Neferhotep I

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Khasekhemre Neferhotep I was an Egyptian pharaoh of the mid Thirteenth Dynasty ruling in the second half of the 18th century BC [3] during a time referred to as the late Middle Kingdom or early Second Intermediate Period, depending on the scholar. One of the best attested rulers of the 13th Dynasty, Neferhotep I reigned for 11 years.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Middle Kingdom of Egypt period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. The Eleventh Dynasty ruled from Thebes and the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht. Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish around 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay around 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion. The Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, another period of division that involved foreign invasions of the country by the Hyksos of West Asia.

Contents

The grandson of a non-royal townsman from a Theban family with a military background, Neferhotep I's relation to his predecessor Sobekhotep III is unclear and he may have usurped the throne. Neferhotep I was likely contemporaneous with kings Zimri-Lim of Mari and Hammurabi of Babylon. Little is known of his activities during his decade-long reign and the most important document surviving from his rule is a stela from Abydos recounting the fashion of an image of Osiris and Neferhotep's determination that it be made "as instructed by the gods at the beginning of time". [7]

Thebes, Egypt Ancient Egyptian city

Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday. The site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and the city proper was situated; and the western bank, where a necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and funerary complexes can be found.

Sobekhotep III Egyptian pharaoh

Sobekhotep III was an Egyptian king of the 13th dynasty who reigned 3 to 4 years, c. 1740 BC or 1700 BC.

Zimri-Lim King of Mari

Zimri-Lim was king of Mari from about 1775 to 1761 BC.

Towards the end of his reign, Neferhotep I shared the throne with his brother Sihathor, a coregency that lasted a few months to a year. [12] Sihathor died shortly before Neferhotep, who probably then appointed another brother, Sobekhotep IV, as coregent. In any case, Sobekhotep IV succeeded Neferhotep I soon afterwards, and reigned over Egypt for almost a decade. The reigns of the two brothers mark the apex of the 13th Dynasty.

Sihathor Egyptian pharaoh

Menwadjre Sihathor was an ephemeral ruler of the 13th dynasty during the late Middle Kingdom. Sihathor may never have enjoyed an independent reign, possibly only ruling for a few months as a coregent with his brother Neferhotep I. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Sihathor died in 1733 BC while Detlef Franke dates his short reign to 1694 BC. His tomb is likely to be the unfinished one located between the tombs of his brothers S9 and S10, in Abydos.

Sobekhotep IV Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty

Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned at least eight years. His brothers, Neferhotep I and Sihathor, were his predecessors on the throne, the latter having only ruled as coregent for a few months.

Family

Scarab seals of the "Royal sealer, god's father Haankhef", father of Neferhotep I and the "member of the elite, king's daughter Kema", daughter of Neferhotep I. Haankhef&KemaScarabsPetrie.png
Scarab seals of the "Royal sealer, god's father Haankhef", father of Neferhotep I and the "member of the elite, king's daughter Kema", daughter of Neferhotep I.

Origins

Neferhotep I seems to have come from a non-royal family of Thebes with a military background. [7] His grandfather, Nehy, held the title "officer of a town regiment". Nehy was married to a woman called Senebtysy. Nothing is known about her other than that she held the common title "lady of the house". Their only known son was called Haankhef. [3]

Haankhef Father of three pharaohs

Haankhef was the father of the Ancient Egyptian kings Neferhotep I, Sihathor, and Sobekhotep IV, who successively ruled Egypt during the second half of the 18th century BC as kings of the 13th Dynasty.

Haankhef always appears in the sources as "God's father" and "royal sealer" and his wife Kemi as "king's mother" indicating that neither of them was of royal birth. The parentage of Neferhotep and Haankhef is directly confirmed by a number of scarab seals from El-Lahun where the latter is said to be the father of the former. [3] Haankhef is also explicitly recorded as the father of Neferhotep I in the Turin canon, a king list compiled during the early Ramesside era and which serves as the primary historical source for the rulers of this time period. This is an extremely rare occurrence as the Turin canon normally only names the pharaohs while non-royal people are excluded from the list. Beyond Haankhef, the only other exception to this rule is the father of Sobekhotep II. [3]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Egyptologists have noted that instead of hiding their non-royal origins, Neferhotep I, his predecessor Sobekhotep III, and his successor Sobekhotep IV, remarkably proclaimed them on their stelae and scarab seals. [3] This is at odds with the traditional Egyptian system where the legitimacy of the new king rests mainly on his filiation. These proclamations of non-royal origins were possibly made to dissociate these kings from their immediate predecessors, in particular Seth Meribre whose monuments have been usurped and defaced. [3] The reason for this remains unknown. [3]

Seth Meribre ancient Egyptian sovereign

Seth Meribre was the twenty-fourth pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. Seth Meribre reigned from Memphis, ending in 1749 BC or c. 1700 BC. The length of his reign is not known for certain; the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposes that he reigned for a short time, certainly less than 10 years.

