Neferhotep III

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Sekhemre Sankhtawy Neferhotep III Iykhernofret was the third or fourth ruler of the Theban 16th Dynasty, reigning after Sobekhotep VIII according to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker. [1] [2] He is assigned a reign of 1 year in the Turin Canon and is known primarily by a single stela from Thebes. [1] In an older study, Von Beckerath dated Neferhotep III to the end of the 13th Dynasty. [3]

Thebes, Egypt Ancient Egyptian city

Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday. The site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and the city proper was situated; and the western bank, where a necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and funerary complexes can be found.

Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Sixteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years.

Sobekhotep VIII Pharaoh of Egypt

Sekhemre Seusertawy Sobekhotep VIII was possibly the third king of the 16th Dynasty of Egypt reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Alternatively, he may be a ruler of the 13th or 17th Dynasty. If he was a king of the 16th Dynasty, Sobekhotep VIII would be credited 16 years of reign by the Turin canon, starting c. 1650 BC, at the time of the Hyksos invasion of Egypt.

Contents

Extent of rule

In the heavily damaged stela (Cairo JE 59635 [CG 20799]), [4] [5] Neferhotep III repeatedly calls Thebes "my city" and praises himself as "the guide of victorious Thebes". [6] This emphasis on Thebes is understood by Ryholt as showing that Neferhotep III reigned exclusively over the Theban region. Additionally, Baker points out the total lack of contemporary attestations for kings of the 16th Dynasty (except Bebiankh and Nebiryraw I) outside of a 200 km long stretch of the Nile valley comprising Thebes, from Hu in the north to Edfu in the south. [2] That Neferhotep III ruled over little more than the Theban region is further strengthened by a stela of Neferhotep's successor Seankhenre Mentuhotepi where Mentuhotepi states "I am the king within Thebes, this is my city".

Bebiankh Egyptian Pharaoh

Seuserenre Bebiankh was a native Ancient Egyptian king of the 16th Theban Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period and, according to Kim Ryholt, the successor of king Semenre. He is assigned a reign of 12 years in the Turin Canon (11.8).
Bebiankh was succeeded either by a poorly known king named Sekhemre Shedwast or by the equally shadowy ruler Seneferankhre Pepi III.

Sewadjenre Nebiryraw was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Theban-based 16th Dynasty, during the Second Intermediate Period.

Hu, Egypt Place in Egypt

Hu is the modern name of an Egyptian town on the Nile, which in more ancient times was the capital of the 7th Nome of Upper Egypt. The nome was referred to as Sesheshet (Sistrum). The main city was referred to as Hu(t)-sekhem, which was abbreviated as Hu. This led to the Arabic name Hiw. In Ptolemaic times the city was called Diospolis Parva in comparison with Thebes, Egypt, known as Diospolis Magna. It was also called Diospolis Superior, in comparison with Diospolis Inferior in the Nile Delta.

Reign

In his Theban stela, Neferhotep III emphasizes his role as provider of food for his people stating that "he who nourishes his city, saving it from famine". [7] This, together with his royal name Sekhemre Sanhktawy, The might of Ra, who nourishes the two lands is a strong sign that Upper Egypt suffered from famines during the late 16th Dynasty. Another king of the period, Senusret IV, adopted a similar royal name.

Ra ancient Egyptian solar deity

Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld.

Upper Egypt strip of land on the Nile valley between Nubia and Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

Senusret IV Seneferibre was an ancient Egyptian Theban king during the late Second Intermediate Period that is attested only through finds from Upper Egypt. The chronological position of Senusret IV is unclear and even the dynasty to which he belongs is debated.

Neferhotep III got certainly embroiled in a defensive war against the Hyksos 15th Dynasty, which would ultimately overrun the 16th Dynasty state. Neferhotep praises himself on his stela as " He who raises his city, having been sunk through strife with foreigners". [1] The stela is thought to contain the earliest known mention of the Khepresh crown. Neferhotep is said to be "Adorned with the Khepresh, the living image of Re, lord of terror". [8] For reasons which remain difficult to understand, on the stela Neferhotep III is also referred to by the epithet Iykhernofret written inside a cartouche: [4] [9]

Hyksos Asian invaders of Egypt, established 15th dynasty ca. 1650-1550 BC

The Hyksos were a people of diverse origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. In the context of Ancient Egypt, the term "Asiatic" may refer to people native to areas east of Egypt.

Khepresh

The khepresh was an ancient Egyptian royal headdress. It is also known as the blue crown or war crown. New Kingdom pharaohs are often depicted wearing it in battle, but it was also frequently worn in ceremonies. It used to be called a war crown by many, but modern historians refrain from defining it thus.

Cartouche oval with inscriptions

In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. They came into common use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, but earlier examples date to the mid Second Dynasty on Cylinder Seals of Seth-Peribsen. While the cartouche is usually vertical with a horizontal line, if it makes the name fit better it can be horizontal, with a vertical line at the end . The Ancient Egyptian word for it was shenu, and it was essentially an expanded shen ring. In Demotic, the cartouche was reduced to a pair of brackets and a vertical line.

Neferhotep III
Neferhotep IIINeferhotep III
Neferhotep III
Neferhotep IIINeferhotep III
Neferhotep III
Neferhotep III


After his short reign, he was succeeded by a similarly short lived king Seankhenre Mentuhotepi.

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi Egyptian pharaoh

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the fragmented Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the fifth king of the 16th Dynasty reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifth king of the 17th Dynasty.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C, Museum Tusculanum Press, (1997), p.202
  2. 1 2 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, pp. 256-257
  3. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt 1964, S. 67-68, 259 (XIII J.)
  4. 1 2 Pascal Vernus (1982): "La stèle du roi Sekhemsankhtaouyrê Neferhotep Iykhernofret et la domination Hyksôs (stèle Caire JE 59635)", ASAE 68, pp.129-135.
  5. W. V. Davies, The Origin of the Blue Crown, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 68, (1982), pp. 69-76
  6. Ryholt, p.160
  7. Ryholt, p.306
  8. Ebba Kerrn Lillesø, Two Wooden Uræi, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 61, (1975), pp. 137-146
  9. Ryholt, p.155
Preceded by
Sobekhotep VIII
Pharaoh of Egypt
Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Succeeded by
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi