Horus

Last updated
Horus
Horus standing.svg
Horus was often the ancient Egyptians' national tutelary deity. He was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent , or a red and white crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt.
Name in hieroglyphs
Horus
Major cult center Nekhen, Edfu [1]
Symbol Eye of Horus
Personal information
Consort Hathor
Offspring Ihy
Parents Osiris and Isis
Siblings Anubis [lower-alpha 1] , Bastet

Horus or Her, Heru, Hor in Ancient Egyptian, is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities who served many functions, most notably god of kingship and the sky. He was worshipped from at least the late prehistoric Egypt until the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Roman Egypt. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egyptologists. [2] These various forms may possibly be different manifestations of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes or syncretic relationships are emphasized, not necessarily in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality. [3] He was most often depicted as a falcon, most likely a lanner falcon or peregrine falcon, or as a man with a falcon head. [4]

Contents

The earliest recorded form of Horus is the tutelary deity of Nekhen in Upper Egypt, who is the first known national god, specifically related to the ruling pharaoh who in time came to be regarded as a manifestation of Horus in life and Osiris in death. [2] The most commonly encountered family relationship describes Horus as the son of Isis and Osiris, and he plays a key role in the Osiris myth as Osiris's heir and the rival to Set, the murderer and brother of Osiris. In another tradition Hathor is regarded as his mother and sometimes as his wife. [2]

Etymology

Horus
ḥr "Horus"
in hieroglyphs

Horus is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs as ḥr.w "Falcon"; the pronunciation has been reconstructed as ħaːruw. Additional meanings are thought to have been "the distant one" or "one who is above, over". [5] As the language changed over time, it appeared in Coptic varieties variously as hoːɾ or ħoːɾ and was adopted into ancient Greek as ὯροςHōros (pronounced at the time as hoːɾos). It also survives in Late Egyptian and Coptic theophoric name forms such as Siese "son of Isis" and Harsiese "Horus, Son of Isis".

Nekheny may have been another falcon god worshipped at Nekhen, city of the falcon, with whom Horus was identified from early on.

Horus may be shown as a falcon on the Narmer Palette, dating from about the 31st century BC.

Horus and the pharaoh

The Pyramid Texts (c. 2400–2300 BC) describe the nature of the pharaoh in different characters as both Horus and Osiris. The pharaoh as Horus in life became the pharaoh as Osiris in death, where he was united with the other gods. New incarnations of Horus succeeded the deceased pharaoh on earth in the form of new pharaohs. [6]

The lineage of Horus, the eventual product of unions between the children of Atum, may have been a means to explain and justify pharaonic power. The gods produced by Atum were all representative of cosmic and terrestrial forces in Egyptian life. By identifying Horus as the offspring of these forces, then identifying him with Atum himself, and finally identifying the Pharaoh with Horus, the Pharaoh theologically had dominion over all the world.

The notion of Horus as the pharaoh seems to have been superseded by the concept of the pharaoh as the son of Ra during the Fifth Dynasty. [7]

Origin mythology

Horus was born to the goddess Isis after she retrieved all the dismembered body parts of her murdered husband Osiris, except his penis, which was thrown into the Nile and eaten by a catfish, [8] [9] or sometimes depicted as instead by a crab, and according to Plutarch's account used her magic powers to resurrect Osiris and fashion a phallus [10] to conceive her son (older Egyptian accounts have the penis of Osiris surviving).

After becoming pregnant with Horus, Isis fled to the Nile Delta marshlands to hide from her brother Set, who jealously killed Osiris and who she knew would want to kill their son. [11] There Isis bore a divine son, Horus.

