Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

Last updated
Egypt
380 BC–343 BC
NectaneboI-Stele.png
Stele of Nectanebo I
Capital Sebennytos
Common languages Egyptian language
Religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
Government Absolute monarchy
Historical era Classical antiquity
 Deposition of Nefaarud II
380 BC
343 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg

The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXX, alternatively 30th Dynasty or Dynasty 30) is usually classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. It was founded after the overthrow of Nepherites II in 380 BC by Nectanebo I, and was disestablished upon the invasion of Egypt by the Achaemenid emperor Artaxerxes III in 343 BC. This is the final native dynasty of ancient Egypt; after the deposition of Nectanebo II, Egypt fell under foreign domination.

Contents

History

A 30th dynasty Egyptian funerary mask Egyptian funerary mask at the times of 30th dynasty (Gulbenkian Museum).jpg
A 30th dynasty Egyptian funerary mask

Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365 BC, Nectanebo made his son, Teos, co-king and heir, and until his death, in 363 BC father and son reigned together. After his father's death, Teos invaded the Persian territories of modern Syria and Israel and was beginning to meet with some successes when he lost his throne due to the machinations of his own brother Tjahapimu. [1] :377 Tjahepimu took advantage of Teos' unpopularity within Egypt by declaring his son—and Teos' nephew, Nectanebo II—king. The Egyptian army rallied around Nectanebo which forced Teos to flee to the court of the king of Persia. [1] :379

Nectanebo II's reign was dominated by the efforts of the Persian rulers to reconquer Egypt, which they considered a satrapy in revolt. For the first ten years, Nectanebo avoided the Persian reconquest because Artaxerxes III was forced to consolidate his control of the realm. Artaxerxes then attempted an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt in the winter of 351/350 BC; the repercussions of his defeat prompted revolts in Cyprus, Phoenicia, and Cilicia. [1] :379–380 Although Nectanebo gave support to these revolts, Artaxerxes would eventually suppress these rebellions and was once again able to invade Egypt in 343 BC. This second invasion proved successful, and Nectanebo was forced to withdraw from his defenses in the Nile Delta to Memphis, where he saw that his cause was lost. He thereupon fled south to Nubia, where he is assumed to have found refuge at the court of King Nastasen of Napata. Nectanebo, however, may have managed to maintain some form of independent rule in the south of Egypt for 2 more years since a document from Edfu is dated to his eighteenth year. [1] :380–381

Although a shadowy figure named Khababash proclaimed himself king and led a rebellion against the Persians from about 338 to 335 BC, Nectanebo has been considered the last native pharaoh of Egypt. His flight marked the end of Egypt as an independent entity. [1] :381

Pharaohs of the 30th Dynasty

Name of PharaohImageReignThrone NameComments
Nectanebo I NectaneboI.jpg 380-362 BCKheperkareSon of a military official named Teos (not to be confused with his own son and successor) and himself a prominent general, he deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II to end the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. The elder Nectanebo moved the capital of Egypt from Mendes to Sebennytos. [2] He also engaged in many building projects across Egypt, perhaps outdoing many of his predecessors; Nectanebo is credited with beginning the construction of the Temple of Isis at Philae, among other things. [3] He respected religion and attempted to bring Egypt closer to the gods by restoring monuments and giving them gifts, as well as defended Egypt from the aggressive Achaemenid Empire. [4]
Teos Fragment of a faience saucer inscribed with the name of King Teos (Djedhor). 30th Dynasty. From the Palace of Apries at Memphis, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg 362-360 BCIrmaatenreCo-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC, Teos became unpopular with the Egyptian people because he raised taxes to fund a military campaign to conquer Achaemenid Syria and Palestine, including the satrapies of Eber-Nari and Phoenicia. [5] The king's brother, Tjahapimu, took advantage of this to install his own son, Nectanebo II, on the throne.
Nectanebo II Head of Nectanebo II-MBA Lyon H1701-IMG 0204.jpg 360-343 BCSenedjemibra SetenpeninhurThe last native ruler of ancient Egypt, his deposition marked the end of Egyptian hegemony until 1952. Nectanebo, however, was a very competent pharaoh, perhaps the most energetic of the dynasty, as he engaged in building and repairing monuments on a scale exceeding that of his grandfather's, forged alliances with the Greek poleis , and boosted the economy. [6] He was overthrown by Artaxerxes III around 343 BC and fled to Nubia; his subsequent fate is lost to history, although some believe he died shortly after. [7]

Timeline of the 30th Dynasty

Nectanebo IITeos of EgyptNectanebo IThirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

Family tree [8]

Djedhor A[...]mu (♀)
Double crown.svg Nectanebo I Meryethapi (♀)Nesibanebdjedet A
Double crown.svg Teos Tjahapimu Udjashu (♀)Tikhabes (♀)Pediamun
Khedebneithirbinet II (?) (♀) Double crown.svg Nectanebo II Nakhtnebef A
unnamed son

Related Research Articles

This article concerns the period 369 BC – 360 BC

Year 343 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Corvus and Arvina. The denomination 343 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Artaxerxes II of Persia King of Kings

Artaxerxes II Mnemon was the King of Kings of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius II and Parysatis.

Artaxerxes III King of Kings

Ochus, better known by his dynastic name of Artaxerxes III was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 358 to 338 BC. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and his mother was Stateira.

History of ancient Egypt aspect of history

The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, in 332 BC.

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt is usually classified as the third dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Late Period. The 28th Dynasty lasted from 404 BC to 398 BC and it includes only one Pharaoh, Amyrtaeus (Amenirdis), also known as Psamtik V or Psammetichus V. Amyrtaeus was probably the grandson of the Amyrtaeus of Sais, who is known to have carried on a rebellion in 465–463 BC with the Libyan chief, Inarus, against the satrap Achaemenes of Achaemenid Egypt.

Nectanebo II Egyptian pharaoh

Nectanebo II, ruled in 360—342 BC was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt.

Memnon of Rhodes Greek military leader

Memnon of Rhodes was a prominent Rhodian Greek commander in the service of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Related to the Persian aristocracy by the marriage of his sister to the satrap Artabazus II, together with his brother Mentor he served the Persian king for most of his life, and played an important role during the invasion of Alexander the Great and the decades before that.

Late Period of ancient Egypt time period of Ancient Egypt

The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period in the 26th Saite Dynasty founded by Psamtik I, but includes the time of Achaemenid Persian rule over Egypt after the conquest by Cambyses II in 525 BC as well. The Late Period existed from 664 BC until 332 BC, following a period of foreign rule by the Nubian 25th dynasty and beginning with a short period of Neo-Assyrian suzerainty, with Psamtik I initially ruling as their vassal. The period ended with the conquests of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic dynasty by his general Ptolemy I Soter, one of the Hellenistic diadochi from Macedon in northern Greece. With the Macedonian Greek conquest in the latter half of the 4th century BC, the age of Hellenistic Egypt began.

Amyrtaeus Egyptian Pharaoh

Amyrtaeus of Sais is the only Pharaoh of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt and is thought to be related to the royal family of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. He ended the first Persian occupation of Egypt and reigned from 404 BC to 399 BC. Amyrtaeus' successful insurrection inaugurated Egypt's last significant phase of independence under native sovereigns, which lasted for about 60 years until the Battle of Pelusium in 343 BC.

Nectanebo I Egyptian pharaoh

Kheperkare Nakhtnebef, better known by his hellenized name Nectanebo I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the last native dynasty of Egypt, the thirtieth.

Teos of Egypt Egyptian Pharaoh

Djedhor, better known as Teos or Tachos, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty.

Nepherites II or Nefaarud II was the last pharaoh of the feeble and short-lived Twenty-ninth Dynasty, the penultimate native dynasty of Egypt.

Hakor Egyptian Pharaoh

Hakor or Hagar, also known by the hellenized forms Achoris or Hakoris, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty. His reign marks the apex of this feeble and short-lived dynasty, having ruled for 13 years – more than half of its entire duration.

Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt dynasty and satrap in 5th and 6th centuries BC

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC and 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after his conquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, and was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh. A second period of Achaemenid rule in Egypt occurred under the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt.

Achaemenid Empire first Persian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.

Great Satraps Revolt rebellion in the Achaemenid Empire of several satraps against the authority of the Great King Artaxerxes II Mnemon

The Great Satraps' Revolt, or the Revolt of the Satraps, was a rebellion in the Achaemenid Empire of several satraps against the authority of the Great King Artaxerxes II Mnemon. The Satraps who revolted were Datames, Ariobarzanes and Orontes of Armenia. Mausolus the Dynast of Caria participated in the Revolt of the Satraps, both on his nominal sovereign Artaxerxes Mnemon's side and (briefly) against him.

Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt

The Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the Second Egyptian Satrapy, was effectively a short-lived province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 343 BC to 332 BC. It was founded by Artaxerxes III, the King of Persia, after his reconquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, and was disestablished upon the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.

Battle of Pelusium (343 BC)

The Battle of Pelusium in 343 was fought between the Persians, with their Greek mercenaries, and the Egyptians with their Greek mercenaries. It took place at the stronghold of Pelusium, on the coast at the far eastern side of the Nile Delta. Overall, Artaxerxes III commanded the Persians, and Nectanebo II commanded the Egyptians. The Greek troops with Egyptians inside the fortress were commanded by Philophron. The first attack was by Theban troops under Lacrates.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books: 1992.
  2. Mark, Joshua J. (2016-10-12). "Late Period of Ancient Egypt - Ancient History Encyclopedia". ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  3. Mark 2016
  4. Mark 2016
  5. Mark 2016
  6. Ancient History Encyclopedia
  7. Emmanuel K. Akyeampong and Henry Louis Gates, Jr (2012). "Dictionary of African Biographies - Gooogle Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780195382075 . Retrieved 2017-12-17.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
    • Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004, p. 256.