Descendants and succession

Inscriptions from Aswan indicate that Neferhotep I had at least two children named Haankhef and Kemi like his parents, whom he had with a woman called Senebsen. [3] [14] He also possibly had another son named Wahneferhotep. [15] In spite of this, Neferhotep I named his brother Sihathor as coregent in the last months of his reign and when both Sihathor and Neferhotep I died around the same time, they were succeeded by another brother, Sobekhotep IV. [3] [16]

Sobekhotep IV, whose reign marks the apex of the 13th Dynasty, mentions on a stela (Cairo JE 51911) that was placed in the temple of Amun at Karnak that he was born in Thebes: [17]

My majesty [came] to the Southern City since I wanted to see the august god; it is my city in which I was born. ... I saw the vigor of his majesty (i.e. Amun) at every single feast when I was a child who could not yet conceive.

Similarly, Neferhotep I could well have been born in Thebes; even though the capital of Egypt during the 13th Dynasty was still Itjtawy in the north, near the modern village of el-Lisht.

Reign

Attestations

Scarab reading "Son of Re, Neferhotep, born of the Royal Mother, Kemi". NeferhotepScarabPetrie.png
Scarab reading "Son of Re, Neferhotep, born of the Royal Mother, Kemi".
Artefacts

Neferhotep I is known from a relatively high number of objects found over a large area, from Byblos to the North to the Egyptian fortresses of Buhen [18] and Mirgissa [19] in Lower Nubia to the South [4] through all parts of Egypt, especially in the southern portion of Upper Egypt. [4] A single attestation is known from Lower Egypt, a scarab from Tell el-Yahudiya. [3] [20] Other attestations include over 60 scarab seals, [15] [21] [22] [23] 2 cylinder-seals, [24] [25] a statue from Elephantine, [26] and 11 rock inscriptions from Wadi el Shatt el-Rigal, [27] Sehel Island, [28] [29] [30] Konosso [28] [30] and Philae. [16] [30] The inscriptions record the members of Neferhotep's family as well as two high officials serving him "The royal acquaintance Nebankh" and the "Treasurer Senebi". [3] Two stelae are known from Abydos one of which, usurped from king Wegaf and dated to his 4th regnal year, forbids the construction of tombs on the sacred processional way of Wepwawet. [8] [31] Two naoses housing two statues each of Neferhotep as well as a pedestal bearing Neferhotep's and Sobekhotep IV's cartouches have been found in Karnak. [3] [32] There are also a few attestations from the Faiyum region where the capital of Egypt was located at the time, in particular a statuette of the king dedicated to Sobek and Horus of Shedet, now on display in the Archaeological Museum of Bologna. [4]

King lists

Beyond these contemporary attestations, Neferhotep is listed on the 34th entry of the Karnak king list [33] as well as the 7th column, 25th row of the Turin canon. [4] [34] The Turin king list credits Neferhotep with a reign of 11 years and 1 to 4 months, the second or third longest of the dynasty after Merneferre Ay (23 years) and Sobekhotep IV (912 years). [3]

Chronology

Inscription on Sehel island showing Anukis giving the life sign to Neferhotep I. Neferhotep I 3.jpg
Inscription on Sehel island showing Anukis giving the life sign to Neferhotep I.

Neferhotep I's relative chronological position is secured thanks to the Turin canon as well as contemporary attestations. He was the successor of Sobekhotep III and predecessor of Sobekhotep IV. Since his father Haankhef and mother Kemi are also well attested and not known to have had any title beyond those of "God's father" and "King's mother", respectively, Egyptologists such as Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker believe that Neferhotep I was of non-royal birth and usurped the throne. The military background of his family might have played a role in this. [4]

At the opposite, the absolute chronological position of Neferhotep is debated with Ryholt and Baker seeing him respectively as the 26th and 27th pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty while Detlef Franke and Jürgen von Beckerath contend that he was only the 22nd ruler. [9] [35] Similarly, the absolute datation of Neferhotep's reign varies by as much as 40 years between the scholars, with Kim Ryholt dating the beginning of his reign c. 1740 BC and Thomas Schneider c. 1700 BC. [3] [10]

Extent of rule

Statue of Neferhotep I from his first naos found in Karnak, now in the Egyptian Museum. Neferhotep I 2.jpg
Statue of Neferhotep I from his first naos found in Karnak, now in the Egyptian Museum.

