Khaankhre Sobekhotep

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Khaankhre Sobekhotep (now believed to be Sobekhotep II or Sobekhotep IV; known as Sobekhotep I in older studies) was a pharaoh of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Khaankhre Sobekhotep was the 13th pharaoh of the dynasty and had a short reign ca. 1735 BC. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the 16th pharaoh of the dynasty. [2] [3]

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt period of Ancient Egyptian history

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

Contents

Evidence

Sobekhotep appears in the Karnak king list as Khaankhre. A name Sobek[hote]pre is also given on column 6, line 15 of the Turin canon, which could be Sobekhotep I. However this identification is not certain and Sobekhotep I's chronological position within the 13th Dynasty is debated. Contemporary attestations of Sobekhotep comprise reliefs coming from a chapel which once stood in Abydos and a fragment of inscribed column. Furthermore, the name Khaankhre Sobekhotep appears in an inscription on a granite statue pedestal once in the Amherst collection and, since 1982, in the British Museum (exhibit BM 69497). [4] [5] His reign was most likely short, amounting to three to four-and-a-half years. [4]

Karnak king list Wikimedia list article

The Karnak king list, a list of early Egyptian kings engraved in stone, was located in the southwest corner of the Festival Hall of Thutmose III, in the middle of the Precinct of Amun-Re, in the Karnak Temple Complex, in modern Luxor, Egypt. Composed during the reign of Thutmose III, it listed sixty-one kings beginning with Sneferu from Egypt's Old Kingdom. Only the names of thirty-nine kings are still legible, and one is not written in a cartouche.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Abydos, Egypt City in ancient Egypt

Abydos is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city. It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N, near the modern Egyptian towns of el-'Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju. The English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers from the unrelated city of Abydos on the Hellespont.

Identity

Ryholt mentions that Sobekhotep I may be identical with Sobekhotep II, who is only mentioned as Sobekhotep in the Turin King List. [4] Others, like Dodson, consider Khaankhre Sobekhotep II and Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I to be two different rulers from the 13th Dynasty, [6] while Bierbrier lists Khaankhre Sobekhotep I and Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep II. [7] Recently Simon Connor and Julien Siesse investigated the style of the king's monument and argue that he reigned much later than previously thought (after Sobekhotep IV - who would become Sobekhotep III). [8]

Sobekhotep IV Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty

Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned at least eight years. His brothers, Neferhotep I and Sihathor, were his predecessors on the throne, the latter having only ruled as coregent for a few months.

See also

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References

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Sebekhotep Khaankhre at Wikimedia Commons

  1. Inventory of the Louvre: B.3–5, C.9–10; E. Bresciani: Un edificio di Kha-anekh-Ra Sobekhotep ad Abdido. In: Egitto e Vicino Oriente, vol. II, 1979, pp. 1–20
  2. K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  3. Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 445
  4. 1 2 3 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997), 339, File 13/13.
  5. C. N. Reeves, Miscellanea Epigraphica, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Bd. 13, (1986), pp. 165–170
  6. Aidan Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, American Univ in Cairo Press, 2000, p 207
  7. Bierbrier, M.L. (2008). Historical dictionary of ancient Egypt. Scarecrow Press. ISBN   978-0-8108-5794-0 . Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  8. Simon Connor, Julien Siesse: Nouvelle datation pour le roi Sobekhotep Khâânkhrê, in: Revue d'Égyptologie 66 (2015), 2015, 227-247; compare Throne Names Patterns as a Clue for the Internal Chronology of the 13th to 17th Dynasties (Late Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period), GM 246 (2015), p. 75-98 798 online
Preceded by
Nedjemibre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Renseneb