Mythological roles

HorusHorus
Horus
rˁ-ḥr-3ḫty "Ra-Horakhty"
in hieroglyphs

Sky god

Since Horus was said to be the sky, he was considered to also contain the Sun and Moon. [12] It became said [ by whom? ] that the Sun was his right eye and the Moon his left, and that they traversed the sky when he, a falcon, flew across it. Later, the reason that the Moon was not as bright as the Sun was explained by a tale, known as The Contendings of Horus and Seth . In this tale, it was said that Set, the patron of Upper Egypt, and Horus, the patron of Lower Egypt, had battled for Egypt brutally, with neither side victorious, until eventually, the gods sided with Horus.

As Horus was the ultimate victor he became known as ḥr.w wr "Horus the Great", but more usually translated "Horus the Elder". In the struggle, Set had lost a testicle, and Horus' eye was gouged out.

Horus was occasionally shown in art as a naked boy with a finger in his mouth sitting on a lotus with his mother. In the form of a youth, Horus was referred to as nfr ḥr.w "Good Horus", transliterated Neferhor, Nephoros or Nopheros (reconstructed as naːfiru ħaːruw).

Eye of Horus or Wedjat Eye of Horus.svg
Eye of Horus or Wedjat

The Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection and royal power from deities, in this case from Horus or Ra. The symbol is seen on images of Horus' mother, Isis, and on other deities associated with her. In the Egyptian language, the word for this symbol was "wedjat" (wɟt). [13] [14] It was the eye of one of the earliest of Egyptian deities, Wadjet, who later became associated with Bastet, Mut, and Hathor as well. Wadjet was a solar deity and this symbol began as her all-seeing eye. In early artwork, Hathor is also depicted with this eye. [15] Funerary amulets were often made in the shape of the Eye of Horus. The Wedjat or Eye of Horus is "the central element" of seven "gold, faience, carnelian and lapis lazuli" bracelets found on the mummy of Shoshenq II. [16] The Wedjat "was intended to protect the king [here] in the afterlife" [16] and to ward off evil. Egyptian and Near Eastern sailors would frequently paint the symbol on the bow of their vessel to ensure safe sea travel. [17]

Conflict between Horus and Set

Horus, Louvre, Shen rings in his grasp Ram-headed falcon amulet-E 80-IMG 2503-with reflection-gradient.jpg
Horus, Louvre, Shen rings in his grasp

Horus was told by his mother, Isis, to protect the people of Egypt from Set, the god of the desert, who had killed Horus' father, Osiris. [18] [19] Horus had many battles with Set, not only to avenge his father, but to choose the rightful ruler of Egypt. In these battles, Horus came to be associated with Lower Egypt, and became its patron.

According to The Contendings of Horus and Seth, Set is depicted as trying to prove his dominance by seducing Horus and then having sexual intercourse with him. However, Horus places his hand between his thighs and catches Set's semen, then subsequently throws it in the river so that he may not be said to have been inseminated by Set. Horus then deliberately spreads his own semen on some lettuce, which was Set's favorite food. After Set had eaten the lettuce, they went to the gods to try to settle the argument over the rule of Egypt. The gods first listened to Set's claim of dominance over Horus, and call his semen forth, but it answered from the river, invalidating his claim. Then, the gods listened to Horus' claim of having dominated Set, and call his semen forth, and it answered from inside Set. [20] [21]

Figure of a Horus Falcon, between circa 300 and circa 250 BC (Greco-Roman). The Walters Art Museum. Egyptian - Figure of a Horus Falcon - Walters 571484 - Right.jpg
Figure of a Horus Falcon, between circa 300 and circa 250 BC (Greco-Roman). The Walters Art Museum.
Horus falcon, after 600 BCE. Original in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum Replica Horus Falcon British Museum.JPG
Horus falcon, after 600 BCE. Original in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum

However, Set still refused to relent, and the other gods were getting tired from over eighty years of fighting and challenges. Horus and Set challenged each other to a boat race, where they each raced in a boat made of stone. Horus and Set agreed, and the race started. But Horus had an edge: his boat was made of wood painted to resemble stone, rather than true stone. Set's boat, being made of heavy stone, sank, but Horus' did not. Horus then won the race, and Set stepped down and officially gave Horus the throne of Egypt. [23] After the New Kingdom, Set was still considered lord of the desert and its oases. [24]

