Hotepibre

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Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef (also Sehetepibre I or Sehetepibre II depending on the scholar) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the sixth king of the dynasty, reigning for one to five years, possibly three years, from 1791 BC until 1788 BC. [1] [2] Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the ninth king of the dynasty. [4] [5] [6]

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.

Contents

Family

Qemau Siharnedjheritef complete nomen means "Qemau's son, Horus he who seizes his power" and from this it is likely that he was the son of his predecessor Ameny Qemau and the grandson of king Amenemhat V. Ryholt further proposes that he was succeeded by a king named Iufni, who may have been his brother or uncle. After the short reign of Iufni, the throne went to another grandson of Amenemhat V named Ameny Antef Amenemhat VI. [7]

Ameny Qemau Egyptian pharaoh

Ameny Qemau was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the 5th king of the dynasty, reigning for 2 years over most of Egypt, except perhaps the eastern Nile Delta, from 1793 BC until 1791 BC.

Iufni was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was the 7th king of the dynasty, while Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the 6th ruler. Iufni reigned from Memphis for a very short time c. 1788 BC or 1741 BC.

Attestations

A statue dedicated to Ptah and bearing the name of Hotepibre was found in Khatana, but its location of origin is unknown. A Temple-block from el-Atawla with his name is now in the Cairo Museum (Temp 25.4.22.3). [8] This pharaoh is also known by a ceremonial mace found inside the so-called "Tomb of the Lord of the Goats" in Ebla, in modern northern Syria; [9] the mace was a gift from Hotepibre to the Eblaite king Immeya who was his contemporary. [10] Hotepibre is sometimes also credited as the founder of a palace recently rediscovered at Tell El-Dab'a (the ancient Avaris). [11]

Ptah Egyptian deity

In Egyptian mythology, Ptah is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the husband of Sekhmet and the father of Nefertum. He was also regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep.

Qantir village in Sharqia Governorate, Egypt

Qantir (Khatana-Qantir) is a village in Egypt. Qantir is believed to mark what was probably the ancient site of the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II's capital, Pi-Ramesse or Per-Ramesses. This city is situated around 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) north of Faqous in the Sharqiyah province of the eastern Nile Delta, about 60 miles north-east of Cairo.

Hieracon or Hierakon, also called Theracon, Egyptian pr nmty, was an ancient fortified city of Upper Egypt situated on the right bank of the Nile, now the site of the modern-day village of al-ʿAtawlah, Egypt. Here, in Roman times, was quartered the cohors prima of the Lusitanian auxiliaries. It stood nearly midway between the western extremity of the Ἀλαβαστρινὸν ὄρος or Alabstrine Mountains and the city of Asyut, latitude 27° 15′North.

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References

  1. 1 2 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 120-121
  2. 1 2 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  3. Labib Habachi: Khatâ'na-Qantîr: Importance in Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte, Nr. 52 (1952), p. 460
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt 1964, p. 39–40, 231–32 (XIII 8)
  5. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46, Mainz am Rhein (1997)
  6. Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens, in Orientalia 57 (1988)
  7. See Ryholt (1997), pp. 73, 208, 214-215 and 284
  8. See Ryholt (1997), p. 338, File 13/6
  9. Ryholt, K. "Hotepibre - A Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 311, 1998, pp. 1–6.
  10. Matthiae, Paolo (2010). Ebla. La città del trono (in Italian). Einaudi. pp. 218; 303; 349. ISBN   978-88-06-20258-3.
  11. Matthiae, Paolo (1997). "Ebla and Syria in the Middle Bronze Age". In Oren, Eliezer D. The Hyksos: new historical and archaeological perspectives. The University of Philadelphia, The University Museum. ISBN   0924171464., pp. 397-398.