Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt
|404 BC–398 BC|
|Common languages||Egyptian language|
|Religion||Ancient Egyptian Religion|
|Historical era||Classical antiquity|
• Deposition of Amyrtaeus
|Periods and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt|
All years are BC
The Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVIII, alternatively 28th Dynasty or Dynasty 28) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Late Period. The 28th Dynasty lasted from 404 BC to 398 BC and it includes only one Pharaoh, Amyrtaeus (Amenirdis), also known as Psamtik V or Psammetichus V. Amyrtaeus was probably the grandson of the Amyrtaeus of Sais, who carried on a rebellion in 465–463 BC with the Egyptian chief, Inarus (himself a grandson of Psamtik III), against the satrap Achaemenes of Achaemenid Egypt.
As early as 411 BC, Amyrtaeus, a native Egyptian, revolted against Darius II, the Achaemenid Persian King and the last Pharaoh of the 27th Dynasty. Amyrtaeus succeeded in expelling the Persians from Memphis in 405 BC with assistance from Cretan mercenaries, and in 404 BC, following the death of Darius, proclaimed himself Pharaoh of Egypt. Although Artaxerxes II, Darius' successor as King of Persia attempted to lead an expedition to retake Egypt he was unable to do so, due to political problems with his brother, Cyrus the Younger. This allowed Amyrtaeus to solidify Egyptian rule over Egypt.
Very little is known about Amyrtaeus' reign. No monuments from this dynasty have been found.
In 398 BC Amyrtaeus was overthrown and executed by Nefaarud I, ending the 28th Dynasty and beginning the 29th Dynasty.
|Name of Pharaoh||Cartouche||Reign||Throne Name||Comments|
|Amyrtaeus / Psamtik V/ Psammetichus V||404-398 BC||Founder of 28th Dynasty|
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The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The pharaonic period, the period in which Egypt was ruled by a pharaoh, is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule in 332 BC.
Psamtik II was a king of the Saite-based Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen, Nefer-Ib-Re, means "Beautiful [is the] Heart [of] Re." He was the son of Necho II.
The Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt began with the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC, which ended the New Kingdom, and was eventually followed by the Late Period. Various points are offered as the beginning for the latter era, though it is most often regarded as dating from the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I in 664 BC, following the departure of the Nubian Kushite rulers of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty by the Assyrians under King Assurbanipal. The concept of a "Third Intermediate Period" was coined in 1978 by British Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen.
The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period in the 26th Saite Dynasty founded by Psamtik I, but includes the time of Achaemenid Persian rule over Egypt after the conquest by Cambyses II in 525 BC as well. The Late Period existed from 664 BC until 332 BC, following a period of foreign rule by the Nubian 25th dynasty and beginning with a short period of Neo-Assyrian suzerainty, with Psamtik I initially ruling as their vassal. The period ended with the conquests of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic dynasty by his general Ptolemy I Soter, one of the Hellenistic diadochi from Macedon in northern Greece. With the Macedonian Greek conquest in the latter half of the 4th century BC, the age of Hellenistic Egypt began.
Amyrtaeus of Sais, is the only pharaoh of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt and is thought to be related to the royal family of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. He ended the first Persian occupation of Egypt and reigned from 404 BC to 399 BC. Amyrtaeus' successful insurrection inaugurated Egypt's last significant phase of independence under native sovereigns, which lasted for about 60 years until the Battle of Pelusium in 343 BC.
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The Achaemenid dynasty was an ancient Persian royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of the Achaemenid Empire from about 700 to 330 BC.
Aryandes was the first Achaemenid satrap of ancient Egypt between the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, during the early 27th Dynasty of Egypt.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of a topical guide to ancient Egypt:
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