Sehetepkare Intef

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Sehetepkare Intef (also known as Intef IV or Intef V) was the twenty-third king of the 13th dynasty during the Second intermediate period. Sehetepkare Intef reigned from Memphis for a short period, certainly less than 10 years, between 1759 BC and 1749 BC or c. 1710 BC. [5] [6]

Memphis, Egypt ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, Egypt

Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza.

Contents

Attestations

Sehetepkare Intef is attested in the Turin canon, entry 7.22 (Ryholt) or 6.22 (Alan Gardiner, Jürgen von Beckerath). The Turin canon places Sehetepkare Intef between Imyremeshaw and Seth Meribre. Intef is also attested on the Karnak king list. [5] Beyond these documents, Sehetepkare Intef is attested by the lower half of a seated statue from the temple complex of goddess Renenutet at Medinet Madi in the Faiyum. [7] The statue, JE 67834, is now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner was an English Egyptologist, linguist, philologist, and independent scholar. He is regarded as one of the premier Egyptologists of the early and mid-20th century. Some of his most important publications include a 1959 book on his study of "The Royal Canon of Turin" and his seminal 1961 work Egypt of the Pharaohs, which covered all aspects of Egyptian chronology and history at the time of publication.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Chronological position and reign length

The exact chronological position of Sehetepkare Intef in the 13th dynasty is not known for certain owing to uncertainties affecting earlier kings of the dynasty. Darrell Baker places him as the twenty-third king of the dynasty, Kim Ryholt as the twenty-fourth and Jürgen von Beckerath as the nineteenth. Furthermore, Ryholt believes Sehetepkare Intef was the fifth ruler bearing that name, making him Intef V, while Aidan Dodson, von Beckerath and Darrell Baker posit that he was Intef IV. [8] [9]

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

The length of his reign is lost in a lacuna of the papyrus and cannot be recovered, except for the end of the inscription which reads "...[and] 3 days". [9] Kim Ryholt gives 10 years for the combined reigns of Imyremeshaw, Sehetepkare Intef and Seth Meribre. Another piece of evidence concerning the reign of Intef is found in the 13th dynasty Papyrus Boulaq 18 which reports, among other things, the composition of a royal family comprising ten king's sisters, an unspecified number of king's brothers, three daughters of the king, a son named Redienef and a queen named Aya. Even though the king's name is lost in a lacuna, Ryholt's analysis of the papyrus only leaves Imyremeshaw and Sehetepkare Intef as possibilities. [5] This is significant because the papyrus reports a year 3 and a year 5 dates for this king. Additionally, a date "regnal year 5, 3rd month of Shemu, 18th day" is known from the unfinished pyramid complex neighboring that of Khendjer, which may thus have been built by the same ruler, a close successor of Khendjer, perhaps Intef. [5]

The Papyrus Boulaq 18 is an Ancient Egyptian document found in 1860 AD in the tomb of the scribe of the great enclosure Neferhotep. It is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The exact circumstances of the end of Intef's reign are unknown but the fact that his successor Seth Meribre did not use filiative nomina points to a non-royal birth. Consequently, Ryholt proposes that Seth Meribre usurped the throne. [5]

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References

  1. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, 1999, p. 94
  2. Flinders Petrie:Scarabs and cylinders with names (1917), available copyright-free here, pl. XVIII, n. 13.DE.
  3. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, 1999, p. 94
  4. Flinders Petrie:Scarabs and cylinders with names (1917), available copyright-free here, pl. XVIII, n. 13.DE.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997), 342, File 13/24.
  6. 1 2 Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen
  7. Vogliano, Achille (1942). Un'impresa archeologica milanese ai margini orientali del deserto libico. Milan: Regia Università, Istituto d'alta cultura., pls. IX-X
  8. Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004.
  9. 1 2 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008
Preceded by
Imyremeshaw
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Seth Meribre