Monument

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The Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, and US Capitol. Harvest Moon rises over Washington.jpg
The Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, and US Capitol.
The Great Pyramid of Giza built almost 5000 years ago as pharaoh's tomb, one of the Seven Wonders and enduring symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization since antiquity. Kheops-Pyramid.jpg
The Great Pyramid of Giza built almost 5000 years ago as pharaoh's tomb, one of the Seven Wonders and enduring symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization since antiquity.
The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, the Athenian democracy, as well as the symbol of Western Civilization. Parthenon Athens.jpg
The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, the Athenian democracy, as well as the symbol of Western Civilization.
The Colosseum Flavian amphitheatre in Rome, a popular monument of the Roman Empire. Colosseum in Rome, Italy - April 2007.jpg
The Colosseum Flavian amphitheatre in Rome, a popular monument of the Roman Empire.
The Great Wall of China, a massive fortification structure that became the monument of Chinese civilization. P1090119 Chiny.JPG
The Great Wall of China, a massive fortification structure that became the monument of Chinese civilization.
The Dome of the Rock, a shrine on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, covering the Foundation Stone which bears great significance for Jews, Christians and Muslims. qb@ lSkhr@ 4.jpg
The Dome of the Rock, a shrine on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, covering the Foundation Stone which bears great significance for Jews, Christians and Muslims.
The Christ the King, in Almada, Portugal, has become one of the most visited national monuments. Cristo Rei (36211699613).jpg
The Christ the King, in Almada, Portugal, has become one of the most visited national monuments.
The Taj Mahal in Agra, one of the most well known National Monuments in India Agra-08-Tadsch Mahal-Anlagen-1976-gje.jpg
The Taj Mahal in Agra, one of the most well known National Monuments in India

A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance. Examples of monuments include statues, (war) memorials, historical buildings, archaeological sites, and cultural assets. If there is a public interest in its preservation, a monument can for example be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [1]

Structure arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in an object or system, or the object or system so organized

Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms, minerals and chemicals. Abstract structures include data structures in computer science and musical form. Types of structure include a hierarchy, a network featuring many-to-many links, or a lattice featuring connections between components that are neighbors in space.

Contents

Etymology

The origin of the word "monument" comes from the Greek mnemosynon and the Latin moneo, monere, which means 'to remind', 'to advise' or 'to warn', [2] suggesting a monument allows us to see the past thus helping us visualize what is to come in the future. [3] In English the word "monumental" is often used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power, as in monumental sculpture, but also to mean simply anything made to commemorate the dead, as a funerary monument or other example of funerary art.

English language West Germanic language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.

Monumental sculpture large sculpture

In contemporary art, monumental sculpture is large sculpture regardless of purpose, carrying a sense of permanent, solid, objects, rather than the temporary or fragile assemblages used in much contemporary sculpture. In ancient and medieval sculpture, size is normally taken as the criterion for definition, although smaller architectural sculptures may also be labelled monumental sculpture. In the Early Modern period a specific funerary function may be attributed to monumental sculpture.

Funerary art Art associated with a repository for the remains of the dead

Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead. The term encompasses a wide variety of forms, including cenotaphs, tomb-like monuments which do not contain human remains, and communal memorials to the dead, such as war memorials, which may or may not contain remains, and a range of prehistoric megalithic constructs. Funerary art may serve many cultural functions. It can play a role in burial rites, serve as an article for use by the dead in the afterlife, and celebrate the life and accomplishments of the dead, whether as part of kinship-centred practices of ancestor veneration or as a publicly directed dynastic display. It can also function as a reminder of the mortality of humankind, as an expression of cultural values and roles, and help to propitiate the spirits of the dead, maintaining their benevolence and preventing their unwelcome intrusion into the lives of the living.

Creation and functions

Monuments have been created for thousands of years, and they are often the most durable and famous symbols of ancient civilizations. Prehistoric tumuli, dolmens, and similar structures have been created in a large number of prehistoric cultures across the world, and the many forms of monumental tombs of the more wealthy and powerful members of a society are often the source of much of our information and art from those cultures. [4] As societies became organized on a larger scale, so monuments so large as to be difficult to destroy like the Egyptian Pyramids, the Greek Parthenon, the Great Wall of China, Indian Taj Mahal or the Moai of Easter Island have become symbols of their civilizations. In more recent times, monumental structures such as the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower have become iconic emblems of modern nation-states. The term monumentality relates to the symbolic status and physical presence of a monument. In this context, German art historian Helmut Scharf states that “A monument exists in the form of an object and also as symbol thereof. As a language symbol, a monument usually refers to something concrete, in some rare cases it is also used metaphorically [...]. A monument can be a language symbol for a unity of several monuments [...] or only for a single one, but in a broader sense it can also be used in nearly all knowable planes of being. [...] What is considered a monument always depends on the importance it attributes to the prevailing or traditional consciousness of a specific historical and social situation.”

Dolmen Type of single-chamber megalithic tomb

A dolmen or cromlech is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between the cap and supporting stones to achieve a level appearance. In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pyramid structure whose shape is roughly that of a pyramid in the geometric sense

A pyramid is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or of any polygon shape. As such, a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces. The square pyramid, with a square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.

Basically, the definition framework of the term monument depends on the current historical frame conditions. Aspects of the Culture of Remembrance and cultural memory are also linked to it, as well as questions about the concepts of public sphere and durability (of the one memorized) and the form and content of the monument (work-like monument). From an art historical point of view, the dichotomy of content and form opens up the problem of the “linguistic ability” of the monument. It becomes clear that language is an eminent part of a monument and it is often represented in “non-objective” or “architectural monuments”, at least with a plaque. In this connection, the debate touches on the social mechanisms that combine with Remembrance. These are acceptance of the monument as an object, the conveyed contents and the impact of these contents.

Monuments are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Planned cities such as Washington D.C., New Delhi and Brasília are often built around monuments. For example, the Washington Monument's location was conceived by L'Enfant to help organize public space in the city, before it was designed or constructed. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are already important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one. As Shelley suggested in his famous poem "Ozymandias" ("Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"), the purpose of monuments is very often to impress or awe.

New Delhi Capital City / District in Delhi, India

New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.

Brasília Federal capital in Central-West, Brazil

Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region. It was founded on April 21, 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's 3rd most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, Brasília has the highest GDP per capita.

Washington Monument obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States. Located almost due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial, the monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world's tallest predominantly stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 554 feet 7 1132 inches (169.046 m) tall according to the National Geodetic Survey or 555 feet 5 18 inches (169.294 m) tall according to the National Park Service. It is the tallest monumental column in the world if all are measured above their pedestrian entrances. It was the tallest structure in the world from 1884 to 1889, when it was overtaken by the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

Structures created for others purposes that have been made notable by their age, size or historic significance may also be regarded as monuments. This can happen because of great age and size, as in the case of the Great Wall of China, or because an event of great importance occurred there such as the village of Oradour-sur-Glane in France. Many countries use Ancient monument or similar terms for the official designation of protected structures or archeological sites which may originally have been ordinary domestic houses or other buildings.

Great Wall of China wall along the historical northern borders of China

The Great Wall of China is the collective name of a series of fortification systems generally built across the historical northern borders of China to protect and consolidate territories of Chinese states and empires against various nomadic groups of the steppe and their polities. Several walls were being built from as early as the 7th century BC by ancient Chinese states; selective stretches were later joined together by Qin Shi Huang (220–206 BC), the first Emperor of China. Little of the Qin wall remains. Later on, many successive dynasties have built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. The most currently well-known of the walls were built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

Oradour-sur-Glane Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Oradour-sur-Glane is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in west-central France, and the name of the main village within the commune.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Monuments are also often designed to convey historical or political information, and they can thus develop an active socio-political potency. They can be used to reinforce the primacy of contemporary political power, such as the column of Trajan or the numerous statues of Lenin in the Soviet Union. They can be used to educate the populace about important events or figures from the past, such as in the renaming of the old General Post Office Building in New York City to the James A. Farley Building (James Farley Post Office), after former Postmaster General James Farley. [5] To fulfill its informative and educative functions a monument needs to be open to the public, which means that its spatial dimension as well as its content can be experienced by the public, and be sustainable. The former may be achieved either by situating the monument in public space or by a public discussion about the it and its meaning, the latter by the materiality of the monument or if its content immediately becomes part of the collective or cultural memory.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

James Farley American businessman and politician

James Aloysius"Jim"Farley was one of the first Irish Catholic politicians in American history to achieve success on a national level. He simultaneously served as chairman of the New York State Democratic Committee, chairman of the Democratic National Committee, and Postmaster General under the first two administrations of President Franklin Roosevelt. A business executive and dignitary and a Knight of Malta, Farley was commonly referred to as a political kingmaker, and he was responsible for Roosevelt's rise to the presidency. Farley was the campaign manager for New York State politician Alfred E. Smith's 1922 gubernatorial campaign and Roosevelt's 1928 and 1930 gubernatorial campaigns as well as Roosevelt's presidential campaigns of 1932 and 1936. Farley predicted large landslides in both, and revolutionized the use of polling data.

The social meanings of monuments are rarely fixed and certain and are frequently 'contested' by different social groups. As an example: whilst the former East German socialist state may have seen the Berlin Wall as a means of 'protection' from the ideological impurity of the west, dissidents and others would often argue that it was symbolic of the inherent repression and paranoia of that state. This contention of meaning is a central theme of modern 'post processual' archaeological discourse.

Protection and preservation

The term is often used to describe any structure that is a significant and legally protected historic work, and many countries have equivalents of what is called in United Kingdom legislation a Scheduled Monument, which often include relatively recent buildings constructed for residential or industrial purposes, with no thought at the time that they would come to be regarded as "monuments".

Until recently, it was customary for archaeologists to study large monuments and pay less attention to the everyday lives of the societies that created them. New ideas about what constitutes the archaeological record have revealed that certain legislative and theoretical approaches to the subject are too focused on earlier definitions of monuments. An example has been the United Kingdom's Scheduled Ancient Monument laws.

Other than municipal or national government that protecting the monuments in their jurisdiction, there are institutions dedicated on the efforts to protect and preserve monuments that considered to possess special natural or cultural significance for the world, such as UNESCO's World Heritage Site programme [6] and World Monuments Fund. [1]

Recently, more and more monuments are being preserved digitally (in 3D models) through organisations as CyArk. [7]

Types

Examples of notable monuments

See also

Related Research Articles

Tomb burial place

A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes. Placing a corpse into a tomb can be called immurement, and is a method of final disposition, as an alternative to for example cremation or burial.

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus One of the seven wonders of the ancient world

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene. Its elevated tomb structure is derived from the tombs of neighbouring Lycia, a territory Mausolus had invaded and annexed circa 460 BC, such as the Nereid Monument.

Cenotaph "empty tomb" or monument erected in honor of a person whose remains are elsewhere

A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.

Triumphal arch monumental structure in the shape of an archway

A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road. In its simplest form a triumphal arch consists of two massive piers connected by an arch, crowned with a flat entablature or attic on which a statue might be mounted or which bears commemorative inscriptions. The main structure is often decorated with carvings, sculpted reliefs, and dedications. More elaborate triumphal arches may have multiple archways.

Altare della Patria monument built in honour of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

The Vittorio Emanuele II Monument, also known as the Vittoriano, Il Vittoriano, or Altare della Patria, is a monument built in honor of Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy. It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill. It's currently managed by the Polo Museale del Lazio, the Italian Ministry of Defense and the Museo Centrale del Risorgimento Italiano.

Rock-cut architecture The creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures by excavating solid rock

Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs. Rock-cut architecture is designed and made by man from the start to finish. In India and China, the terms 'cave' and 'cavern' are often applied to this form of man-made architecture. However, caves and caverns, that began in natural form, are not considered to be 'rock-cut architecture' even if extensively modified. Although rock-cut structures differ from traditionally built structures in many ways, many rock-cut structures are made to replicate the facade or interior of traditional architectural forms. Interiors were usually carved out by starting at the roof of the planned space and then working downward. This technique prevents stones falling on workers below. The three main uses of rock-cut architecture were temples, tombs and cave dwellings.

