Sistrum inscribed with the name of Teti.
|Reign||2323–2291 BC (6th Dynasty)|
|Consort||Iput I, Khuit, Khentkaus IV|
|Children|| Pepi I |
|Burial||Pyramid of Teti|
Teti, less commonly known as Othoes, sometimes also Tata, Atat, or Athath in outdated sources, was the first pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. He is buried at Saqqara. The exact length of his reign has been destroyed on the Turin King List but is believed to have been about 12 years.
Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.
Saqqara, also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km.
The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.
Teti had several wives:
Iput I was a Queen of Egypt, a daughter of King Unas, the last king of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt. She married Teti, the first Pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. Their son was Pepi I Meryre.
Unas or Wenis, also spelled Unis, was a pharaoh, the ninth and last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt during the Old Kingdom. Unas reigned for 15 to 30 years in the mid-24th century BC, succeeding Djedkare Isesi, who might have been his father.
Khuit II was a wife of King Teti, the first pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt.
Teti is known to have had several children. He was the father of at least three sons and probably ten daughters.Of the sons, two are well attested, a third one is likely:
Tetiankhkem was an Ancient Egyptian prince who lived at the beginning of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt.
According to N. Kanawati, Teti had at least nine daughters, by a number of wives, and the fact that they were named after his mother, Sesheshet, allows researchers to trace his family. At least three princesses bearing the name Seshseshet are designated as "king’s eldest daughter", meaning that there were at least three different queens. It seems that there was a tenth one, born of a fourth queen as she is also designated as "king’s eldest daughter".
Mereruka served during the sixth dynasty of Egypt as one of Egypt's most powerful officials at a time when the influence of local state noblemen was increasing in wealth and power. Mereruka held numerous titles along with that of Vizier which made him the most powerful person in Egypt after the king himself. Some of the other state titles which Mereruka held included 'Inspector of the priests attached to the pyramid of Teti', 'Governor of the palace', 'Chief lector-priest', 'Overseer of the royal record scribes' and 'Director of all the works of the king'.
Kagemni was a vizier from the early part of the reign of King Teti of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. Kagemni's wife Nebtynubkhet Sesheshet was a King's Daughter and likely the daughter of Teti.
Another possible daughter is princess Inti.
During Teti's reign, high officials were beginning to build funerary monuments that rivaled that of the pharaoh. His vizier, Mereruka, built a mastaba tomb at Saqqara which consisted of 33 richly carved rooms, the biggest known tomb for an Egyptian nobleman. [ citation needed ]This is considered to be a sign that Egypt's wealth was being transferred from the central court to the officials, a slow process that culminated in the end to the Old Kingdom.
Manetho states that Teti was murdered by his palace bodyguards in a harem plot, but he may have been assassinated by the usurper Userkare. He was buried in the royal necropolis at Saqqara. His pyramid complex is associated with the mastabas of officials from his reign. Teti's highest date is his Year after the 6th Count 3rd Month of Summer day lost (Year 12 if the count was biannual) from Hatnub Graffito No.1.This information is confirmed by the South Saqqara Stone Annal document from Pepi II's reign which gives him a reign of around 12 years.
Teti's mother was the Queen Sesheshet, who was instrumental in her son's accession to the throne and a reconciling of two warring factions of the royal family.Sesheshet lived between 2323 BC to 2291 BC. Egypt's chief archaeologist Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, announced, on November 11, 2008, that she was entombed in a 4,300-year-old 5-metre (16-foot) tall pyramid at Saqqara. This is the 118th pyramid discovered thus far in Egypt, the largest portion of its 2-metre wide casing was built with a superstructure 5 metres high. It originally reached 14 metres, with sides 22 metres long.
Once 5 stories tall, it lay beneath 7 meters (23 feet) of sand, a small shrine and mud-brick walls from later periods. The third known "subsidiary" pyramid to Teti's tomb was originally 46 feet (14 meters) tall and 72 feet (22 meters) square at its base, due to its walls having stood at a 51-degree angle. Buried next to the Saqqara Step Pyramid, its base lies 65 feet underground and is believed to have been 50 feet tall when it was built.
Pepi II was a pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty in Egypt's Old Kingdom who reigned from c. 2278 BC. His throne name, Neferkare (Nefer-ka-Re), means "Beautiful is the Ka of Re". He succeeded to the throne at age six, after the death of Merenre I.
Userkare was the second pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty, reigning briefly, 1 to 5 years, in the late 24th to early 23rd century BC. Userkare's relation to his predecessor Teti and successor Pepi I is unknown and his reign remains enigmatic. Although he is attested in historical sources, Userkare is completely absent from the tomb of the Egyptian officials who lived during his reign. In addition, the Egyptian priest Manetho reports that Userkare's predecessor Teti was murdered. Userkare is often considered to have been a short-lived usurper. Alternatively, he may have been a regent who ruled during Teti's son's childhood who later ascended the throne as Pepi I.
Pepi I Meryre was the third king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. His first throne name was Neferdjahor which the king later altered to Meryre meaning "beloved of Rê".
The Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt along with Dynasties III, IV and V constitute the Old Kingdom of Dynastic Egypt.
Naguib Kanawati is an Egyptian Australian Egyptologist and Professor of Egyptology at Macquarie University in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The Pyramid of Teti is a smooth-sided pyramid situated in the pyramid field at Saqqara in Egypt. It is historically the second known pyramid containing pyramid texts. Excavations have revealed a satellite pyramid, two pyramids of queens accompanied by cult structures, and a funerary temple. The pyramid was opened by Gaston Maspero in 1882 and the complex explored during several campaigns ranging from 1907 to 1965. It was originally called Teti's Places Are Enduring. The preservation above ground is very poor, and it now resembles a small hill. Below ground the chambers and corridors are very well preserved.
The South Saqqara Stone is the lid of the sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian queen Ankhenespepi which was inscribed with a list for the reigns of the pharaohs of the 6th dynasty from Teti, Userkare, Pepi I, Merenre to the early years of Pepi II under whom the document was likely created. It is essentially an annal document which records events in each year of a king's reign; unfortunately, it was reused in antiquity for Ankhesenpepi I's burial and many of its invaluable inscriptions have been erased.
Ankhesenpepi II or Ankhesenmeryre II was a queen consort during the sixth dynasty of Egypt. She was the wife of Kings Pepi I and Merenre Nemtyemsaf I, and the mother of Pepi II. She was buried in a pyramid in Saqqara.
Sesheshet, occasionally known as Sesh, was the mother of King Teti, the first and founding pharaoh of the sixth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She was instrumental in enabling her son to gain the throne and reconciling two warring factions of the royal family.
Iput was an ancient Egyptian queen consort of the Sixth dynasty, a sister and wife of Pepi II.
Neferseshemre also called Seshi was a vizier from the early or middle part of the reign of King Teti of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt.
Meryteti served as vizier of Pepi I during the sixth dynasty of Egypt. He was the son of the vizier Mereruka. His mother was the royal daughter Seshseshet Waatetkhethor, daughter of Teti. He was thus a nephew of the king Pepi I Meryre.
Merefnebef, also called Unisankh and Fefi, was a vizier from the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. He first served at the court of Teti, possibly became vizier during the reign of Userkare, and was dismissed during the reign of Pepi I.
Mehu was an Ancient Egyptian vizier who lived in the Sixth Dynasty, around 2300 BC. The office of the vizier was the most important one at the royal court. Mehu is mainly known from his monumental mastaba at Saqqara, not far away from the Pyramid of Unas. The exact dating of Mehu is disputed in Egyptology. Hartwig Altenmüller published the relief decoration of the mastaba and dates him under king Teti. He argues that the one of the brothers of Mehu with the name Iynefret is identical to another vizier also named Iynefret, who might date to the early Sixth Dynasty. Furthermore, Mehu carried the title of an overseer of priest at Djed-sut-Teti, that is the pyramid complex of king Teti. Other argue that he dates slightly later under king Pepy I. Not much is known about Mehu's family. The parents are unknown. He has two wives, one called Nebet, the other one Neferkaus. Mehu was bearing a high number of important titles. These include the titles of the vizier, but he was also Overseer of the treasuries, overseer of the double granary, overseer of Upper Egypt and overseer of all royal works. Several sons are mentioned in the tomb. One son was perhaps called Mery, but his name was several times deleted. Another son was Hetepka. Within the mastaba of Mehu there are parts reserved for a vizier called Hetepka. It is possible that he was the son of Mehu, albeit final evidence for this identification is missing. The vizier Hetepka might have been just a member of Mehu's family. Two other known children of Mehu are a daughter called Merut and a further son called Khuy.