In many versions of the story, Horus and Set divide the realm between them. This division can be equated with any of several fundamental dualities that the Egyptians saw in their world. Horus may receive the fertile lands around the Nile, the core of Egyptian civilization, in which case Set takes the barren desert or the foreign lands that are associated with it; Horus may rule the earth while Set dwells in the sky; and each god may take one of the two traditional halves of the country, Upper and Lower Egypt, in which case either god may be connected with either region. Yet in the Memphite Theology, Geb, as judge, first apportions the realm between the claimants and then reverses himself, awarding sole control to Horus. In this peaceable union, Horus and Set are reconciled, and the dualities that they represent have been resolved into a united whole. Through this resolution, order is restored after the tumultuous conflict. [25]

Egyptologists have often tried to connect the conflict between the two gods with political events early in Egypt's history or prehistory. The cases in which the combatants divide the kingdom, and the frequent association of the paired Horus and Set with the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, suggest that the two deities represent some kind of division within the country. Egyptian tradition and archaeological evidence indicate that Egypt was united at the beginning of its history when an Upper Egyptian kingdom, in the south, conquered Lower Egypt in the north. The Upper Egyptian rulers called themselves "followers of Horus", and Horus became the tutelary deity of the unified nation and its kings. Yet Horus and Set cannot be easily equated with the two halves of the country. Both deities had several cult centers in each region, and Horus is often associated with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt. Other events may have also affected the myth. Before even Upper Egypt had a single ruler, two of its major cities were Nekhen, in the far south, and Nagada, many miles to the north. The rulers of Nekhen, where Horus was the patron deity, are generally believed to have unified Upper Egypt, including Nagada, under their sway. Set was associated with Nagada, so it is possible that the divine conflict dimly reflects an enmity between the cities in the distant past. Much later, at the end of the Second Dynasty (c. 2890–2686 BCE), Pharaoh Seth-Peribsen used the Set animal to writing his serekh name in place of the falcon hieroglyph representing Horus. His successor Khasekhemwy used both Horus and Set in the writing of his serekh. This evidence has prompted conjecture that the Second Dynasty saw a clash between the followers of the Horus king and the worshippers of Set led by Seth-Peribsen. Khasekhemwy's use of the two animal symbols would then represent the reconciliation of the two factions, as does the resolution of the myth. [26]

Heru-pa-khered (Horus the Younger)

Horus the Younger, Harpocrates to the Ptolemaic Greeks, is represented in the form of a youth wearing a lock of hair (a sign of youth) on the right of his head while sucking his finger. In addition, he usually wears the united crowns of Egypt, the crown of Upper Egypt and the crown of Lower Egypt. He is a form of the rising sun, representing its earliest light.

Golden Horus Osiris

Horus gradually took on the nature as both the son of Osiris and Osiris himself. He was referred to as Golden Horus Osiris. [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] In the temple of Denderah he is given the full royal titulary of both that of Horus and Osiris. He was sometimes believed to be both the father of himself as well as his own son, and some accounts have Horus Osiris being brought back to life by Isis.

Her-ur

Heru-ur
God of the sun, light, protection, and kings
Edfu17.JPG
Wall relief of Her-ur at the temple of Edfu, Egypt
Major cult center Heliopolis, Gizah
Symbolhieracosphinx, hawk, lion, winged sun disk
Personal information
Consort Serqet, Hathor
Offspring Imset, Hapi, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef
Parents Geb and Nut
Siblings Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys

Heru-ur, also known as Horus the Elder or Har wer, was a form of Horus, where he was the son of Geb and Nut. He was one of the oldest gods of ancient Egypt. He became the patron of Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) and the first national god ('God of the Kingdom') and was depicted as a hieracosphinx, a creature with a lion's body and a hawk's head and wings. Later, he also became the patron of the pharaohs, and was called the son of truth [32] – signifying his role as an important upholder of Maat. His right eye was the Sun and the left one was the Moon. Her-ur was sometimes depicted fully as a hawk, he was sometimes given the title Kemwer, meaning '(the) great black (one)'.

