Nebsenre

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Nebsenre (meaning "Their Lord is Ra" [1] ) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Nebsenre reigned for a least five months over the Eastern and possibly Western Nile Delta, some time during the first half of the 17th century BCE. [3] As such Nebsenre was a contemporary of the Memphis based 13th Dynasty.

Contents

Attestations

Historical source

The prenomen "Nebsenre" is preserved on the ninth column, 14th row [note 1] of the Turin canon, a list of kings written during the reign of Ramses II (12791213 BCE) which serves as the primary historical source for the Second Intermediate Period. [5] The canon further credits Nebsenre with a lost number of years, five months and 20 days of reign following Heribre on the throne. [6] The prenomen of Nebsenre's successor is written as wsf on the Turin king list, [6] [7] indicating that his name was already lost in a lacuna of the document from which the canon was copied in Ramesside times. [8]

Contemporary artefact

Nebsenre is one of only four [9] kings of the 14th Dynasty to be attested by an artefact contemporary with his reign: a jar of unknown provenance bearing his prenomen, which was in the private Michailidis collection. [10] [4]

Chronological position

According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Nebsenre was the 14th king of the 14th Dynasty, [11] a line of rulers of Canaanite descent reigning over the Eastern Nile Delta from c. 1700 BCE until c. 1650 BCE. [note 2] Alternatively the Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifteenth ruler, due to a differing reconstruction of the early 14th Dynasty. [14]

Notes

  1. Following Ryholt's reconstruction of the Turin canon. This corresponds to the eighth column, fourteenth row in the reconstruction of the canon of Gardiner and von Beckerath. [4]
  2. Ryholt dates the beginning of the 14th Dynasty to c. 1800 BCE, [3] adding five kings to it before Nehesy. This is rejected by most Egyptologists who consider Nehesy to have been either the founder [12] or the second king of the dynasty. [13]

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Sheshi Egyptian pharaoh

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Amenemhet VI Egyptian pharaoh

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Nehesy Egyptian pharaoh

Nehesy Aasehre (Nehesi) was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the fragmented Second Intermediate Period. He is placed by most scholars into the early 14th Dynasty, as either the second or the sixth pharaoh of this dynasty. As such he is considered to have reigned for a short time c. 1705 BC and would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta. Recent evidence makes it possible that a second person with this name, a son of a Hyksos king, lived at a slightly later time during the late 15th Dynasty c. 1580 BC. It is possible that most of the artefacts attributed to the king Nehesy mentioned in the Turin canon, in fact belong to this Hyksos prince.

Aperanat ancient Egyptian king of the Second Intermediate Period

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Djehuti Egyptian Pharaoh

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Merdjefare Egyptian pharaoh

Merdjefare was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th Dynasty, Merdjefare would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi Egyptian pharaoh

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the fragmented Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the fifth king of the 16th Dynasty reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifth king of the 17th Dynasty.

Sonbef 13th dynasty pharaoh

Mehibtawy Sekhemkare Amenemhat Sonbef was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the 2nd king of the dynasty, reigning from 1800 BC until 1796 BC.

Wazad Egyptian pharaoh

Wazad was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Wazad was a member of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt reigning c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th dynasty, he would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well. The Memphis-based 13th Dynasty reigned over Middle and Upper Egypt at the same time. Alternatively, according to Jürgen von Beckerath and Wolfgang Helck, Wazad was a ruler of the 16th Dynasty and a vassal of the Hyksos 15th Dynasty. This view is debated in egyptology, in particular because Ryholt and others have argued that the 16th Dynasty was an independent Theban kingdom rather than a vassal dynasty of the Hyksos.

Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty

Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw was an Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologist Kim Ryholt, he was the sixteenth king of the dynasty, reigning for 3 years, from 1775 BC until 1772 BC. Thomas Schneider, on the other hand, places his reign from 1752 BC until 1746 BC. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the third king of the dynasty. As a ruler of the early 13th Dynasty, Khabaw would have ruled from Memphis to Aswan and possibly over the western Nile Delta.

Sewadjkare III was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sewadjkare III would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Merkheperre Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty of Egypt

Merkheperre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period reigning some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC. As such Merkheperre would have reigned either over Upper Egypt from Thebes or over Middle and Upper Egypt from Memphis. At the time, the Eastern Nile Delta was under the domination of the 14th Dynasty.

Merkare was an Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period reigning for a short while, some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC.

Sekheperenre Egyptian pharaoh

Sekheperenre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Sekheperenre was the twenty-second king of the dynasty; alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the seventeenth ruler. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sekheperenre would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Sehebre was a ruler of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt ruling for 3 to 4 years c. 1700 BC during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the 5th king of the dynasty. As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the Western Delta as well.

Bebnum is a poorly known ruler of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, reigning in the early or mid 17th century BC.

References

  1. 1 2 Leprohon 2013, p. 205.
  2. Baker 2008, pp. 247248.
  3. 1 2 Ryholt 1997, p. 409.
  4. 1 2 Baker 2008, p. 248.
  5. Ryholt 1997, pp. 918.
  6. 1 2 Ryholt 1997, p. 198.
  7. Ryholt 2012, p. 31.
  8. Ryholt 1997, p. 1011.
  9. Bourriau 2003, p. 178.
  10. Kaplony 1973, p. 15, pl. 10, 23 [Cat. 41].
  11. Ryholt 1997, p. 98.
  12. Quirke 2001, p. 261.
  13. von Beckerath 1999, pp. 108109, king 2.
  14. von Beckerath 1999, pp. 108109, king 15.

Bibliography

Baker, Darrell D. (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Volume I: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty (3300–1069 BC). London: Bannerstone Press. ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9.
Bourriau, Janine (2003). "The Second Intermediate Period (c. 16501550 BC)". In Shaw, Ian (ed.). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-280458-7.
Kaplony, Peter (1973). Beschriftete Kleinfunde in der Sammlung Georges Michailidis: Ergebnisse einer Bestandsaufnahme im Sommer 1968. Uitgaven van het Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te İstanbul, 32. Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archeologisch Instituut in het Nabije Oosten. OCLC   1064212.
Leprohon, Ronald J. (2013). The great name: ancient Egyptian royal titulary. Writings from the ancient world, no. 33. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN   978-1-58-983736-2.
Quirke, Stephen (2001). "Second Intermediate Period". In Redford, Donald B. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 3. Oxford University Press. pp. 260–265. ISBN   978-0-19-510234-5.
Ryholt, Kim (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 B.C. CNI publications, 20. Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern Studies, University of Copenhagen : Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN   978-87-7289-421-8.
Ryholt, Kim (2012). "The Royal Canon of Turin". In Hornung, Erik; Krauss, Rolf; Warburton, David (eds.). Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Leiden, Boston: Brill. pp.  26–32. ISBN   978-90-04-11385-5. ISSN   0169-9423.
von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (in German). Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern. ISBN   978-3-8053-2591-2.
Preceded by
Heribre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Fourteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
unknown