Sewahenre Senebmiu

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Sewahenre Senebmiu (also Sonbmiu) is a poorly attested Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath, he was the forty-first king of the 13th dynasty. [2] [3] [4] Alternatively, Darrell Baker proposes that he may have been its fifty-seventh ruler. [5] Kim Ryholt only specifies that Senebmiu's short reign dates to between 1660 BC and 1649 BC. [6]

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Contents

Attestations

Inscription of Senebmiu from Deir el-Barhi. Senebmiu Deir el-Bahri.png
Inscription of Senebmiu from Deir el-Barhi.

Senebmiu is a poorly attested pharaoh. Unfortunately, the Turin canon is severely damaged after the record of Sobekhotep VII and the identity and chronological order of the last 19 kings of the 13th dynasty is impossible to ascertain from the document. [6] Senebmiu's prenomen Sewahenre may nonetheless have been partially preserved on column 8, line 16 of the papyrus, which reads Se[...]enre. Darrell Baker and Kim Ryholt note that this attribution is far from certain as it could also correspond to another obscure king of this period with the name Sekhaenre. [5] Otherwise, Senebmiu is attested on entry 49 of the Karnak king list, redacted during the reign of Thutmose III. [5]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Merkawre Sobekhotep was the thirty-seventh pharaoh of the 13th dynasty during the second intermediate period. He probably reigned over Middle and perhaps Upper Egypt during the mid-17th century BC from 1664 BC until 1663 BC. Alternatively, the German Egyptologist Thomas Schneider dates this short-lived king's reign from 1646 BC to 1644 BC

Prenomen (Ancient Egypt)

The prenomen, cartouche name or throne name of ancient Egypt was one of the five royal names of pharaohs. The first pharaoh to have a Sedge and Bee name was Den during the First Dynasty.

Contemporary attestations of Senebmiu are few and all originate from Upper Egypt. Darrell Baker and Daphna Ben Tor suggest that this may signal that the 13th dynasty had lost control of Lower and possibly Middle Egypt at the time. [5] [8] A fragment of a limestone stele discovered by G.W. Fraser in 1893 in Gebelein and now in the British Museum (BM EA24895) bears the mention "The son of Ra, of his body, Senebmiu". The stele once depicted the king wearing the double crown and probably making an offering, but most of the relief is lost. Another attestation of Senebmiu was uncovered in the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II at Deir el-Bahri, where the side of a small naos is inscribed with the king's titulary. [5] [6] [7] Finally, a staff bearing the king's prenomen and inscribed for the "Royal sealer, overseer of marshland dwellers Senebni" was found in a now-lost tomb in Qurna on the west bank of the Nile opposite Karnak. [5]

Upper Egypt strip of land on the Nile valley between Nubia and Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

Lower Egypt northernmost region of Egypt

Lower Egypt is the northernmost region of Egypt, which consists of the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur. Historically, the Nile River split into seven branches of the delta in Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was divided into nomes and began to advance as a civilization after 3600 BC. Today, it contains two major channels that flow through the delta of the Nile River.

Gebelein Village and archaeological site in Egypt

Gebelein was a town in Egypt. It is located on the Nile, about 40 km south of Thebes, in the New Valley Governorate.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Wallis Budge: Hieroglyphic Texts, V (1914) see p. 7 and pl. 18, available copyright-free online.
  2. 1 2 Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49, Philip Von Zabern. (1999)
  3. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 381-382
  6. 1 2 3 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800 – 1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online here.
  7. 1 2 Édouard Naville: The XIth dynasty temple at Deir el-Bahari, Part II, (1907) available copyright-free online
  8. Daphna Ben Tor: Sequences and chronology of Second Intermediate Period royal-name scarabs, based on excavated series from Egypt and the Levant, in: The Second Intermediate Period (Thirteenth-Seventeenth Dynasties), Current Research, Future Prospects edited by Marcel Maree, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 192, 2010, p. 91