Yakbim Sekhaenre

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Sekhaenre Yakbim or Yakbmu [4] was a ruler during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. Although his dynastic and temporal collocation is disputed, Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt believes that he likely was the founder of the Levantine-blooded Fourteenth Dynasty, [1] while in older literature he was mainly considered a member of the Sixteenth Dynasty. [3]

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt period of Ancient Egyptian history

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt was a series of rulers reigning during the Second Intermediate Period over the Nile Delta region of Egypt. It lasted between 75 and 155 years, depending on the scholar. The capital of the dynasty was probably Avaris. The 14th dynasty existed concurrently with the 13th dynasty based in Memphis. The rulers of the 14th dynasty are commonly identified by Egyptologists as being of Canaanite or West Semitic descent, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their kings and princes, like Ipqu, Yakbim, Qareh, or Yaqub-Har. Names in relation with Nubia are also recorded in two cases, king Nehesy and queen Tati.

Contents

Identification

His name never appears inside a cartouche, which was a pharaonic prerogative; nevertheless, on his seals he is usually called "the good god, Sekhaenre" (or simply "Sekhaenre") and "the son of Ra, Yakbim". [3]

Cartouche oval with inscriptions

In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. They came into common use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, but earlier examples date to the mid Second Dynasty on Cylinder Seals of Seth-Peribsen. While the cartouche is usually vertical with a horizontal line, if it makes the name fit better it can be horizontal, with a vertical line at the end . The Ancient Egyptian word for it was shenu, and it was essentially an expanded shen ring. In Demotic, the cartouche was reduced to a pair of brackets and a vertical line.

There is no direct evidence that Yakbim's throne name was Sekhaenre. This theory is based on stylistic features of the seals and was proposed by William Ayres Ward [5] and later elaborated on by Ryholt; [6] Daphna Ben-Tor disputed this identification, pointing out that the seals of the several rulers living during this period are too similar to make such correlations on the basis of mere design features. [4]

Seal (emblem) device or emblem

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects.

William Ayres Ward was an American Egyptologist.

Assuming that Ward was right, Sekhaenre Yakbim is attested by a remarkable 123 seals, second only – for this period – to the 396 of Sheshi. [7] Based on that, Ryholt estimated for him a reign length of around 25 years, in the interval 1805–1780 BCE. [1]

Sheshi Egyptian pharaoh

Maaibre Sheshi was a ruler of areas of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. The dynasty, chronological position, duration and extent of his reign are uncertain and subject to ongoing debate. The difficulty of identification is mirrored by problems in determining events from the end of the Middle Kingdom to the arrival of the Hyksos in Egypt. Nonetheless, Sheshi is, in terms of the number of artifacts attributed to him, the best-attested king of the period spanning the end of the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate period; roughly from c. 1800 BC until 1550 BC. Hundreds of scaraboid seals bearing his name have been found throughout Canaan, Egypt, Nubia, and as far away as Carthage, where some were still in use 1500 years after his death.

Israeli Egyptologist Raphael Giveon identified Yakbim with another ruler of the same period, Ya'ammu Nubwoserre, while Jürgen von Beckerath equated Yakbim with Salitis, the Manethonian founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty. [3]

Yaammu Nubwoserre Egyptian pharaoh

Nubwoserre Ya'ammu was a ruler during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.
This Asiatic-blooded ruler is traditionally placed in the 16th Dynasty, an hypothesis still in use nowadays by scholars such as Jürgen von Beckerath; although recently Kim Ryholt proposed him as the second ruler of the 14th Dynasty.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

In the Manethonian tradition, Salitis was the first Hyksos king, the one who subdued and ruled Lower Egypt and founded the 15th Dynasty.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Ryholt (1997) , p. 409
  2. Ryholt (1997), p. 96
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Sekhaenre Yakbim on Egyphica.net
  4. 1 2 Ben-Tor (2010) , pp. 99ff
  5. Ward (1984) , pp. 163ff
  6. Ryholt (1997) , pp. 41-47
  7. Ryholt (1997) , p. 199

Bibliography

  • Ben-Tor, D. (2010). "Sequences and chronology of Second Intermediate Period royal-name scarabs, based on excavated series from Egypt and the Levant". In Marcel Marée. The Second Intermediate Period (Thirteenth–Seventeenth Dynasties): Current Research, Future Prospects. Orientalia Lovaniensa Analecta. 192. Leuven: Peeters. pp. 91–108. ISBN   9789042922280. 
  • Ryholt, K. S. B. (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 BC. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN   87-7289-421-0. 
  • Ward, W. A. (1984). "Royal-name scarabs". In Olga Tufnell. Scarab Seals and their Contribution to History in the Early Second Millennium B.C. Studies on Scarab Seals. 2. Warminster: Aris & Phillips. pp. 151–192. ISBN   9780856681301. 
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Museum Tusculanum Press Danish publisher

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