|Reign||3 to 4 years, c. 1740 BC or 1700 BC (13th Dynasty)|
|Children||Iuhetibu Fendy ♀, Dedetanqet ♀|
Sobekhotep III (throne name: Sekhemresewdjtawy) was an Egyptian king of the 13th dynasty who reigned 3 to 4 years, c. 1740 BC or 1700 BC.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
The family of the king is known from several sources. A monument from Sehel Island shows Sobekhotep with his father Mentuhotep, his mother was Iuhetibu (Yauheyebu), his brothers Seneb and Khakau, and a half-sister called Reniseneb. Reniseneb was a daughter of Iuhetibu and her second husband Dedusobek.
Sehel Island is located in the Nile, about 2 miles (3.2 km) southwest of Aswan in southern Egypt. It is a large island, and is roughly halfway between the city and the upstream Aswan Low Dam.
Mentuhotep was the non-royal father of the Ancient Egyptian king Sobekhotep III who ruled for about three years in the Thirteenth Dynasty, around 1750 BC. Mentuhotep is mainly known from monuments of his son while he was king. On these monuments appears also his wife Iuhetibu, who was called king's mother. On the monuments relating to Sobekhotep III, Mentuhotep bears the title god's father. The latter title is often given to non-royal fathers of kings. Furthermore, from a high number of scarab seals there is known a military official with the title commander of the ruler's crew. This official had a son with the same title named Sobekhotep. It seems possible that these scarabs belong to the god's father Mentuhotep before his son became king. It is not known under which circumstances Sobekhotep III became king. However, his father Mentuhotep had no known royal connections. Two further sons are known, Seneb and Khakau. They were bearing the title king's son, albeit being evidently not the son of a king, but brothers of one.
Seneb was an Ancient Egyptian living in the Thirteenth Dynasty about 1750 BC. He is known from a number of sources around king Sobekhotep III, who was his brother. The father of Seneb was the god's father Mentuhotep, his mother was the king's mother called Iuhetibu. Seneb bears the title king's son, although he was not the son of a king. In the Thirteenth Dynasty the title king's son was often used as title of honor and did not automatically mean that the title bearer was the son of a king. From a stela now in Vienna Seneb's own family is known. Her wife was called Nebtit. One son was the elder of the hall Sobekhotep. A sister was the lady of the house Iuhetibu, and another brother was the trainer of the dogs Mentuhotep. The latter two children were evidently named after their grandparents. Another daughter was called Henut.
Sobekhotep III had two wives, Senebhenas and Neni. A stela from Koptos (Qift),now in the Louvre (C 8), mentions the daughters of Nenni: Iuhetibu (Fendy) and Dedetanqet. Iuhetibu Fendy wrote her name in a cartouche. This is the second time in Egyptian history that a king's daughter received this honor.
Senebhenas(snb-ḥnˁ=s, "Health is with her") was the wife and queen consort of the Ancient Egyptian king Sobekhotep III, who reigned in the 13th Dynasty, about 1750 BC. The queen is mainly known from a rock stela in the Wadi el-Hol. Here she bears a long title string, including the titles lady of all lands, king's wife and united with the white crown. There she is shown standing behind the king's mother Jewhetibew, indicating that she was the main wife of the king, as a second wife with the name Neni is also known and shown behind here.
Neni was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the Thirteenth Dynasty. She was the wife of king Sobekhotep III and the mother of two of his daughters: Iuhetibu Fendy and Dedetanqet. The only title attested for Neni is king's wife, the regular title of queens of this period. Not much else is known about her. There is a stela set up by her steward attesting that Neni had her own estates.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. Approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum, receiving 10.2 million visitors.
Senebhenas is shown with Sobekhotep on an altar in Sehel Island and a stela in Wadi el-Hol.The stela depicts Sobekhotep III before the god Monthu. He receives an ankh and a was-scepter from the god. Sobekhotep is followed by his father Montuhotep, his mother Iuhetibu, and his wife Senebhenas.
Montu was a falcon-god of war in ancient Egyptian religion, an embodiment of the conquering vitality of the pharaoh. He was particularly worshipped in Upper Egypt and in the district of Thebes, despite being a Delta-native, astral deity.
[Ramesses II] whom victory was foretold as he came from the womb,
Whom valor was given while in the egg,
Bull firm of heart as he treads the arena,
Godly king going forth like Montu on victory day.
The ankh is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol that was most commonly used in writing and in Egyptian art to represent the word for "life" and, by extension, as a symbol of life itself.
Sobekhotep III is known from many objectsdespite the fact that the Turin King List gives him a reign of only four years and two to four months in length. He added inscriptions to the temple of Menthu at Madamud and built a chapel at El Kab. On Sehel an altar with his name was found.
Medamud was a settlement in Ancient Egypt. Its present-day territory is located about 8 km east-north from Luxor.
El Kab is an Upper Egyptian site on the east bank of the Nile at the mouth of the Wadi Hillal about 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Luxor. El Kab was called Nekheb in the Egyptian language, a name that refers to Nekhbet, the goddess depicted as a white vulture. In Greek it was called Eileithyias polis, "city of the goddess Eileithyia".
A number of scarab seals have been found that were from an officier of the ruler's table Sobekhotep begotten of the officier of the ruler's table Mentuhotep.It is possible that these seals belonged to Sobekhotep III before he became king.
Sobekhotep III was the first of a group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings about whom there exists historical records. This group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings are all known from many objects. These kings produced many seals and there are many private monuments that can be dated to these reigns. This would seem to indicate that Egypt was relatively stable during this period.
