Seheqenre Sankhptahi

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Seheqenre Sankhptahi was a pharaoh of the late 13th dynasty, possibly the fifty-fourth [1] or fifty-fifth [2] king of this dynasty. He most likely reigned for a short period over the Memphite region during the mid-17th century BC, some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC. [2]

Pharaoh ruler of Ancient Egypt

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.

Memphis, Egypt ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, Egypt

Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza.

Contents

Attestions

Pharaoh Seheqenre Sankhptahi is named and represented on the stele of royal sealer and overseer of sealers Nebsumenu dating to Year One of his reign. The origin of the stele is not known for certain—the stele was acquired in 1999 by the National Archaeological Museum of Spain from a private collector. However, Kim Ryholt notes that it depicts Sankhptahi offering oil to the god Ptah "He who is south of his wall" (rsy-snb=f) and to Anubis "Lord of bandagers" (nb wtyw), both of which are epithets from the Memphite region. [2] Ryholt concludes that Seheqenre Sankhptahi probably reigned over Memphis and thus belongs to the 13th dynasty, which had control over the region at the time. Furthermore, Ryholt suggests that Sankhptahi may himself have been born in Memphis, as indicated by his theophorous name based on Ptah, the god of the city. [2]

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Anubis Egyptian deity of mummification and the afterlife, usually depicted as a man with a canine head

Anubis is the Greek name of a god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head. Archeologists have identified Anubis's sacred animal as an Egyptian canid, the African golden wolf.

An epithet is a byname, or a descriptive term, accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature. It can also be a descriptive title: for example, Pallas Athena, Alfred the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent or Władysław I the Elbow-high.

Stele of Nebsumenu representing Seheqenre Sankhptahi making offerings to Ptah and Anubis. Museo Arqueologico Nacional - 1999-99-4 - Estela de Nebsumenu 01.jpg
Stele of Nebsumenu representing Seheqenre Sankhptahi making offerings to Ptah and Anubis.

According to the latest reading of the Turin canon by Ryholt, Seheqenre Sankhptahi is attested there, on column 8 line 25, which contains the damaged prenomen [?]ḳ-n-Rˁ. Ryholt remarks that Seheqenre is the only king of the period whose name matches these signs and reads [S.ḥ]ḳ-n-Rˁ, Seheqenre on the Turin canon. [1] [2]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Ryholt finally points to a blue-green steatite cylinder seal of unknown provenance and bearing the golden horus name Sekhaenptah, S.ḫˁ-n-ptḥ, He whom Ptah causes to appear, as maybe belonging to Seheqenre Sankhptahi. Percy Newberry simply dates the seal to "about the end of the Middle Kingdom" without further identification of its owner. The seal is probably lost: originally in the Timmins collection housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, it is now reportedly missing from the museum. [1]

Soapstone type of metamorphic rock

Soapstone is a talc-schist, which is a type of metamorphic rock. It is largely composed of the mineral talc, thus is rich in magnesium. It is produced by dynamothermal metamorphism and metasomatism, which occur in the zones where tectonic plates are subducted, changing rocks by heat and pressure, with influx of fluids, but without melting. It has been a medium for carving for thousands of years.

Percy Edward Newberry was a British Egyptologist.

Family

A stele of unknown provenance, although probably Memphite in origin, [1] and dated on stylistic grounds to the Second Intermediate Period presents a list of members of a royal family and gives the king's son name as [?]-ptḥ-i. If this prince is the future pharaoh Seheqenre Sankhptahi as Ryholt proposes, then pharaoh Se[...]kare is his father and Minemsaes and Sit[...] are his sisters. [2] The stele is housed in Egyptian Museum, CG20600.

Egyptian Museum History museum in Cairo, Egypt

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display, the remainder in storerooms. Built in 1901 by the Italian construction company Garozzo-Zaffarani, the edifice is one of the largest museums in the region. As of July 2017, the museum is open to the public.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300 - 1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 349
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997