Whether Neferhotep I usurped the throne at the expense of Sobekhotep III or inherited it, he possibly acceded to power over a fragmented Egypt. The Egyptologist Kim Ryholt believes that the Canaanite 14th Dynasty was already in existence at the time, forming an independent realm controlling at least the Eastern Nile Delta. [3] This could explain why Neferhotep's only attestation in Lower Egypt is a single scarab seal. While this analysis is accepted by some scholars, among whom are Gae Callender, Janine Bourriau and Darrell Baker, [4] [8] [38] it is rejected by others, including Manfred Bietak, Daphna Ben-Tor and James and Susan Allen, who contend that Neferhotep I reigned over the whole of Egypt. [39] [40] [41] Possible vindications of this are the several attestations of Neferhotep found northeast of Egypt, in the Levant, in particular the stela of the Governor of Byblos Yantinu [42] and 4 scarab seals from Canaan, [21] indicating that he retained enough power to maintain trade relations with this region.

Alternatively, recent excavations have yielded seals of Neferhotep's brother Sobekhotep IV in proximity with seals of the powerful Hyksos king Khyan of the 15th Dynasty (c.16501550 BC) in a closed archaeological context, [43] possibly indicating that the two were contemporary. [44] If this is so, Neferhotep I would have been contemporary with either Khyan or one of his predecessors, such as Sakir-Har, and would not have reigned over the Nile Delta. This conclusion is strongly debated at the moment since Sobekhotep IV and Khyan are separated by c. 100 years in the conventional Egyptian chronology.

Activities

In spite of the numerous attestations left by Neferhotep I, relatively little is known of the activities he undertook during his decade-long reign. The pedestal [32] of Neferhotep I and Sobekhotep IV as well as the naos of Neferhotep discovered by Georges Legrain in Karnak [37] indicate that he undertook some building works there. [3] This is further confirmed by the 2005 discovery in Karnak of a second naos housing a 1.80 m (5.9 ft) tall double statue of Neferhotep holding hands with himself. The naos was located beneath the foundations of the northern obelisk of Hatshepsut. [45] [46] [47]

The most important monument of the king surviving to this day is a large, heavily eroded stela dating to the second regnal year of Neferhotep and found in Abydos. The inscription on the stela is one of the few ancient Egyptian royal texts to record how a king might conceive of and order the making of a sculpture. As usual, the stela begins with Neferhotep's titulary: [48] [49] [50]

The Majesty of the Horus: Founder of the Two Lands, He of the Two Ladies: Revealing the Truth, Falcon of Gold: Lasting of Love, King of Upper and Lower Egypt Khasekhemre, Son of Ra Neferhotep, born to the king's mother Kemi, granted life, stability, and dominion like Ra forever.

It then describes how Neferhotep, residing in his palace "Exalted of Beauty" likely located in Itjtawy, desires that an image of Osiris be made in order for it to participate in the yearly festival held in the god's honour in Abydos in Upper Egypt. [48] To this end, Neferhotep first enquires to his officials about instructions regarding the making of divine images said to be contained in "the primeval writings of Atum". [48] His officials then bring him to a temple library where the writings are located and he orders a messenger, the "Custodian of the Royal Property", to be sent to the Abydos festival. Meanwhile, or possibly before sending the messenger, the statue of Osiris is made of silver, gold and copper, the work being carried out under the supervision of the king. [48] Finally, the king himself goes to Abydos to celebrate the festival of Osiris. [7]

More generally, Neferhotep's time on the throne was likely prosperous as there are many private monuments datable to his reign and that of his brother, [51] and especially in sculpture some remarkably high quality art works were produced.

