeble and short-lived Twenty-ninth Dynasty, the penultimate native dynasty of Egypt.

Nectanebo I Egyptian pharaoh

Kheperkare Nakhtnebef, better known by his hellenized name Nectanebo I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the last native dynasty of Egypt, the thirtieth.

Contents

History

A 30th dynasty Egyptian funerary mask Egyptian funerary mask at the times of 30th dynasty (Gulbenkian Museum).jpg
A 30th dynasty Egyptian funerary mask

Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365 BC, Nectanebo made his son Teos co-king and heir, and until his death in 363 BC father and son reigned together. After his father's death, Teos invaded the Persian territories of modern Syria and Israel and was beginning to meet with some successes when he lost his throne due the machinations of his own brother Tjahapimu. [1] :377 Tjahepimu took advantage of Teos' unpopularity within Egypt by declaring his son—and Teos' nephew, Nectanebo II—king. The Egyptian army rallied around Nectanebo which forced Teos to flee to the court of the king of Persia. [1] :379

Achaemenid Empire first Persian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.

Sparta city-state in ancient Greece

Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.

Teos of Egypt Egyptian Pharaoh

Djedhor, better known as Teos or Tachos, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty.

Nectanebo II's reign was dominated by the efforts of the Persian rulers to reconquer Egypt, which they considered a satrapy in revolt. For the first ten years, Nectanebo avoided the Persian reconquest because Artaxerxes III was forced to consolidate his control of the realm. Artaxerxes then attempted an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt in the winter of 351/350 BC; the repercussions of his defeat prompted revolts in Cyprus, Phoenicia, and Cilicia. [1] :379–380 Although Nectanebo gave support to these revolts, Artaxerxes would eventually suppress these rebellions and was once again able to invade Egypt in 343 BC. This second invasion proved successful, and Nectanebo was forced to withdraw from his defenses in the Nile Delta to Memphis, where he saw that his cause was lost. He thereupon fled south to Nubia, where he is assumed to have found refuge at the court of King Nastasen of Napata. Nectanebo, however, may have managed to maintain some form of independent rule in the south of Egypt for 2 more years since a document from Edfu is dated to his eighteenth year. [1] :380–381

Artaxerxes III Archaemenid king

Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia. His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedon and Nectanebo II in Egypt.

Cyprus Island country in Mediterranean

Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece.

Phoenicia ancient Semitic civilization

Phoenicia was a thalassocratic, ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant, specifically Lebanon, in the west of the Fertile Crescent. Scholars generally agree that it was centered on the coastal areas of Lebanon and included northern Israel, and southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon. Its colonies later reached the Western Mediterranean, such as Cádiz in Spain and most notably Carthage in North Africa, and even the Atlantic Ocean. The civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC.

Although a shadowy figure named Khababash proclaimed himself king and led a rebellion against the Persians from about 338 to 335 BC, Nectanebo has been considered the last native pharaoh of Egypt. His flight marked the end of Egypt as an independent entity. [1] :381

Pharaoh ruler of Ancient Egypt

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Pharaohs of the 30th Dynasty

Name of PharaohImageReignThrone NameComments
Nectanebo I NectaneboI.jpg 380-362 BCKheperkareSon of a military official named Teos (not to be confused with his own son and successor) and himself a prominent general, he deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II to end the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. The elder Nectanebo moved the capital of Egypt from Mendes to Sebennytos. [2] He also engaged in many building projects across Egypt, perhaps outdoing many of his predecessors; Nectanebo is credited with beginning the construction of the Temple of Isis at Philae, among other things. [3] He respected religion and attempted to bring Egypt closer to the gods by restoring monuments and giving them gifts, as well as defended Egypt from the aggressive Achaemenid Empire. [4]
Teos Fragment of a faience saucer inscribed with the name of King Teos (Djedhor). 30th Dynasty. From the Palace of Apries at Memphis, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg 362-360 BCIrmaatenreCo-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC, Teos became unpopular with the Egyptian people because he raised taxes to fund a military campaign to conquer Achaemenid Syria and Palestine, including the satrapies of Eber-Nari and Phoenicia. [5] The king's brother, Tjahapimu, took advantage of this to install his own son, Nectanebo II, on the throne.
Nectanebo II Head of Nectanebo II-MBA Lyon H1701-IMG 0204.jpg 360-343 BCSenedjemibra SetenpeninhurThe last native ruler of ancient Egypt, his deposition marked the end of Egyptian hegemony until 1952. Nectanebo, however, was a very competent pharaoh, perhaps the most energetic of the dynasty, as he engaged in building and repairing monuments on a scale exceeding that of his grandfather's, forged alliances with the Greek poleis , and boosted the economy. [6] He was overthrown by Artaxerxes III around 343 BC and fled to Nubia; his subsequent fate is lost to history, although some believe he died shortly after. [7]

Timeline of the 30th Dynasty

Nectanebo IITeos of EgyptNectanebo IThirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

Family tree [8]

Djedhor A[...]mu (♀)
Double crown.svg Nectanebo I Meryethapi (♀)Nesibanebdjedet A
Double crown.svg Teos Tjahapimu Udjashu (♀)Tikhabes (♀)Pediamun
Khedebneithirbinet II (?) (♀) Double crown.svg Nectanebo II Nakhtnebef A
unnamed son

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books: 1992.
  2. Mark, Joshua J. (2016-10-12). "Late Period of Ancient Egypt - Ancient History Encyclopedia". ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  3. Mark 2016
  4. Mark 2016
  5. Mark 2016
  6. Ancient History Encyclopedia
  7. Emmanuel K. Akyeampong and Henry Louis Gates, Jr (2012). ""Dictionary of African Biographies - Gooogle Books". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
    • Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004, p. 256.