Userkare Khendjer was the twenty-first pharaoh of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Khendjer possibly reigned for 4 to 5 years, archaeological attestations show that he was on the throne for at least 3 or 4 years 3 months and 5 days. Several absolute dates have been proposed for his reign, depending on the scholar: 1764—1759 BC as proposed by Ryholt and Baker, 1756—1751 BC as reported by Redford, and 1718—1712 BC as per Schneider. Khendjer had a small pyramid built for himself in Saqqara and it is therefore likely that his capital was in Memphis.
The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I was an Egyptian pharaoh of the mid Thirteenth Dynasty ruling in the second half of the 18th century BC during a time referred to as the late Middle Kingdom or early Second Intermediate Period, depending on the scholar. One of the best attested rulers of the 13th Dynasty, Neferhotep I reigned for 11 years.
Khutawyre Wegaf was a pharaoh of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt who is known from several sources, including a stele and statues. There is a general known from a scarab with the same name who is perhaps identical with this king.
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned at least eight years. His brothers, Neferhotep I and Sihathor, were his predecessors on the throne, the latter having only ruled as coregent for a few months.
Merhotepre Sobekhotep was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirtieth pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its twenty-ninth ruler. In older studies, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke identified Merhotepre Sobekhotep with Merhotepre Ini, thereby making him Sobekhotep VI and the twenty-eighth ruler of the 13th dynasty.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period, who reigned for at least three years c. 1800 BC. His chronological position is much debated, Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep being either the founder of the dynasty, in which case he is called Sobekhotep I, or its twentieth ruler, in which case he is called Sobekhotep II. In his 1997 study of the Second Intermediate Period, the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt makes a strong case for Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep as the founder of the dynasty, a hypothesis that is now dominant in Egyptology. His tomb was believed to have been discovered in Abydos in 2013, but its attribution is now questioned.
Seuserenre Khyan, Khian or Khayan was a king of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt. His royal name Seuserenre translates as "The one whom Re has caused to be strong." Khyan bears the titles of an Egyptian king, but also the title ruler of the foreign land (heqa-khaset). The later title is the typical designation of the Hyksos rulers.
Maaibre Sheshi was a ruler of areas of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. The dynasty, chronological position, duration and extent of his reign are uncertain and subject to ongoing debate. The difficulty of identification is mirrored by problems in determining events from the end of the Middle Kingdom to the arrival of the Hyksos in Egypt. Nonetheless, Sheshi is, in terms of the number of artifacts attributed to him, the best-attested king of the period spanning the end of the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate period; roughly from c. 1800 BC until 1550 BC. Hundreds of scaraboid seals bearing his name have been found throughout Canaan, Egypt, Nubia, and as far away as Carthage, where some were still in use 1500 years after his death.
Merhotepre Ini was the successor of Merneferre Ay, possibly his son, and the thirty-third king of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is assigned a brief reign of 2 Years, 3 or 4 Months and 9 days in the Turin Canon and lived during the early 17th century BC.
Sekhemre Seusertawy Sobekhotep VIII was possibly the third king of the 16th Dynasty of Egypt reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Alternatively, he may be a ruler of the 13th or 17th Dynasty. If he was a king of the 16th Dynasty, Sobekhotep VIII would be credited 16 years of reign by the Turin canon, starting c. 1650 BC, at the time of the Hyksos invasion of Egypt.
Sekhemre Sankhtawy Neferhotep III Iykhernofret was the third or fourth ruler of the Theban 16th Dynasty, reigning after Sobekhotep VIII according to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker. He is assigned a reign of 1 year in the Turin Canon and is known primarily by a single stela from Thebes. In an older study, Von Beckerath dated Neferhotep III to the end of the 13th Dynasty.
Sobekhotep or Sebekhotep is an ancient Egyptian name meaning “Sobek is pleased”, which was common during the Second Intermediate Period. Notable bearers include:
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirty-first pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its thirtieth ruler. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the twenty-fifth king of the dynasty.
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the fragmented Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the fifth king of the 16th Dynasty reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifth king of the 17th Dynasty.
Merkawre Sobekhotep was the thirty-seventh pharaoh of the 13th dynasty during the second intermediate period. He probably reigned over Middle and perhaps Upper Egypt during the mid-17th century BC from 1664 BC until 1663 BC. Alternatively, the German Egyptologist Thomas Schneider dates this short-lived king's reign from 1646 BC to 1644 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor was an ephemeral ruler of the 13th dynasty during the late Middle Kingdom. Sihathor may never have enjoyed an independent reign, possibly only ruling for a few months as a coregent with his brother Neferhotep I. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Sihathor died in 1733 BC while Detlef Franke dates his short reign to 1694 BC. His tomb is likely to be the unfinished one located between the tombs of his brothers S9 and S10, in Abydos.
IuhetibuFendy was an Ancient Egyptian princess of the Thirteenth Dynasty. She was the daughter of king Sobekhotep III and of queen Neni. Iuhetibu Fendy is known from two sources. She appears on a rock-cut stela in the Wadi el-Hol and she appears on a stela from Abydos now in the Louvre in Paris (C8). On the stela she is shown together with her sister Dedetanqet in front of the fertility god Min. Her two names are written within a cartouche, a privilege that was given in this time very rarely to royal women and points to a special status of Iuhetibu Fendy. Iuhetibu Fendy bears a double name. The first name Iuhetibu was also the name of Iuhetibu Fendy's grandmother. Naming children after grandparents was not uncommon in Ancient Egypt. Fendy is a nickname meaning "nose".
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