Sobekhotep III

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Sobekhotep III (throne name: Sekhemre-sewadjtawy) was an Egyptian king of the 13th dynasty who reigned 3 to 4 years, c. 1740 BC or 1700 BC.

Contents

Family

Parents and Siblings

Scarab of Sobekhotep III giving the name of his father, god's father Mentuhotep. Sobekhotep III scarab.png
Scarab of Sobekhotep III giving the name of his father, god's father Mentuhotep.

The family of the king is known from several sources. A monument from Sehel Island shows Sobekhotep with his father Mentuhotep, his mother was king's mother Iuhetibu (Yauheyebu), his brothers Seneb and Khakau, and a half-sister called Reniseneb. Reniseneb was a daughter of Iuhetibu and her second husband Dedusobek. [2]

Wife and Children

Sobekhotep III had two wives, Senebhenas and Neni. A stela from Koptos (Qift), [3] now in the Louvre (C 8), mentions the daughters of Nenni: Iuhetibu (Fendy) and Dedetanqet. Iuhetibu Fendy wrote her name in a cartouche. [2] This is the second time in Egyptian history that a king's daughter received this honor.

Senebhenas is shown with Sobekhotep on an altar in Sehel Island and a stela in Wadi el-Hol. [3] The stela depicts Sobekhotep III before the god Monthu. He receives an ankh and a was-scepter from the god. Sobekhotep is followed by his father Montuhotep, his mother Iuhetibu, and his wife Senebhenas. [2]

Reign

Sobekhotep III is known from many objects [4] [5] despite the fact that the Turin King List gives him a reign of only four years [6] and two to four months in length. He added inscriptions to the temple of Menthu at Madamud [7] and built a chapel at El Kab. [8] On Sehel [9] an altar with his name was found.

A number of scarab seals have been found that were from an officier of the ruler's table Sobekhotep begotten of the officier of the ruler's table Mentuhotep. [10] It is possible that these seals belonged to Sobekhotep III before he became king.

Sobekhotep III was the first of a group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings about whom there exists historical records. This group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings are all known from many objects. These kings produced many seals and there are many private monuments that can be dated to these reigns. This would seem to indicate that Egypt was relatively stable during this period.

See also

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Iuhetibu Fendy Ancient Egyptian princess

IuhetibuFendy was an Ancient Egyptian princess of the Thirteenth Dynasty. She was the daughter of king Sobekhotep III and of queen Neni. Iuhetibu Fendy is known from two sources. She appears on a rock-cut stela in the Wadi el-Hol and she appears on a stela from Abydos now in the Louvre in Paris (C8). On the stela she is shown together with her sister Dedetanqet in front of the fertility god Min. Her two names are written within a cartouche, a privilege that was given in this time very rarely to royal women and points to a special status of Iuhetibu Fendy. Iuhetibu Fendy bears a double name. The first name Iuhetibu was also the name of Iuhetibu Fendy's grandmother. Naming children after grandparents was not uncommon in Ancient Egypt. Fendy is a nickname meaning "nose".

Neni was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the Thirteenth Dynasty. She was the wife of king Sobekhotep III and the mother of two of his daughters: Iuhetibu Fendy and Dedetanqet. The only title attested for Neni is king's wife, the regular title of queens of this period. Not much else is known about her. There is a stela set up by her steward attesting that Neni had her own estates.

Mentuhotep (gods father) non-royal father of the Ancient Egyptian king Sobekhotep III

Mentuhotep was the non-royal father of the Ancient Egyptian king Sobekhotep III who ruled for about three years in the Thirteenth Dynasty, around 1750 BC. Mentuhotep is mainly known from monuments of his son while he was king. On these monuments appears also his wife Iuhetibu, who was called king's mother. On the monuments relating to Sobekhotep III, Mentuhotep bears the title god's father. The latter title is often given to non-royal fathers of kings. Furthermore, from a high number of scarab seals there is known a military official with the title commander of the ruler's crew. This official had a son with the same title named Sobekhotep. It seems possible that these scarabs belong to the god's father Mentuhotep before his son became king. It is not known under which circumstances Sobekhotep III became king. However, his father Mentuhotep had no known royal connections. Two further sons are known, Seneb and Khakau. They were bearing the title king's son, albeit being evidently not the son of a king, but brothers of one.

Seneb was an Ancient Egyptian living in the Thirteenth Dynasty about 1750 BC. He is known from a number of sources around king Sobekhotep III, who was his brother. The father of Seneb was the god's father Mentuhotep, his mother was the king's mother called Iuhetibu. Seneb bears the title king's son, although he was not the son of a king. In the Thirteenth Dynasty the title king's son was often used as title of honor and did not automatically mean that the title bearer was the son of a king. From a stela now in Vienna Seneb's own family is known. Her wife was called Nebtit. One son was the elder of the hall Sobekhotep. A sister was the lady of the house Iuhetibu, and another brother was the trainer of the dogs Mentuhotep. The latter two children were evidently named after their grandparents. Another daughter was called Henut.

Khakau {xa kAw; also Khakaw} was a king's son in the Thirteenth Dynasty. He was the brother of king Sobekhotep III and part of a powerful family taking power in a time of political turmoil in Upper Egypt.

References

  1. Flinders Petrie: A history of Egypt from the earliest times to the 16th dynasty (1897), available copyright free here
  2. 1 2 3 M. F. Laming Macadam, A Royal Family of the Thirteenth Dynasty, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 37 (Dec., 1951), pp. 20-28
  3. 1 2 Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN   0-500-05128-3
  4. A scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  5. Another scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  6. Following Ryholt: ''The Political Situation, p. 71. However, the four is partly destroyed; year 3 is also possible
  7. F. Bisson de la Roque, J. J. Clère, Fouilles de Médamoud (1927), Cairo 1928, p. 44; Porter & Moss V (1937), p. 146-49
  8. Ryholt, The Political Situation, p. 344
  9. M.F.L. Macadams: Gleanings from the Bankes MSSIn: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 32 (1946), 60, pl. VIII; H.A. Wild: A Bas-Relief of SekhemRe-Sewadjtowe Sebkhotpe In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 37 (1951), p. 12-16
  10. G.T. Martin, Egyptian Administrative and Private Name Seals Oxford 1971, n. 575-588

Bibliography

Preceded by
Seth Meribre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferhotep I