Teti

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Teti, less commonly known as Othoes, sometimes also Tata, Atat, or Athath in outdated sources, was the first pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. He is buried at Saqqara. The exact length of his reign has been destroyed on the Turin King List but is believed to have been about 12 years.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Saqqara village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Saqqara, also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Contents

Biography

Teti had several wives:

Iput I was a Queen of Egypt, a daughter of King Unas, the last king of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt. She married Teti, the first Pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. Their son was Pepi I Meryre.

Unas Egyptian pharaoh

Unas or Wenis, also spelled Unis, was a pharaoh, the ninth and last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt during the Old Kingdom. Unas reigned for 15 to 30 years in the mid-24th century BC, succeeding Djedkare Isesi, who might have been his father.

Khuit II was a wife of King Teti, the first pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt.

Teti is known to have had several children. He was the father of at least three sons and probably ten daughters. [2] Of the sons, two are well attested, a third one is likely:

Tetiankhkem was an Ancient Egyptian prince who lived at the beginning of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt.

Piriform mace head inscribed with the cartouche of Teti, Imhotep Museum. Teti.jpg
Piriform mace head inscribed with the cartouche of Teti, Imhotep Museum.

According to N. Kanawati, Teti had at least nine daughters, by a number of wives, and the fact that they were named after his mother, Sesheshet, allows researchers to trace his family. At least three princesses bearing the name Seshseshet are designated as "king’s eldest daughter", meaning that there were at least three different queens. It seems that there was a tenth one, born of a fourth queen as she is also designated as "king’s eldest daughter".

Mereruka Ancient Egyptian vizier

Mereruka served during the sixth dynasty of Egypt as one of Egypt's most powerful officials at a time when the influence of local state noblemen was increasing in wealth and power. Mereruka held numerous titles along with that of Vizier which made him the most powerful person in Egypt after the king himself. Some of the other state titles which Mereruka held included 'Inspector of the priests attached to the pyramid of Teti', 'Governor of the palace', 'Chief lector-priest', 'Overseer of the royal record scribes' and 'Director of all the works of the king'.

Kagemni ancient Egyptian vizier

Kagemni was a vizier from the early part of the reign of King Teti of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. Kagemni's wife Nebtynubkhet Sesheshet was a King's Daughter and likely the daughter of Teti.

Lantern Slide Collection: Views, Objects: Egypt. Chapel, Tomb of Nefer-Seshem-Ptah. Sakkara. 6th Dynasty., n.d. Brooklyn Museum Archives Estela de falsa puerta de Neferseshemptah.jpg
Lantern Slide Collection: Views, Objects: Egypt. Chapel, Tomb of Nefer-Seshem-Ptah. Sakkara. 6th Dynasty., n.d. Brooklyn Museum Archives

Another possible daughter is princess Inti. [14]

During Teti's reign, high officials were beginning to build funerary monuments that rivaled that of the pharaoh. His vizier, Mereruka, built a mastaba tomb at Saqqara which consisted of 33 richly carved rooms, the biggest known tomb for an Egyptian nobleman. [15] This is considered to be a sign that Egypt's wealth was being transferred from the central court to the officials, a slow process that culminated in the end to the Old Kingdom.[ citation needed ]

Manetho states that Teti was murdered by his palace bodyguards in a harem plot, but he may have been assassinated by the usurper Userkare. He was buried in the royal necropolis at Saqqara. His pyramid complex is associated with the mastabas of officials from his reign. Teti's highest date is his Year after the 6th Count 3rd Month of Summer day lost (Year 12 if the count was biannual) from Hatnub Graffito No.1. [16] This information is confirmed by the South Saqqara Stone Annal document from Pepi II's reign which gives him a reign of around 12 years.

Third "subsidiary" pyramid to Teti's tomb

Limestone wall block fragment showing the cartouche of king Teti and funerary pyramid texts. 6th Dynasty. From the Pyramid of Teti, Saqqara, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London Limestone wall block fragment showing the cartouche of king Teti and funerary pyramid texts. 6th Dynasty. From the Pyramid of Teti, Saqqara, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg
Limestone wall block fragment showing the cartouche of king Teti and funerary pyramid texts. 6th Dynasty. From the Pyramid of Teti, Saqqara, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Teti's mother was the Queen Sesheshet, who was instrumental in her son's accession to the throne and a reconciling of two warring factions of the royal family. [17] Sesheshet lived between 2323 BC to 2291 BC. Egypt's chief archaeologist Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, announced, on November 11, 2008, that she was entombed in a 4,300-year-old 5-metre (16-foot) tall pyramid at Saqqara. This is the 118th pyramid discovered thus far in Egypt, the largest portion of its 2-metre wide casing was built with a superstructure 5 metres high. It originally reached 14 metres, with sides 22 metres long. [18] [19]

