Shoshenq V

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Aakheperre Shoshenq V was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the late 22nd Dynasty.

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Despite having enjoyed one of the longest reigns of the entire dynasty – 38 years – and having left a fair amount of attestations, little is known about Shoshenq's life. His realm underwent an unstoppable shrinking due to the progressive increase of independence of various tribal chiefs, princes and concurrent kings, above all the pharaoh–to–be Tefnakht.

Reign

Overview

The political situation in Egypt around 730 BC; at the end of his reign, Shoshenq V ruled above the North-Eastern territories coloured in grey Third Intermediate Period map.svg
The political situation in Egypt around 730 BC; at the end of his reign, Shoshenq V ruled above the North-Eastern territories coloured in grey

According to a Serapeum stela dated to his Year 11, Shoshenq was son and successor of Pami. [2] :84-5 He ascended to the throne in ca. 767 BC [2] :Tab.3 and, despite little information about his life, he is well attested by several monuments, dated and not. However, the provenance of such findings is limited to the Eastern Nile Delta – in fact the territory under his authority – and noticeably, he is completely unrecorded in Thebes. [2] :103 Furthermore, it looks that during Shoshenq's reign his lordship above the city of Memphis and the westernmost part of his realms phased out for the benefit of the Libyan chiefs of the Western Delta such as Osorkon C and, ultimately, Tefnakht of Sais. [2] :311;316 [3] :571-2 At the end of his long reign – most likely lasting 38 years – Shoshenq ruled little more than the districts of Tanis and Bubastis. [2] :92

Before the discovery of the proper Shoshenq IV, Shoshenq V was often referred to with the "IV" numeral (for example: [4] [5] ).

Attestations

Shoshenq's Year 11 is recorded at Memphis, commemorating the death, burial and replacement of the Apis bull which was installed in the Year 2 of Pami. Shoshenq is also attested in his years 7 [6] [7] and 15 [7] (or 17), [8] 19, [9] 30, [10] and 37 [2] :Tab.21A by donation stelae of different Great Chiefs of the Libu , named Tjerpahati, Ker, Rudamun and Ankhhor respectively. Then, his name appears again on a stela from Atfih, dedicated to the goddess Hathor in Shoshenq's Year 22. [5] [2] :310-1;521
At Tanis, he ordered a temple for the Theban Triad, with particular emphasis on the god Khonsu. Probably in his Year 30, he also celebrated his Sed festival by adding a jubilee chapel to the aforementioned temple. [2] :315;396 [3] :569 [11] These buildings were later dismantled and a sacred lake was made in their place. Yet, from the remains of the buildings, it is known that Shoshenq celebrated the festival by adopting brand-new Horus, Nebty and Golden Horus names, and by adding complements to his Throne and personal names, in sharp contrast with the plain and simple titulary used in most of his monuments (the one reported in the box [12] ) which was possibly a form of archaism. Undated monuments of Shoshenq V were unearthed at Tell el-Yahudiyeh. [2] :309;315
In Year 37 of Shoshenq, the Apis bull installed in his Year 11 died and was buried. The event is commemorated on several Serapeum stelae, the most famous among these being the Stela of Pasenhor , which also provided a valuable genealogy of the early 22nd Dynasty and its Libyan origin. [2] :84-5 [3] :569 This bull eventually outlived Shoshenq, dying in Year 5 of pharaoh Bakenranef of the 24th Dynasty. [2] :147
Shoshenq V's highest Year date is an anonymous Year 38 donation stela from Buto issued by Tefnakht (here boasting several titles, but not yet a pharaoh) which can only belong to his reign since Tefnakht was a late contemporary of this king. This stela, which reads simply as "Regnal Year 38 under the Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, [BLANK], Son of Re, [BLANK]," may reflect the growing power of Tefnakht in the Western Delta at the expense of Shoshenq V whose name is omitted from the document. The same argument can be applied to a similar stela, again issued by Tefnakht but in an anonymous Year 36 which again can only belong to Shoshenq's reign. [2] :84;112;316

End and succession

Shoshenq V died probably in 730 BC. Besides his father Pami, his family relationships are not entirely clear, but it is often assumed that his successor was Osorkon IV who also may have been his son. [11] It is known that Osorkon's mother was queen Tadibast III; thus, she was possibly Shoshenq's queen. [13] However, this reconstruction is complicated by the presence of the poorly known pharaoh Pedubast II who is sometimes placed as Shoshenq's successor. [14]

Related Research Articles

Kenneth Anderson Kitchen is a British biblical scholar, Ancient Near Eastern historian, and Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, England. He is one of the leading experts on the ancient Egyptian Ramesside Period, and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt, as well as ancient Egyptian chronology, having written over 250 books and journal articles on these and other subjects since the mid-1950s. He has been described by The Times as "the very architect of Egyptian chronology".

Takelot II Egyptian Pharaoh

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot II Si-Ese was a pharaoh of the Twenty-third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt in Middle and Upper Egypt. He has been identified as the High Priest of Amun Takelot F, son of the High Priest of Amun Nimlot C at Thebes and, thus, the son of Nimlot C and grandson of king Osorkon II according to the latest academic research. Based on two lunar dates belonging to Takelot II, this Upper Egyptian pharaoh is today believed to have ascended to the throne of a divided Egypt in either 845 BC or 834 BC. Most Egyptologists today, including Aidan Dodson, Gerard Broekman, Jürgen von Beckerath, M.A. Leahy and Karl Jansen-Winkeln, also accept David Aston's hypothesis that Shoshenq III was Osorkon II's actual successor at Tanis, rather than Takelot II. As Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton write in their comprehensive book on the royal families of Ancient Egypt:

Takelot II is likely to have been identical with the High Priest Takelot F, who is stated in [the] Karnak inscriptions to have been a son of Nimlot C, and whose likely period of office falls neatly just before Takelot II's appearance.

Osorkon II Egyptian pharaoh

Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon II was the fifth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and the son of King Takelot I and Queen Kapes. He ruled Egypt from approximately 872 BC to 837 BC from Tanis, the capital of that dynasty.

Osorkon I Egyptian pharaoh (1000-0889)

Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 22nd Dynasty.

The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, and pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC.

Tefnakht Egyptian Pharaoh

Shepsesre Tefnakht was a prince of Sais and founder of the relatively short Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt; he rose to become a Chief of the Ma in his home city. He is thought to have reigned roughly 732 BCE to 725 BCE, or 7 years. Tefnakht I first began his career as the "Great Chief of the West" and Prince of Sais and was a late contemporary of the last ruler of the 22nd dynasty: Shoshenq V. Tefnakht I was actually the second ruler of Sais; he was preceded by Osorkon C, who is attested by several documents mentioning him as this city's Chief of the Ma and Army Leader, according to Kenneth Kitchen, while his predecessor as Great Chief of the West was a man named Ankhhor. A recently discovered statue, dedicated by Tefnakht I to Amun-Re, reveals important details about his personal origins. The statue's text states that Tefnakht was the son of a certain Gemnefsutkapu and the grandson of Basa, a priest of Amun near Sais. Consequently, Tefnakht was not actually descended from either lines of Chiefs of the Ma and of the Libu as traditionally believed but rather came from a family of priests, and his ancestors being more likely Egyptians rather than Libyans.

Takelot I Egyptian pharaoh(1000-0874)

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot I was an ancient Libyan ruler who was pharaoh during the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt.

Pami Egyptian pharaoh

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Shoshenq II Egyptian Pharaoh

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Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

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Osorkon III Egyptian pharaoh

Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon III Si-Ese was Pharaoh of Egypt in the 8th Century BC. He is the same person as the Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B, son of Takelot II by his Great Royal Wife Karomama II. Prince Osorkon B is best attested by his Chronicle—which consists of a series of texts documenting his activities at Thebes—on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak. He later reigned as king Osorkon III in Upper Egypt for twenty-eight years after defeating the rival forces of Pedubast I/Shoshenq VI who had apparently resisted the authority of his father here. Osorkon ruled the last five years of his reign in coregency with his son, Takelot III, according to Karnak Nile Level Text No. 13. Osorkon III's formal titulary was long and elaborate: Usermaatre Setepenamun, Osorkon Si-Ese Meryamun, Netjer-Heqa-waset.

Libu

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Osorkon IV Egyptian pharaoh

Usermaatre Osorkon IV was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the late Third Intermediate Period. Traditionally considered the very last king of the 22nd Dynasty, he was de facto little more than ruler in Tanis and Bubastis, in Lower Egypt. He is generally – though not universally – identified with the King Shilkanni mentioned by Assyrian sources, and with the biblical So, King of Egypt mentioned in the second Books of Kings.

Pedubast II sovereign

Pedubast II was a Pharaoh of Egypt associated with the 22nd or more likely the 23rd Dynasty. Not mentioned in all King lists, he is mentioned as a possible son and successor to Shoshenq V by Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton in their 2004 book, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. They date his reign at about 743–733 BC, between Shoshenq V and Osorkon IV.

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Stela of Pasenhor ancient Egyptian stela

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Osorkon C Great Chief of the Ma

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References

  1. Clayton, Peter (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs . Thames & Hudson Ltd., p. 185
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Kitchen, Kenneth A. (1996). The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). Warminster: Aris & Phillips Limited. ISBN   0-85668-298-5.
  3. 1 2 3 Edwards, I.E.S. (1982). "Egypt: from the Twenty-second to the Twenty-fourth Dynasty". In Edwards, I.E.S. (ed.). The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.), vol. III, part 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 534–580. ISBN   0 521 22496 9.
  4. Gardiner, Alan (1961). Egypt of the Pharaohs: an introduction . Oxford University Press., p. 326
  5. 1 2 Peet, T.E. (1920). "A Stela of the Reign of Sheshonk IV". Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 6: 56–57.
  6. Spiegelberg, Wilhelm (1920). "Neue Schenkungsstelen uber Landstiftungen an Tempel". Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. 56., pp 57–58
  7. 1 2 Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (2014). "Die „Großfürsten der Libu" im westlichen Delta in der späten 22. Dynastie". Journal of Egyptian History. 7: 194-202.
  8. Brooklyn Museum 67.119
  9. Müller, Wilhelm Max (1906). Egyptological Researches, vol. I. Carnegie Institution of Washington., pl. 88
  10. Berlandini, Jocelyne (1978). "Une stèlae de donation du dynaste libyen Roudamon". BIFAO. 78: 147–153.
  11. 1 2 Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Books. p. 512. ISBN   9780631174721., pp. 330-331
  12. von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. Mainz. ISBN   3 8053 2591 6., pp. 190-191
  13. Berlandini, Jocelyne (1979). "Petits monuments royaux de la XXIe à la XXVe dynastie". Hommages à la mémoire de Serge Sauneron, vol. I, Egypte pharaonique. Cairo, Imprimerie de l'Institut d'Archeologie Orientale. pp. 89–114., pp. 100-101
  14. von Beckerath, Jürgen (1997). Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens. Mainz am Rhein: Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46., p. 99
Preceded by
Pami
Pharaoh of Egypt
767 730 BC
Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt
Succeeded by
Osorkon IV or Pedubast II