Tomb

As of 2017, the tomb of Neferhotep I has not been formally identified, although a strong case now exists for it to be in Abydos. Since 2013 a team of archaeologists from the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of Josef W. Wegner has been excavating a Late Middle Kingdom—Second Intermediate Period royal necropolis in Abydos, at the foot of a natural hill known to the ancient Egyptians as the Mountain of Anubis . The necropolis is located just next to the massive funerary complex of Senusret III of the 12th Dynasty and comprises two further large tombs, likely to have been pyramids built during the mid-13th Dynasty, as well as no less than eight royal tombs, possibly dating to the Abydos Dynasty. One of the large tombs, which was extensively plundered of goods and stones during the Second Intermediate Period, known today as tomb S10, is now believed to belong to king Sobekhotep IV, Neferhotep's brother, on the basis of several finds showing Sobkehotep's name from the nearby royal tombs, such as that of Woseribre Senebkay. As a corollary, Wegner suggested that the anonymous, large, neighboring tomb S9 could have belonged to Neferhotep I. Egyptologists have also noted that both kings were very active in the Abydos region during their reigns. [52]

Older hypotheses concerning the location of Neferhotep's tomb included that proposed by Nicolas Grimal, that Neferhotep was buried in a pyramid at el-Lisht, close to that of Senusret I, [6] an opinion shared by Michael Rice. [7] This remains conjectural, as no artefact permitting the identification of Neferhotep as the owner of such a pyramid has been found. Grimal's hypothesis relies only on indirect evidence: the presence of scarabs of Neferhotep in Lisht as well as the discovery of a shawabti of a prince Wahneferhotep "(King) Neferhotep endures" close to the northern gateway of the mortuary temple of the pyramid complex of Senusret I. [15] [53] [54] The shawabti was wrapped in linen and placed in a miniature coffin, [55] which is dated to the 13th Dynasty on stylistic grounds. This together with the name of Wahneferhotep and his title of "King's son" indicate that Wahneferhotep was likely a son of Neferhotep I, [15] who may have been buried in the vicinity of his father's pyramid.

Alternatively, Dawn Landua-McCormack suggested that the Southern South Saqqara pyramid could have been a candidate for Neferhotep's burial site. This pyramid, datable to the middle 13th Dynasty, was provided with two elaborate sarcophagus chambers which might have been destined for two wealthy brother kings of the dynasty such as Neferhotep I and Sobekhotep IV. [56]

Coregencies

Drawing by Karl Richard Lepsius of a rock inscription from Konosso showing Montu, Min and Satet with the cartouches of Neferhotep I. Neferhotep I Konosso.png
Drawing by Karl Richard Lepsius of a rock inscription from Konosso showing Montu, Min and Satet with the cartouches of Neferhotep I.

It is not known under which circumstances Neferhotep I died after his reign of eleven years. His successor was his brother, Sobekhotep IV, who is perhaps the most important ruler of the 13th Dynasty. [3] Another brother, Sihathor, appears in the Turin canon as successor, but it seems that he only reigned for a few months as coregent with Neferhotep I and never became an independent ruler, likely because he predeceased his elder brother. After this, it is possible that Neferhotep I designated his younger brother Sobekhotep IV as coregent. There are two inscriptions from Sehel showing Neferhotep I, Sihathor and Sobekhotep IV, which could mean that they reigned for some time together, [12] although Sihathor is declared dead on both lists. [4] Another piece of evidence is an inscription from the Wadi Hammamat showing the cartouches of Neferhotep I and Sobekhotep IV on par, next to each other. [4] [57] Some Egyptologists see this as evidence of a coregency between these two kings, while others, including Ryholt, reject this interpretation and believe the inscription was made by Sobekhotep to honour his deceased brother. [3] [4]

Historical synchronism

A stela bearing Neferhotep I's name is of great importance to archaeologists and historians alike as it enables a concordance between the Egyptian and Near Eastern chronologies. [42] This stela depicts the "Governor of Byblos, Yantinu ... who was begotten by Governor Yakin" seated upon a throne in front of which are the nomen and prenomen of Neferhotep I. [3] This is significant for two reasons: first, Yakin is plausibly identifiable with a Yakin-Ilu of Byblos known from a cylinder seal of Sehetepibre, indicating that this king and Neferhotep are separated by a generation. [3] Second, a "King of Byblos Yantin-'Ammu" is known from the archives of Mari who is most likely the same person as the Governor of Byblos Yantinu of the stela. [58] Indeed, Byblos was a semi-autonomous Egyptian governorate at the time and "the king of Byblos" must be the Semitic king of the city ruling it in the name of the pharaoh. The archives of Mari predominantly date to the reign of the last king of the city, Zimri-Lim, a contemporary of Hammurabi who ultimately sacked Mari. This provides the synchronism Neferhotep I Yantinu Zimri-Lim Hammurabi. [3]

