Sobekhotep III

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Sobekhotep III (throne name: Sekhemresewdjtawy) was an Egyptian king of the 13th dynasty who reigned 3 to 4 years, c. 1740 BC or 1700 BC.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Contents

Family

Scarab of Sobekhotep III giving the name of his father Mentuhotep. Sobekhotep III scarab.png
Scarab of Sobekhotep III giving the name of his father Mentuhotep.

The family of the king is known from several sources. A monument from Sehel Island shows Sobekhotep with his father Mentuhotep, his mother was Iuhetibu (Yauheyebu), his brothers Seneb and Khakau, and a half-sister called Reniseneb. Reniseneb was a daughter of Iuhetibu and her second husband Dedusobek. [2]

Sehel Island Island in the Nile

Sehel Island is located in the Nile, about 2 miles (3.2 km) southwest of Aswan in southern Egypt. It is a large island, and is roughly halfway between the city and the upstream Aswan Low Dam.

Mentuhotep (gods father) non-royal father of the Ancient Egyptian king Sobekhotep III

Mentuhotep was the non-royal father of the Ancient Egyptian king Sobekhotep III who ruled for about three years in the Thirteenth Dynasty, around 1750 BC. Mentuhotep is mainly known from monuments of his son while he was king. On these monuments appears also his wife Iuhetibu, who was called king's mother. On the monuments relating to Sobekhotep III, Mentuhotep bears the title god's father. The latter title is often given to non-royal fathers of kings. Furthermore, from a high number of scarab seals there is known a military official with the title commander of the ruler's crew. This official had a son with the same title named Sobekhotep. It seems possible that these scarabs belong to the god's father Mentuhotep before his son became king. It is not known under which circumstances Sobekhotep III became king. However, his father Mentuhotep had no known royal connections. Two further sons are known, Seneb and Khakau. They were bearing the title king's son, albeit being evidently not the son of a king, but brothers of one.

Seneb was an Ancient Egyptian living in the Thirteenth Dynasty about 1750 BC. He is known from a number of sources around king Sobekhotep III, who was his brother. The father of Seneb was the god's father Mentuhotep, his mother was the king's mother called Iuhetibu. Seneb bears the title king's son, although he was not the son of a king. In the Thirteenth Dynasty the title king's son was often used as title of honor and did not automatically mean that the title bearer was the son of a king. From a stela now in Vienna Seneb's own family is known. Her wife was called Nebtit. One son was the elder of the hall Sobekhotep. A sister was the lady of the house Iuhetibu, and another brother was the trainer of the dogs Mentuhotep. The latter two children were evidently named after their grandparents. Another daughter was called Henut.

Sobekhotep III had two wives, Senebhenas and Neni. A stela from Koptos (Qift), [3] now in the Louvre (C 8), mentions the daughters of Nenni: Iuhetibu (Fendy) and Dedetanqet. Iuhetibu Fendy wrote her name in a cartouche. [2] This is the second time in Egyptian history that a king's daughter received this honor.

Senebhenas ancient Egyptian queen consort

Senebhenas(snb-ḥnˁ=s, "Health is with her") was the wife and queen consort of the Ancient Egyptian king Sobekhotep III, who reigned in the 13th Dynasty, about 1750 BC. The queen is mainly known from a rock stela in the Wadi el-Hol. Here she bears a long title string, including the titles lady of all lands, king's wife and united with the white crown. There she is shown standing behind the king's mother Jewhetibew, indicating that she was the main wife of the king, as a second wife with the name Neni is also known and shown behind here.

Neni was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the Thirteenth Dynasty. She was the wife of king Sobekhotep III and the mother of two of his daughters: Iuhetibu Fendy and Dedetanqet. The only title attested for Neni is king's wife, the regular title of queens of this period. Not much else is known about her. There is a stela set up by her steward attesting that Neni had her own estates.

Louvre Art museum and Historic site in Paris, France

The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. Approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum, receiving 10.2 million visitors.

Senebhenas is shown with Sobekhotep on an altar in Sehel Island and a stela in Wadi el-Hol. [3] The stela depicts Sobekhotep III before the god Monthu. He receives an ankh and a was-scepter from the god. Sobekhotep is followed by his father Montuhotep, his mother Iuhetibu, and his wife Senebhenas. [2]

Montu was a falcon-god of war in ancient Egyptian religion, an embodiment of the conquering vitality of the pharaoh. He was particularly worshipped in Upper Egypt and in the district of Thebes, despite being a Delta-native, astral deity.

[Ramesses II] whom victory was foretold as he came from the womb,
Whom valor was given while in the egg,
Bull firm of heart as he treads the arena,
Godly king going forth like Montu on victory day.

Ankh ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol

The ankh is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol that was most commonly used in writing and in Egyptian art to represent the word for "life" and, by extension, as a symbol of life itself.

Reign

Sobekhotep III is known from many objects [4] [5] despite the fact that the Turin King List gives him a reign of only four years [6] and two to four months in length. He added inscriptions to the temple of Menthu at Madamud [7] and built a chapel at El Kab. [8] On Sehel [9] an altar with his name was found.

Medamud Village in Luxor Governorate, Egypt

Medamud was a settlement in Ancient Egypt. Its present-day territory is located about 8 km east-north from Luxor.

El Kab Archaeological site

El Kab is an Upper Egyptian site on the east bank of the Nile at the mouth of the Wadi Hillal about 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Luxor. El Kab was called Nekheb in the Egyptian language, a name that refers to Nekhbet, the goddess depicted as a white vulture. In Greek it was called Eileithyias polis, "city of the goddess Eileithyia".

A number of scarab seals have been found that were from an officier of the ruler's table Sobekhotep begotten of the officier of the ruler's table Mentuhotep. [10] It is possible that these seals belonged to Sobekhotep III before he became king.

Sobekhotep III was the first of a group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings about whom there exists historical records. This group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings are all known from many objects. These kings produced many seals and there are many private monuments that can be dated to these reigns. This would seem to indicate that Egypt was relatively stable during this period.

See also

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References

  1. Flinders Petrie: A history of Egypt from the earliest times to the 16th dynasty (1897), available copyright free here
  2. 1 2 3 M. F. Laming Macadam, A Royal Family of the Thirteenth Dynasty, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 37 (Dec., 1951), pp. 20-28
  3. 1 2 Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN   0-500-05128-3
  4. A scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  5. Another scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  6. Following Ryholt: ''The Political Situation, p. 71. However, the four is partly destroyed; year 3 is also possible
  7. F. Bisson de la Roque, J. J. Clère, Fouilles de Médamoud (1927), Cairo 1928, p. 44; Porter & Moss V (1937), p. 146-49
  8. Ryholt, The Political Situation, p. 344
  9. M.F.L. Macadams: Gleanings from the Bankes MSSIn: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 32 (1946), 60, pl. VIII; H.A. Wild: A Bas-Relief of SekhemRe-Sewadjtowe Sebkhotpe In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 37 (1951), p. 12-16
  10. G.T. Martin, Egyptian Administrative and Private Name Seals Oxford 1971, n. 575-588

Bibliography

Preceded by
Seth Meribre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferhotep I