Nebsenre

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Nebsenre (meaning "Their Lord is Ra" [1] ) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Nebsenre reigned for a least five months over the Eastern and possibly Western Nile Delta, some time during the first half of the 17th century BCE. [3] As such Nebsenre was a contemporary of the Memphis based 13th Dynasty.

Ra ancient Egyptian solar deity

Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld. He was the god of the sun, order, kings, and the sky.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Contents

Attestations

Historical source

The prenomen "Nebsenre" is preserved on the ninth column, 14th row [note 1] of the Turin canon, a list of kings written during the reign of Ramses II (12791213 BCE) which serves as the primary historical source for the Second Intermediate Period. [5] The canon further credits Nebsenre with a lost number of years, five months and 20 days of reign following Heribre on the throne. [6] The prenomen of Nebsenre's successor is written as wsf on the Turin king list, [6] [7] indicating that his name was already lost in a lacuna of the document from which the canon was copied in Ramesside times. [8]

Prenomen (Ancient Egypt)

The prenomen, cartouche name or throne name of ancient Egypt was one of the five royal names of pharaohs. The first pharaoh to have a Sedge and Bee name was Den during the First Dynasty.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Contemporary artefact

Nebsenre is one of only four [9] kings of the 14th Dynasty to be attested by an artefact contemporary with his reign: a jar of unknown provenance bearing his prenomen, which was in the private Michailidis collection. [10] [4]

Chronological position

According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Nebsenre was the 14th king of the 14th Dynasty, [11] a line of rulers of Canaanite descent reigning over the Eastern Nile Delta from c. 1700 BCE until c. 1650 BCE. [note 2] Alternatively the Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifteenth ruler, due to a differing reconstruction of the early 14th Dynasty. [14]

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Canaan A Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East

Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region and civilization in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Notes

  1. Following Ryholt's reconstruction of the Turin canon. This corresponds to the eighth column, fourteenth row in the reconstruction of the canon of Gardiner and von Beckerath. [4]
  2. Ryholt dates the beginning of the 14th Dynasty to c. 1800 BCE, [3] adding five kings to it before Nehesy. This is rejected by most Egyptologists who consider Nehesy to have been either the founder [12] or the second king of the dynasty. [13]

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Nehesy Egyptian pharaoh

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Sonbef 13th dynasty pharaoh

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Nerikare Egyptian pharaoh

Nerikare was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the third king of the dynasty, reigning for a short time in 1796 BC. Alternatively Jürgen von Beckerath sees Nerikare as the twenty-third king of the 13th Dynasty, reigning after Sehetepkare Intef.

Wazad Egyptian pharaoh

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Sewadjkare III was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sewadjkare III would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Merkheperre Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty of Egypt

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Merkare was an Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period reigning for a short while, some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC.

Sekheperenre Egyptian pharaoh

Sekheperenre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Sekheperenre was the twenty-second king of the dynasty; alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the seventeenth ruler. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sekheperenre would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Sehebre was a ruler of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt ruling for 3 to 4 years c. 1700 BC during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the 5th king of the dynasty. As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the Western Delta as well.

Bebnum is a poorly known ruler of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, reigning in the early or mid 17th century BC.

References

  1. 1 2 Leprohon 2013, p. 205.
  2. Baker 2008, pp. 247248.
  3. 1 2 Ryholt 1997, p. 409.
  4. 1 2 Baker 2008, p. 248.
  5. Ryholt 1997, pp. 918.
  6. 1 2 Ryholt 1997, p. 198.
  7. Ryholt 2012, p. 31.
  8. Ryholt 1997, p. 1011.
  9. Bourriau 2003, p. 178.
  10. Kaplony 1973, p. 15, pl. 10, 23 [Cat. 41].
  11. Ryholt 1997, p. 98.
  12. Quirke 2001, p. 261.
  13. von Beckerath 1999, pp. 108109, king 2.
  14. von Beckerath 1999, pp. 108109, king 15.

Bibliography

Baker, Darrell D. (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Volume I: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty (3300–1069 BC). London: Bannerstone Press. ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9.
Bourriau, Janine (2003). "The Second Intermediate Period (c. 16501550 BC)". In Shaw, Ian (ed.). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-280458-7.
Kaplony, Peter (1973). Beschriftete Kleinfunde in der Sammlung Georges Michailidis: Ergebnisse einer Bestandsaufnahme im Sommer 1968. Uitgaven van het Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te İstanbul, 32. Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archeologisch Instituut in het Nabije Oosten. OCLC   1064212.
Leprohon, Ronald J. (2013). The great name: ancient Egyptian royal titulary. Writings from the ancient world, no. 33. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN   978-1-58-983736-2.
Quirke, Stephen (2001). "Second Intermediate Period". In Redford, Donald B. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 3. Oxford University Press. pp. 260–265. ISBN   978-0-19-510234-5.
Ryholt, Kim (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 B.C. CNI publications, 20. Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern Studies, University of Copenhagen : Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN   978-87-7289-421-8.
Ryholt, Kim (2012). "The Royal Canon of Turin". In Hornung, Erik; Krauss, Rolf; Warburton, David (eds.). Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Leiden, Boston: Brill. pp. 26–32. ISBN   978-90-04-11385-5. ISSN   0169-9423.
von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (in German). Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern. ISBN   978-3-8053-2591-2.
Preceded by
Heribre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Fourteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
unknown