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References

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  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 252254
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  9. 1 2 Erik Hornung (editor), Rolf Krauss (editor), David A. Warburton (editor): Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill 2012, ISBN   978-90-04-11385-5, available online copyright-free, see p. 176 & p. 492.
  10. 1 2 Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Patmos 2002, ISBN   978-3-491-96053-4
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  12. 1 2 Wolfram Grajetzki: The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, London 2006 ISBN   978-0-7156-3435-6, p.7173
  13. 1 2 Flinders Petrie, Scarabs and cylinders with names (1917), available copyright-free here, pl. XVIII
  14. Labib Habachi: New Light on the Neferhotep I Family, as Revealed by Their Inscriptions in the Cataract Area in: Mélange Dunham, Londres 1981, pp. 7781
  15. 1 2 3 4 William C. Hayes: The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom, MET Publications 1978, available online, see p. 342344 and p. 349350
  16. 1 2 Michel Dewachter: Le roi Sahathor et la famille de Neferhotep I, Revue d'égyptologie, ISSN 0035-1849 (1976) vol.28, p. 66–73
  17. Pascal Vernus: "Sur deux inscriptions du Moyen Empire (Urk. VII, 36 ; Caire JE. 51911)", Bulletin de la Société d'Égyptologie, Genève (BSEG) 13, 1989, p. 173–181, available online.
  18. Jewellery from at Buhen, now in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology E 10755, initially attributed to Amenemhat III, then reattributed to Neferhotep I. Reference: David Randall-MacIver, Sir Leonard Woolley: Buhen, Philadelphia: University Museum 1911, available online p. 192, 201, 234, pl. 74
  19. Seal impression of Neferhotep I at Mirgissa. Reference: Dows Dunham, George Andrew Reisner, Noel F Wheeler: Uronarti, Shalfak, Mirgissa, Boston Museum of Fine Arts 1967, p. 163 and 172
  20. Percy E. Newberry: Scarabs an introduction to the study of Egyptian seals and signet rings, with forty-four plates and one hundred and sixteen illustrations in the text, 1906, available online copyright-free see plate X no 5, and page 122.
  21. 1 2 Olga Tufnell: Studies on Scarab Seals, vol. II, Aris & Philips, Warminster, 1984, pp. 142, 180 [2nd, 4th9th, 11th13th], see also seals No. 1788, 1803, 28982899, 31103116, 31183130.
  22. Two seals of Neferhotep I in the Petrie Museum on Digital Egypt. See also on the online catalog of the museum here and here.
  23. Two scarabs of Neferhotep I in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: and
  24. Jean Yoyotte: Le Soukhos de la Maréotide et d'autres cultes régionaux du Dieu-Crocodile d'après les cylindres du Moyen Empire, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archeologie Orientale (BIFAO) 56, 1957, p. 8195 available online Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine . see p. 86 1.o
  25. Flinders Petrie: Buttons and Design Scarabs, 1925, pl. XXIV and XXVI
  26. Labib Habachi, Gerhard Haeny et Friedrich Junge: Elephantine IV : The Sanctuary of Heqaib, Philippe von Zabern, Mainz, 1985, p. 115, pl. 201202 [a-b].
  27. Flinders Petrie: A season in Egypt, 1888, XV [479]
  28. 1 2 3 4 Karl Richard Lepsius: Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien , 1849, Tafel II, Band IV, available online see p. 151 plates g and h
  29. Robert Delia: New Rock Inscriptions of Senwosret III, Neferhotep I, Penpata, and Others at the First Cataract, Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar (BES) 1992, vol.11 1991, p. 522
  30. 1 2 3 Jacques de Morgan, U. Bouriant, Georges Legrain, Gustave Jéquier, Alessandro Barsanti: Catalogue des monuments et inscriptions de l'Égypte antique, Tome I 1894
  31. Stela Cairo JE 35256, description and analysis in Anthony Leahy: A Protective Measure at Abydos in the Thirteenth Dynasty, Journal of Egyptian archaeology A. 1989, vol. 75, pp. 4160
  32. 1 2 Auguste Mariette-Bey: Karnak. Étude topographique et archéologique avec un appendice comprenant les principaux textes hiéroglyphiques découverts ou recueillis pendant les fouilles exécutées a Karnak, Leipzig, 1875, available online see p. 45 pl. 8.
