Merhotepre Ini

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Merhotepre Ini (also known as Ini I) was the successor of Merneferre Ay, possibly his son, and the thirty-third king of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt. [3] He is assigned a brief reign of 2 Years, 3 or 4 Months and 9 days in the Turin Canon and lived during the early 17th century BC. [2]

Merneferre Ay Egyptian pharaoh

Merneferre Ay was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the mid 13th Dynasty. The longest reigning pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty, he ruled a likely fragmented Egypt for over 23 years in the early to mid 17th century BC. A pyramidion bearing his name shows that he possibly completed a pyramid, probably located in the necropolis of Memphis.

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.

Contents

Attestations

Merhotepre Ini is attested by a scarab seal of unknown provenance (now at the Petrie Museum) and an inscribed jar-lid (now at the LACMA, M.80.203.225). [3] The prenomen "Merhotepre" is also found on a scarab seal probably from Medinet el-Fayum, on the Karnak king list and on a stele from Abydos (Cairo CG 20044), although these occurrences may instead refer to Merhotepre Sobekhotep. Finally, Merhotepre Ini is attested in the Turin canon as the successor of Merneferre Ay.

Karnak king list Wikimedia list article

The Karnak king list, a list of early Egyptian kings engraved in stone, was located in the southwest corner of the Festival Hall of Thutmose III, in the middle of the Precinct of Amun-Re, in the Karnak Temple Complex, in modern Luxor, Egypt. Composed during the reign of Thutmose III, it listed sixty-one kings beginning with Sneferu from Egypt's Old Kingdom. Only the names of thirty-nine kings are still legible, and one is not written in a cartouche.

Merhotepre Sobekhotep Egyptian pharaoh

Merhotepre Sobekhotep was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirtieth pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its twenty-ninth ruler. In older studies, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke identified Merhotepre Sobekhotep with Merhotepre Ini, thereby making him Sobekhotep VI and the twenty-eighth ruler of the 13th dynasty.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Chronological position

The exact chronological position of Merhotepre Ini in the 13th dynasty is not known for certain owing to uncertainties affecting earlier kings of the dynasty. He is ranked as the thirty-third king of the dynasty by Darrell Baker, as the thirty-fourth king by Kim Ryholt and in position 28a in studies by Jürgen von Beckerath, a result which Baker qualifies as "nebulous". [2] [3] [4]

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Family

Drawing by F. Petrie of a scarab seal of Merhotepre Ini, now in the Petrie Museum. Merhotepre Ini.png
Drawing by F. Petrie of a scarab seal of Merhotepre Ini, now in the Petrie Museum.

In spite of the very brief reign Merhotepre enjoyed, he is attested in the historical records by the Juridical Stela . This document, which is dated to Year 1 of the later Theban king Nebiryraw I, contains a genealogical charter which states that Ayameru—the son by Vizier Aya and the King's daughter Reditenes—was appointed Governor of El-Kab in Year 1 of Merhotepre Ini. [5] The reason for this appointment was due to the unexpected death of the childless Governor of El-Kab Aya-junior who was Vizier Aya's eldest son and Ayameru's elder brother. The charter identifies a certain Kebsi as the son of Governor, and later, Vizier Ayameru. [6] The Cairo Juridical Stela records the sale of the office of the governorship of El-Kab to a certain Sobeknakht. This Sobeknakht I was the father of the illustrious governor Sobeknakht II who built one of the most richly decorated tombs at El-Kab during the Second Intermediate Period. Based on the stele, Kim Ryholt proposes that Merhotepre Ini was the son of his predecessor Merneferre Ay with his senior queen Ini and with Reditenes as a sister of Merhotepre Ini. The vizierate was an hereditary position at the time and a change of family in charge of the position would have been an important political move. In particular, Reditenes being possibly a sister of Merhotepre Ini, his appointing Aya (thus his brother-in-law) to the vizierate would bring the position into his own family.

The Juridical Stela or Cairo Juridical Stela is an ancient Egyptian stele issued in c.1650 BCE. Kept at the Cairo Museum, its main purpose is to document the sale of a government office.

Sewadjenre Nebiryraw was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Theban-based 16th Dynasty, during the Second Intermediate Period.

El Kab Archaeological site

El Kab is an Upper Egyptian site on the east bank of the Nile at the mouth of the Wadi Hillal about 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Luxor. El Kab was called Nekheb in the Egyptian language, a name that refers to Nekhbet, the goddess depicted as a white vulture.

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References

  1. Flinders Petrie: A history of Egypt from the earliest times to the 16th dynasty, p. 220, 1897, available online
  2. 1 2 3 Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C." Museum Tuscalanum Press, 1997. p.192 (ISBN   87-7289-421-0)
  3. 1 2 3 Darell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300 - 1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 212 and p. 138
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der agyptische Konigsnamen, Muncher. Agyptologische Studien 49, Mainz.
  5. Chris Bennett, A Genealogical Chronology of the Seventeenth Dynasty, JARCE 39 (2002), pp.124-125
  6. Bennett, p.124
Preceded by
Merneferre Ay
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Sankhenre Sewadjtu