The ruins of Teti's pyramid (Saqqara) PiramideTeti.jpg
The ruins of Teti's pyramid (Saqqara)
Pyramid texts from Teti I's pyramid at Saqqara Hieroglyph Text from Teti I pyramid.jpg
Pyramid texts from Teti I's pyramid at Saqqara

Once 5 stories tall, it lay beneath 7 meters (23 feet) of sand, a small shrine and mud-brick walls from later periods. The third known "subsidiary" pyramid to Teti's tomb was originally 46 feet (14 meters) tall and 72 feet (22 meters) square at its base, due to its walls having stood at a 51-degree angle. Buried next to the Saqqara Step Pyramid, its base lies 65 feet underground and is believed to have been 50 feet tall when it was built. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Userkare Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh

Userkare was the second pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty, reigning briefly, 1 to 5 years, in the late 24th to early 23rd century BC. Userkare's relation to his predecessor Teti and successor Pepi I is unknown and his reign remains enigmatic. Although he is attested in historical sources, Userkare is completely absent from the tomb of the Egyptian officials who lived during his reign. In addition, the Egyptian priest Manetho reports that Userkare's predecessor Teti was murdered. Userkare is often considered to have been a short-lived usurper. Alternatively, he may have been a regent who ruled during Teti's son's childhood who later ascended the throne as Pepi I.

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South Saqqara Stone

The South Saqqara Stone is the lid of the sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian queen Ankhenespepi which was inscribed with a list for the reigns of the pharaohs of the 6th dynasty from Teti, Userkare, Pepi I, Merenre to the early years of Pepi II under whom the document was likely created. It is essentially an annal document which records events in each year of a king's reign; unfortunately, it was reused in antiquity for Ankhesenpepi I's burial and many of its invaluable inscriptions have been erased.

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Sesheshet, occasionally known as Sesh, was the mother of King Teti, the first and founding pharaoh of the sixth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She was instrumental in enabling her son to gain the throne and reconciling two warring factions of the royal family.

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Mehu was an Ancient Egyptian vizier who lived in the Sixth Dynasty, around 2300 BC. The office of the vizier was the most important one at the royal court. Mehu is mainly known from his monumental mastaba at Saqqara, not far away from the Pyramid of Unas. The exact dating of Mehu is disputed in Egyptology. Hartwig Altenmüller published the relief decoration of the mastaba and dates him under king Teti. He argues that the one of the brothers of Mehu with the name Iynefret is identical to another vizier also named Iynefret, who might date to the early Sixth Dynasty. Furthermore, Mehu carried the title of an overseer of priest at Djed-sut-Teti, that is the pyramid complex of king Teti. Other argue that he dates slightly later under king Pepy I. Not much is known about Mehu's family. The parents are unknown. He has two wives, one called Nebet, the other one Neferkaus. Mehu was bearing a high number of important titles. These include the titles of the vizier, but he was also Overseer of the treasuries, overseer of the double granary, overseer of Upper Egypt and overseer of all royal works. Several sons are mentioned in the tomb. One son was perhaps called Mery, but his name was several times deleted. Another son was Hetepka. Within the mastaba of Mehu there are parts reserved for a vizier called Hetepka. It is possible that he was the son of Mehu, albeit final evidence for this identification is missing. The vizier Hetepka might have been just a member of Mehu's family. Two other known children of Mehu are a daughter called Merut and a further son called Khuy.

References

  1. 1 2 Miroslav Verner, The Pyramids,1994
  2. N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007.
  3. N. Kanawati, Conspiracies in the Egyption Palace. Unis to Pepy I. 2003, p. 139
  4. N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007, p. 14 et 50
  5. 1 2 N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007, p. 14, 20 et 50
  6. N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007, p. 20, 32 et 50
  7. N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007, p. 21-22 et 50
  8. N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007, p. 20, 32 et 35
  9. N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007, p. 20, 32 et 36
  10. N. Kanawati, Mereruka and King Teti. The Power behind the Throne, 2007, p. 20-21
  11. N. Kanawati, The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara, Volume 9: The Tomb of Remni, 2009
  12. Ali El-Khouli & Naguib Kanawati, Quseir El-Amarna: The Tombs of Pepy-ankh and Khewen-Wekh, 1989
  13. C. Berger, A la quête de nouvelles versions des textes des pyramides, in Hommages à Jean Leclant, 1994, p 73-74
  14. Dodson and Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
  15. Christine Hobson, Exploring the World of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1997. p.85
  16. Anthony Spalinger, "Dated Texts of the Old Kingdom," SAK 21, (1994), p.303
  17. "Egypt: 4,300-year-old pyramid discovered". CNN . 2008-11-11. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
  18. 1 2 Bossone, Andrew (11 November 2008). "New Pyramid Found in Egypt: 4,300-Year-Old Queen's Tomb". National Geographic News.
  19. Rasmussen, Will; Boulton, Ralph (11 November 2008). "Egypt says has found pyramid built for ancient queen". Reuters.

Bibliography