  33. Entry 37th in the numbering followed by Baker in his encyclopedia of the pharaohs
  34. Following Kim Ryholt's reconstruction of the Turin canon. This corresponds to the 6th column, 25th row in Alan H. Gardiner and Jürgen von Beckerath's reading of the canon.
  35. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern, 1999, ISBN   3-8053-2591-6, see pp.9697, king No 22.
  36. Cairo CG 42022, M. Seidel: Die königlichen Statuengruppen, I, Hildesheim 1996, 112113, pl. 28.
  37. 1 2 Georges Legrain: Statues et statuettes de rois et de particuliers, Le Caire, 1906, Tome I, available online see item no. 42022. The naos is now in the Egyptian Museum CG 42022.
  38. Janine Bourriau: The Second Intermediate Period (c.1650-1550 BC) in: Ian Shaw (editor): The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, 2000, Oxford University Press, ISBN   0-19-815034-2
  39. Daphna Ben-Tor & James and Susan Allen: Seals and Kings, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 315, 1999, pp. 47–73.
  40. Manfred Bietak: Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age, BASOR, 281 (1991), pp. 21–72, esp. p. 38, available online
  41. Daphna Ben-Tor: Scarabs, Chronology, and Interconnections: Egypt and Palestine in the Second Intermediate Period, Volume 27 of Orbis biblicus et orientalis / Series archaeologica: Series archaeologica, Academic Press Fribourg 2007, ISBN   978-3-7278-1593-5, excerpts available online
  42. 1 2 William Stevenson Smith: Interconnections in the Ancient Near East: A Study of the Relationships Between the Arts of Egypt, the Aegean, and Western Asia, Yale University Press, 1965
  43. N. Moeller, G. Maround, N. Ayers: Discussion of Late Middle Kingdom and Early Second Intermediate Period History and Chronology in Relation to the Khayan Sealings from Tell Edfu, in: Ägypten und Levante XXI (2011), 87-121 online PDF
  44. Robert M. Porter: The Second Intermediate Period according to Edfu, Goettinger Mizsellen 239 (2013), p. 75–80
  45. Nicolas Grimal and François Larché: Cahiers de Karnak 12, fascicule 1, Centre franco-égyptien d'étude des temples de Karnak (2007), available online.
  46. News of the discovery and photos here
  47. Press release of the discovery here
  48. 1 2 3 4 The Neferhotep Stela in William Kelley Simpson (editor), Robert K. Ritner (translator), Vincent A. Tobin (translator), Jr. Edward Wente (translator): The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry; Third Edition, Yale University Press; 3rd Revised & enlarged edition (October 11, 2003), ISBN   978-0-300-09920-1. Translation of the stela available online
  49. Wolfgang Helck: Historisch-Biographische Texte der 2. Zwischenzeit undNeue Texte der 18. Dynastie, 2nd revised edition, Wiesbaden (1983), No. 32, 2129
  50. Pieper Max: Die grosse Inschrift des Königs Neferhotep in Abydos, Helsingfors : J.C. Hinrichs, 1929, in: Mitteilungen der vorderasiatisch-aegyptischen Gesellschaft, vol. 32, issue 2
  51. Wolfram Grajetzki: Late Middle Kingdom, 2013, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 1(1). UCLA: Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, nelc_uee_8764, available online
  52. Josef W., Wegner (2015). "A royal necropolis at south Abydos: New Light on Egypt's Second Intermediate Period". Near Eastern Archaeology. 78 (2): 68–78.
  53. The shawabti is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, see the online catalog
  54. Dieter Arnold with contributions by Dorothea Arnold and an appendix by Peter F. Dorman: The Pyramid of Senwosret I, MET Publications 1988, available online see pp. 3740 & 147149
  55. The coffin is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, see the coffin on the online catalog
  56. Dawn Landua-McCormack, Dynasty XIII Kingship in Ancient Egypt: a study of political power and administration through an investigation of the royal tombs of the late Middle Kingdom, University of Pennsylvania 2008, p. 207 (dissertation).
  57. F. Debono: Expedition archeologique royale au desert oriental (Kef-Kosseir), ASAE 51 (1951): 1-33.
  58. W. M. F. Albright: "An Indirect Synchronism between Egypt and Mesopotamia, cir. 1730 BC", BASOR 99 (1945)
Preceded by
Sobekhotep III
Pharaoh of Egypt
13th Dynasty
Succeeded by
Sobekhotep IV