Merhotepre Sobekhotep

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Merhotepre Sobekhotep (also known as Sobekhotep V; Sobekhotep VI in older studies) was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirtieth pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its twenty-ninth ruler. [1] [2] In older studies, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke identified Merhotepre Sobekhotep with Merhotepre Ini, thereby making him Sobekhotep VI and the twenty-eighth ruler of the 13th dynasty. [3] [4] [5]

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Contents

Identity

The identity of Merhotepre Sobekhotep is debatable because his name is missing from the Turin canon, a king list redacted in the early Ramesside period. According to Kim Ryholt, Merhotepre Sobekhotep is missing from the list because he was listed in the line below that of Sobekhotep IV. This line was lost in a lacuna of the papyrus. [6] That this king must have ruled during the 13th dynasty however is uncontested since a seated statue of the king bearing his cartouche has been found and is now located in the Cairo Museum. While Franke and von Beckerath identified Merhotepre Sobekhotep with Merhotepre Ini, on the basis that they have the same prenomen, Ryholt showed in 1997 that he was listed in the lacuna below Sobekhotep IV. Furthermore, Ryholt points to the many rulers of the period who shared prenomen and yet were not the same person. Ryholt thus sees him as a separate ruler from Merhotepre Ini and credits him a reign of approximately 3 years. [7]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Sobekhotep IV Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty

Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned at least eight years. His brothers, Neferhotep I and Sihathor, were his predecessors on the throne, the latter having only ruled as coregent for a few months.

Chronological position

Merhotepre Sobekhotep's position following the reign of Sobekhotep IV is strongly suggested by the fact that five 13th dynasty pharaohs are attested by genealogical seals which mention their parents. Four of these pharaohs are known to have been Sobekhotep III, Neferhotep I and his two brothers Sihathor, and Sobekhotep IV. [8] But two genealogical seals bear name of the ruler's mother as "The king's Mother Nubhotepti" and the king as "Sobekhotep". [8] However, Sobekhotep III's mother was Jewhetibew whereas Neferhotep I, Sihathor and Sobekhotep IV were the sons of "The King's Mother Kemi". [9] This means that there was a different king named Sobekhotep who used genealogical seals in his lifetime. A further seal impression found at Tukh apparently mentions the father of this unknown king and while it is broken, and the father's name is unreadable, "it is clear from the traces that it was neither Monthhotep [Sobekhotep III's father] or Haankhef [Neferhotep I, Sihathor and Sobekhotep IV's father]". [8] This seal impression is likely, therefore, to have been made by the paternal counterpart to the seal naming Nubhotepti. Since the seal impression bears a prenomen that appears to read mr-[...]-r' , Ryholt argues that we are dealing "with a king whose nomen was Sobekhotep and whose prenomen was constructed on the form mr-X-rˁ" such as Merhotepre or Merkawre Sobekhotep. [10]

Sobekhotep III Egyptian pharaoh

Sobekhotep III was an Egyptian king of the 13th dynasty who reigned 3 to 4 years, c. 1740 BC or 1700 BC.

Neferhotep I Egyptian pharaoh

Khasekhemre Neferhotep I was an Egyptian pharaoh of the mid Thirteenth Dynasty ruling in the second half of the 18th century BC during a time referred to as the late Middle Kingdom or early Second Intermediate Period, depending on the scholar. One of the best attested rulers of the 13th Dynasty, Neferhotep I reigned for 11 years.

Sihathor Egyptian pharaoh

Menwadjre Sihathor was an ephemeral ruler of the 13th dynasty during the late Middle Kingdom. Sihathor may never have enjoyed an independent reign, possibly only ruling for a few months as a coregent with his brother Neferhotep I. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Sihathor died in 1733 BC while Detlef Franke dates his short reign to 1694 BC. His tomb is likely to be the unfinished one located between the tombs of his brothers S9 and S10, in Abydos.

Ryholt notes, furthermore, that during the 13th dynasty, royal genealogical seals were in use only during the period of the four identified kings, which succeeded each other on the throne: Sobekhotep III-Neferhotep I-Sihathor-Sobekhotep IV. Since during the 30+ years that followed in the reigns of Khahotepre Sobekhotep, Wahibre Ibiau and Merneferre Ay, no genealogical seals are attested for these three kings, it is safe to assume that "it had thus positively gone out of use by their reigns". Thus, Merkawre Sobekhotep would not have used it in his reign since he was the ninth successor of Sobekhotep IV. [11] The 30-year gap also excludes the reigns of other intervening kings from the death of Sobekhotep IV and the accession of Merkawre Sobekhotep such as Sewadjkare Hori who ruled Egypt for 5 years as per the Turin canon. Therefore, king Merhotepre Sobekhotep, who is also attested by a statue from the Cairo Museum, would be the only candidate remaining to be the immediate successor of Sobekhotep IV and predecessor of Khahotepre Sobekhotep. Merhotepre Sobekhotep employed genealogical seals and his name was lost in a lacuna at the bottom of a column of the Turin canon. [11] The successor of Merhotepre Sobekhotep, Khahotepre Sobekhotep, whose reign is mentioned on the Turin canon, also has a prenomen which is similar in style since it is built on an X-htp-rˁ formula, further confirming that both reigned in close succession.

Wahibre Ibiau Egyptian pharaoh

Wahibre Ibiau was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned c. 1670 BC for 10 years 8 months and 29 days according to the Turin King List.

Merneferre Ay Egyptian pharaoh

Merneferre Ay was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the mid 13th Dynasty. The longest reigning pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty, he ruled a likely fragmented Egypt for over 23 years in the early to mid 17th century BC. A pyramidion bearing his name shows that he possibly completed a pyramid, probably located in the necropolis of Memphis.

See also

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References

  1. K. S. B. Ryholt, The political situation in Egypt during the second intermediate period, c. 1800–1550 B.C. Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, pp 37, 233
  2. Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008
  3. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46, Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  5. Thomas Schneider: Ancient Egyptian Chronology - Edited by Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, And David A. Warburton, available online, see p. 176
  6. Kim S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997), pp.22-23
  7. Ryholt, p.197
  8. 1 2 3 Ryholt, p.231
  9. Ryholt, pp.225 & 231
  10. Ryholt, pp.231-232
  11. 1 2 Ryholt, p.232