Seth Meribre

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Seth Meribre was the twenty-fourth pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. Seth Meribre reigned from Memphis, ending in 1749 BC [1] or c. 1700 BC. [2] The length of his reign is not known for certain; the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposes that he reigned for a short time, certainly less than 10 years. [1]

Memphis, Egypt ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, Egypt

Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Contents

Attestations

Seth Meribre is only attested for certain on the Turin canon, column 7, line 23 (Alan Gardiner and Jürgen von Beckerath: col. 6 row 23). [3] Ryholt suggests that stele JE35256, discovered in Abydos and now in the Egyptian Museum, was originally inscribed with the nomen, prenomen and Horus name of Seth Meribre. The stele, bearing a date year 4, was later usurped by Neferhotep I. [1] Previously, historian Anthony Leahy [4] has argued that the stele was erected by Wegaf rather than Seth Meribre, an opinion shared by Darrell Baker. [3] At the opposite end, the site of Medamud, northeast of Luxor has yielded many ruined structures and architectural remains which were probably erected by Seth Meribre but were subsequently usurped by his successor Sobekhotep III. [3] In particular, a lintel from Medamud and now in the Egyptian Museum, JE 44944, bears almost-erased signs corresponding to Seth Meribre's nomen.[ citation needed ]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner was an English Egyptologist, linguist, philologist, and independent scholar. He is regarded as one of the premier Egyptologists of the early and mid-20th century. Some of his most important publications include a 1959 book on his study of "The Royal Canon of Turin" and his seminal 1961 work Egypt of the Pharaohs, which covered all aspects of Egyptian chronology and history at the time of publication.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Jürgen von Beckerath believes that Seth Meribre can be identified with a king mentioned on the genealogy of the Memphite priest Ankhefensekhmet of the much later 22nd Dynasty. This king bears the name "Aaqen", literally The donkey is strong. Von Beckerath proposes that this refers to Seth Meribre and that the name originally was "Sethqen", that is, Seth is strong. Indeed, since the god Seth had been ostracized during the 22nd Dynasty, the hieroglyph of the Seth-animal had been replaced by the hieroglyph of the donkey, yielding "Aaqen".

Genealogy of Ankhefensekhmet

The Genealogy of Ankhefensekhmet or Genealogy of the Memphite priestly elite is an ancient Egyptian relief – sometimes referred as a stela – made during the 8th century BCE, under the reign of pharaoh Shoshenq V of the late 22nd Dynasty. A surviving block is kept at the Egyptian Museum of Berlin. The relief was issued by a priest called Ankhefensekhmet with the purpose of illustrating his own genealogy. The relief traces back Ankhefensekhmet's sequence of ancestors up to 60 generations before, with the earliest individuals dating back to the 11th Dynasty.

Chronological position and reign length

The Egyptologists Darrell Baker and Kim Ryholt place Seth Meribre as the twenty-fourth ruler of the 13th Dynasty, while Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the twentieth king. [5] These authors agree, however, that Seth Meribre probably usurped the throne at the expense of his predecessor, Sehetepkare Intef. [3]

Sehetepkare Intef Egyptian pharaoh

Sehetepkare Intef was the twenty-third king of the 13th dynasty during the Second intermediate period. Sehetepkare Intef reigned from Memphis for a short period, certainly less than 10 years, between 1759 BC and 1749 BC or c. 1710 BC.

The duration of Seth Meribre's reign is lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon, except for the end "... [and] 6 days". Kim Ryholt gives a total of 10 years for the combined reigns of Imyremeshaw, Sehetepkare Intef and Seth Meribre. [1] Furthermore, following Papyrus Boulaq 18, there are reasons to believe that either Imyremeshaw or Sehetepkare Intef reigned for over 5 years, thus leaving less than 5 years to Seth Meribre.

Imyremeshaw Egyptian pharaoh

Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw was an Egyptian pharaoh of the mid 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. Imyremeshaw reigned from Memphis, starting in 1759 BC or 1711 BC. The length of his reign is not known for certain; he may have reigned for 5 years and certainly less than 10 years. Imyremeshaw is attested by two colossal statues now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

The Papyrus Boulaq 18 is an Ancient Egyptian document found in 1860 AD in the tomb of the scribe of the great enclosure Neferhotep. It is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  2. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, 2002
  3. 1 2 3 4 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 406
  4. Leahy, Anthony (1989). "A Protective Measure at Abydos in the Thirteenth Dynasty". Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 75: 41–60.
  5. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Konigsnamen, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 20, Mainz.
Preceded by
Sehetepkare Intef
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Sobekhotep III