The Greek form of Her-ur is Haroeris or Harmakhis. Other variants include Hor Merti 'Horus of the two eyes' and Horkhenti Irti. [33]

It was believed that he was the inspiration for the Sphinx of Gizah, constructed under the order of Khafre, whose head it depicts.

Celebrations of Horus

Macrobius' Chronicon noted the annual ancient Egyptian celebration of Horus, specifying the time as the winter solstice. An analysis of the works of Epiphanius of Salamis noted the Egyptian winter solstice celebration of Horus in Panarion. [34]

Influences on Christianity

Some have suggested that there are many similarities between the story of Horus and the much posterior story of Jesus. However, this has been refuted by both Christian and non-Christian scholars. [35] [36] [37] [38]

See also

Notes

  1. (in some accounts)

Related Research Articles

Osiris God of the afterlife in Egyptian mythology

Osiris is the god of fertility, alcohol, agriculture, the afterlife, the dead, resurrection, life, and vegetation in ancient Egyptian religion. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive atef crown, and holding a symbolic crook and flail. He was one of the first to be associated with the mummy wrap. When his brother, Set, cut him up into pieces after killing him, Isis, his wife, found all the pieces and wrapped his body up. Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being the younger brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called "king of the living" as he is the first god-king of Earth in ancient Egypt, therefore considered the blessed dead "the living ones". Through syncretism with Iah, he is also the god of the Moon.

Osiris myth story in ancient Egyptian mythology

The Osiris myth is the most elaborate and influential story in ancient Egyptian mythology. It concerns the murder of the god Osiris, a primeval king of Egypt, and its consequences. Osiris's murderer, his brother Set, usurps his throne. Meanwhile, Osiris's wife Isis restores her husband's body, allowing him to posthumously conceive their son, Horus. The remainder of the story focuses on Horus, the product of the union of Isis and Osiris, who is at first a vulnerable child protected by his mother and then becomes Set's rival for the throne. Their often violent conflict ends with Horus's triumph, which restores Maat to Egypt after Set's unrighteous reign and completes the process of Osiris's resurrection.

Set (deity) Ancient Egyptian god of the desert, storms, chaos, and foreigners

Set or Seth is a god of chaos, fire, deserts, trickery, storms, envy, disorder, violence, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In Ancient Greek, the god's name is given as Sēth (Σήθ). Set had a positive role where he accompanies Ra on his solar boat to repel Apep, the serpent of Chaos. Set had a vital role as a reconciled combatant. He was lord of the red (desert) land, where he was the balance to Horus' role as lord of the black (soil) land.

Nut (goddess) Egyptian goddess of the sky

Nut, also known by various other transcriptions, is the goddess of the sky, stars, cosmos, mothers, astronomy, and the universe in the ancient Egyptian religion. She was seen as a star-covered nude woman arching over the Earth, or as a cow. She was depicted wearing the water-pot sign (nw) that identifies her.

Nephthys Egyptian deity

Nephthys or Nebet-Het in Ancient Egyptian is a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion. A member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, she was a daughter of Nut and Geb. Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set.

Ennead group of nine deities in Egyptian mythology worshipped at Heliopolis

The Ennead or Great Ennead was a group of nine deities in Egyptian mythology worshiped at Heliopolis: the sun god Atum; his children Shu and Tefnut; their children Geb and Nut; and their children Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nephthys. The Ennead sometimes includes the son of Osiris and Isis, Horus. It rose to importance in Dynasties V and VI and remained prominent in Egypt into its occupation by the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty established by Alexander the Great's successor in the area, Ptolemy I.

