Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef

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Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef (or Antef, Inyotef) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt, who lived late during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt was divided into two by Hyksos controlled Lower Egypt and Theban ruled Upper Egypt.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

The Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the third dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. The 17th Dynasty dates approximately from 1580 to 1550 BC. Its mainly Theban rulers are contemporary with the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty and succeed the Sixteenth Dynasty, which was also based in Thebes.

Hyksos Asian invaders of Egypt, established 15th dynasty ca. 1650-1550 BC

The Hyksos were a people of diverse origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. In the context of Ancient Egypt, the term "Asiatic" may refer to people native to areas east of Egypt.

Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef is sometimes referred to as Intef V, [2] [3] and sometimes as Intef VI. [4] His nomen, Intef-aa, translates as "His father brought him, the great" or "Intef, the great." [5]

He ruled from Thebes, and was probably buried in a tomb in the necropolis. His rishi coffin, Louvre E 3019, was discovered in the 19th century and found to preserve an inscription which reveals that this king's brother Nubkheperre Intef buried and thus succeeded him. [6]

Thebes, Egypt ancient Egyptian city

Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday. The site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and the city proper was situated; and the western bank, where a necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and funerary complexes can be found.

Necropolis large ancient cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments

A necropolis is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead".

Rishi coffin

Rishi coffins are funerary coffins adorned with a feather design, which were used in Ancient Egypt. They are typical of the Egyptian Second Intermediate Period, circa 1650 to 1550 BC. The name comes from ريشة (risha), Arabic for "feather".

Canopic chest of Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef, Musee du Louvre. Sekhemre Wepmaat Intef canopic.jpg
Canopic chest of Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef, Musée du Louvre.

Both Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef and Nubkheperre Intef were sons of a king called Sobekemsaf, most probably Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf (Sobekemsaf II today, not I) based on an inscription from a doorjamb from a 17th Dynasty temple at Gebel Antef. [7] While his own tomb has not been located, it was likely located in the area of Dra' Abu el-Naga' where the pyramid tomb of his brother Nubkheperre Intef was found in 2001. [8] The pyramidion of the pyramid of Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef's pyramid was found in Dra' Abu el-Naga'. It has a slope of 60 degrees and is inscribed with this king's names. [2] The pyramidion is now in the British Museum (BM EA 478). [9]

Sobekemsaf II was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt who reigned during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt was ruled by multiple kings. His throne name, Sekhemre Shedtawy, means "Powerful is Re; Rescuer of the Two Lands." It is now believed by Egyptologists that Sobekemsaf II was the father of both Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef and Nubkheperre Intef based on an inscription carved on a doorjamb discovered in the ruins of a 17th Dynasty temple at Gebel Antef in the early 1990s which was built under Nubkheperre Intef. The doorjamb mentions a king Sobekem[saf] as the father of Nubkheperre Intef/Antef VII--(Antef begotten of Sobekem...) He was in all likelihood the Prince Sobekemsaf who is attested as the son and designated successor of king Sobekemsaf I on Cairo Statue CG 386.

The necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga' is located on the West Bank of the Nile at Thebes, Egypt, just by the entrance of the dry bay that leads up to Deir el-Bahri, and north of the necropolis of el-Assasif. The necropolis is located near the Valley of the Kings.

Nubkheperre Intef Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt at Thebes during the Second Intermediate Period

Nubkheperre Intef was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt at Thebes during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt was divided by rival dynasties including the Hyksos in Lower Egypt. He is known to be the brother of Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef—and this king's immediate successor—since he donated Louvre Coffin E3019 for this king's burial which bears an inscription that it was donated for king Sekhemre Wepmaat Intef "as that which his brother, king Antefgives", notes Kim Ryholt. As the German scholar Thomas Schneider writes in the 2006 book Ancient Egyptian Chronology :

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Nebmaatre Egyptian pharaoh

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Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Intef was a common ancient Egyptian name, normally transliterated as jnj-jt(=f) and translated: His father brought him.

Khenemetneferhedjet(ẖnm.t nfr-ḥḏ.t) was an ancient Egyptian queenly title during the Middle Kingdom. It was in use from the 12th to the early 18th dynasty. During the 12th dynasty it also occurred as a personal name. Its meaning is “united with the white crown”. The white crown was one part of the double crown of Egypt and is usually interpreted to have represented Upper Egypt, but it is also possible that while the red crown represented the king's earthly incarnation, the white crown represented the eternal, godlike aspect of kingship.

Aya was an Ancient Egyptian king's wife of the Thirteenth Dynasty.

Sekhemre Shedwast was a native Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 16th Theban Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period.

Haankhes(ḥ3-ˁnḫ=s, "may she live") was an ancient Egyptian queen consort of the 17th dynasty, likely a wife of Pharaoh Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef.

Sobekemsaf (queen) politician

Sobekemsaf(sbk-m-z3=f) was an ancient Egyptian queen of the 17th Dynasty. She was the wife of pharaoh Nubkheperre Intef and sister of an unidentified pharaoh, probably Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef, Sobekemsaf II or Senakhtenre Ahmose.

References

  1. Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, CNI Publications, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, p.204
  2. 1 2 Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids. Thames & Hudson. 2008 (reprint). ISBN   978-0-500-28547-3
  3. Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN   0-500-05128-3
  4. Chris Bennett, A Genealogical Chronology of the Seventeenth Dynasty, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 39 (2002), pp. 123-155 JSTOR (Bennett quotes Beckerath as also referring to this king as Intef VI.)
  5. Intef Wepmaat Titulary Archived 2011-11-24 at the Wayback Machine .
  6. Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, CNI Publications, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, p.270
  7. Ryholt, p.270
  8. Thomas Schneider, "The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12-17)" in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. p.187
  9. Dodson, Aidan. The Tomb in Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson. 2008. p 208, ISBN   9780500051399
Preceded by
Sobekemsaf II
Pharaoh of Egypt
Seventeenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Nubkheperre Intef

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