Sobek, in Greek, Suchos (Σοῦχος) and from Latin Suchus ("crocodile"), was an ancient Egyptian deity with a complex and fluid nature. He is associated with the Nile crocodile or the West African crocodile and is represented either in its form or as a human with a crocodile head. Sobek was also associated with pharaonic power, fertility, and military prowess, but served additionally as a protective deity with apotropaic qualities, invoked particularly for protection against the dangers presented by the Nile.

Wadjet lion-headed Egyptian goddess, symbolizing the potentially destructive power of the sun, angry avatar of the gentle Bastet

Wadjet, known to the Greek world as Uto or Buto among other names including Wedjat, Uadjet, and Udjo, was originally the ancient local goddess of the city of Dep. It became part of the city that the Egyptians named Per-Wadjet "House of Wadjet" and the Greeks called Buto, which was an important site in prehistoric Egypt and the cultural developments of the Paleolithic.

Index of Egyptian mythology articles Wikimedia list article

This is an index of Egyptian mythology articles.

Eye of Horus ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power and good health

The Eye of Horus, also known as wadjet, wedjat or udjat, is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power, and good health. The Eye of Horus is similar to the Eye of Ra, which belongs to a different god, Ra, but represents many of the same concepts.

Uraeus stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in Ancient Egypt

The Uraeus is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra, used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt.

Four sons of Horus Ancient Egyptian gods

The four sons of Horus were a group of four gods in Egyptian religion, who were essentially the personifications of the four canopic jars, which accompanied mummified bodies. Since the heart was thought to embody the soul, it was left inside the body. The brain was thought only to be the origin of mucus, so it was reduced to liquid, removed with metal hooks, and discarded. This left the stomach, liver, large intestines, and lungs, which were removed, embalmed and stored, each organ in its own jar. There were times when embalmers deviated from this scheme: during the 21st Dynasty they embalmed and wrapped the viscera and returned them to the body, while the canopic jars remained empty symbols.

Nemty Egyptian god of ferrymen

In Egyptian mythology, Nemty was a god whose worship centred at Antaeopolis, in the northern part of Upper Egypt.

The royal titulary or royal protocol is the standard naming convention taken by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It symbolises worldly power and holy might and also acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch.

Metternich Stela object highlighted in The MET collection

The Metternich Stela is a magico-medical stele that is part of the Egyptian Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. It dates to the thirtieth dynasty of Egypt around 380–342 B.C. during the reign of Nectanebo II. The provenance of the stele is unknown.

Certain numbers were considered sacred, holy, or magical by the ancient Egyptians, particularly 2, 3, 4, 7, and their multiples and sums.

Heliopolitans Wikimedia list article

The Heliopolitans are a fictional group of gods, based on Ancient Egyptian deities, appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

Ancient Egyptian deities gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt. The beliefs and rituals surrounding these gods formed the core of ancient Egyptian religion, which emerged sometime in prehistory. Deities represented natural forces and phenomena, and the Egyptians supported and appeased them through offerings and rituals so that these forces would continue to function according to maat, or divine order. After the founding of the Egyptian state around 3100 BC, the authority to perform these tasks was controlled by the pharaoh, who claimed to be the gods' representative and managed the temples where the rituals were carried out.

Ra ancient Egyptian solar deity

Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld. He was the god of the sun, order, kings, and the sky.

Egyptian mythology Myths and practices of the Ancient Egyptians

Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world around them. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion. Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art, particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts, and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments.

References

  1. Sims, Lesley (2000). "Gods & goddesses". A Visitor's Guide to Ancient Egypt . Saffron Hill, London: Usborne Publishing. p.  29. ISBN   0-7460-30673.
  2. 1 2 3 "The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology", Edited by Donald B. Redford, Horus: by Edmund S. Meltzer, pp. 164–168, Berkley, 2003, ISBN   0-425-19096-X
  3. "The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology", Edited by Donald B. Redford, p106 & p165, Berkley, 2003, ISBN   0-425-19096-X
  4. Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 202.
  5. Meltzer, Edmund S. (2002). Horus. In D. B. Redford (Ed.), The ancient gods speak: A guide to Egyptian religion (pp. 164). New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
  6. Allen, James P. (2005). The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN   978-1-58983-182-7.
  7. Samuel Noah Kramer. Mythologies of the Ancient World. Quadrangle Books: Chicago, 1961. pp. 35–43
  8. New York Folklore Society (1973). "New York folklore quarterly". 29. Cornell University Press. p. 294.
  9. Ian Shaw (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt . Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-815034-3.
  10. Piotr O. Scholz (2001). Eunuchs and castrati: a cultural history. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 32. ISBN   978-1-55876-201-5.
  11. Roy G. Willis (1993). World Mythology. Macmillan. p. 43. ISBN   978-0-8050-2701-3.
  12. "Horus". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  13. Pommerening, Tanja, Die altägyptischen Hohlmaße (Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Beiheft 10), Hamburg, Helmut Buske Verlag, 2005
  14. M. Stokstad, "Art History"
  15. "Lady of the West". hethert.org. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  16. 1 2 Silverman, David P. (1997). "Egyptian Art". Ancient Egypt. Duncan Baird Publishers. p. 228.
  17. Charles Freeman, The Legacy of Ancient Egypt, Facts on File, Inc. 1997. p. 91
  18. "The Goddesses and Gods of Ancient Egypt". Archived from the original on 4 June 2010.
  19. "Ancient Egypt: the Mythology – Horus". egyptianmyths.net.
  20. Scott David Foutz. "Theology WebSite: Etext Index: Egyptian Myth: The 80 Years of Contention Between Horus and Seth". theologywebsite.com. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  21. Fleming, Fergus, and Alan Lothian. The Way to Eternity: Egyptian Myth. Duncan Baird Publishers, 1997. pp. 80–81
  22. "Figure of a Horus Falcon". The Walters Art Museum.
  23. Mythology, published by DBP, Chapter: Egypt's divine kingship
  24. te Velde, Herman (1967). Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. Probleme der Ägyptologie 6. Translated by van Baaren-Pape, G. E. (2nd ed.). Leiden: E. J. Brill. ISBN   978-90-04-05402-8.
  25. te Velde 1967, pp. 59–63.
  26. Meltzer in Redford, pp. 165–166
  27. Yoyotte, Jean, Une notice biographique du roi Osiris, BIFAO 77 (1977), p.145
  28. Hymn to Osiris Un-Nefer, Translated by E.A.Wallis Budge
  29. Budge, E.A. Wallis ; 1901, Egyptian Magic, Kegan, Paul, Trench and Trübner & Co., London
  30. "The Abydos Triad, Osiris, Isis and Horus, and Seth". www.reshafim.org.il.
  31. Roxburgh, Kevin. "Horus - Egyptian God Horus - Egyptian Mythology - Horus - Eye of Horus". www.egyptiangods.co.uk.
  32. Wilson, Erasmus (January 1, 1877). Cleopatra's needle: With brief notes on Egypt and Egyptian obelisks. London: Brain & Company. p. 208. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  33. Patricia Turner, Charles Russell Coulter, Dictionary of ancient deities, 2001.
  34. "MACROBIUS, Saturnalia – Loeb Classical Library". Loeb Classical Library.
  35. Ehrman, Bart D. (2012). Did Jesus Exist?: The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth. HarperOne. ISBN   978-0062206442.
  36. C Henderson, S Hayes, Debunking the Horus-Jesus Connection, 2015, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996
  37. Houdmann, S. Michael, Questions about Jesus Christ, WestBow Press, 2013
  38. Klar, Sonnen, Seeking Hard Evidence for the Similarity of the Horus and Jesus Myths, Richard Dawkins Foundation