Marian and Holy Trinity columns

Marian columns are religious monuments depicting Virgin Mary on the top, often built in thanksgiving for the ending of a plague or for some other reason. The purpose of the Holy Trinity columns was usually simply to celebrate the church and the faith, though the plague motif could sometimes play its role in their erection as well. Erecting religious monuments in the form of a column surmounted by a figure or a Christian symbol was a gesture of public faith that flourished in the Catholic countries of Europe especially in the 17th and 18th centuries. Thus they became one of the most visible features of Baroque architecture. This usage also influenced some Eastern Orthodox Baroque architecture.

Congress Column monumental column in Brussels

The Congress Column is a monumental column situated on the Place du Congrès/Congresplein in Brussels, Belgium, which commemorates the creation of the Constitution by the National Congress of 1830–31.

Sydney Cenotaph war memorial in Martin Place, Sydney

The Sydney Cenotaph is a heritage-listed monument located in Martin Place, in the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Bertram Mackennal and built from 1927 to 1929 by Dorman Long & Co. It is also known as Martin Place Memorial and The Cenotaph. It is one of the oldest World War I monuments in central Sydney. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 11 November 2009.

Pakistani architecture is intertwined with the architecture of the broader Indian subcontinent. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, for the first time in the area which encompasses today's Pakistan an advanced urban culture developed with large structural facilities, some of which survive to this day. This was followed by the Gandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from Ancient Greece. These remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila.

Landmark Natural or artificial feature used for navigation

A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances.

Seljuk architecture comprises the building traditions used by the Seljuq dynasty, when it ruled most of the Middle East and Anatolia during the 11th to 13th centuries. After the 11th century, the Seljuks of Rum emerged from the Great Seljuk Empire developing their own architecture, though they were influenced and inspired by the Armenian, Byzantine and Persian architectural traditions.

Cooyar War Memorial

Cooyar War Memorial is a heritage-listed war memorial in Hack Menkins Park, McDougall Street, Cooyar, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. The memorial was unveiled on Saturday 14 July 1923 by Arthur Edward Moore. It was designed and produced by R. C. Ziegler and Son and cost £413/10/0, with funds raised by public subscriptions and revenue raised from entertainments. The memorial comprises two pieces, the pedestal surmounted by a digger statue, on which the names of the 25 fallen are recorded, and a smaller plinth which records the names of the 110 local men who served in World War I. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Goombungee War Memorial

Goombungee War Memorial is a heritage-listed memorial at Hartwig Street, Goombungee, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built in 1920 by R C Ziegler and Son. The architect was Harry Marks. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Boer War Memorial, Gatton

Boer War Memorial is a heritage-listed war memorial at Crescent Street, Gatton, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by William Hodgen and produced by Toowoomba mason William Bruce. It was built in 1908, and was unveiled on 3 August by Governor of Queensland, Lord Chelmsford. The memorial honours four local men who died in or as a result of the war, and is one of only three known Boer War memorials in Queensland. It is also known as the Fallen Soldiers Memorial and the South African War Memorial.

Beaudesert War Memorial

Beaudesert War Memorial is a heritage-listed memorial at William Street, Beaudesert, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1919 to 1921. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Ipswich Railway Workshops War Memorial

Ipswich Railway Workshops War Memorial is a heritage-listed memorial at the North Ipswich Railway Workshops, North Street, North Ipswich, City of Ipswich, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Vincent Price and built in 1919. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Howard War Memorial

Howard War Memorial is a heritage-listed memorial at William Street, Howard, Fraser Coast Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built in 1921. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Architecture of Jordan

The Architecture of Jordan has been subject to vast development specifically in the final years of the twentieth century. Jordan is a small country located in the Middle East. Its location has extreme significance to Christians, Muslims and Jews as it is considered the Holy Land. The traditional architecture in Jordan can be attributed to many factors which have played a pivotal role in shaping Jordanian culture. These factors include the different groups of people who have lived in the land, the mostly arid desert climate and the terrain which is dominated by the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea and the Jordanian Highlands. As a result of increased urbanisation and an open approach to global architectural trends, Jordanian architecture began to neutralise the traditional forms of architecture that dominated the region.

References

  1. 1 2 "Preserving Cultural Heritages". wmf.org. World Monument Fund. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  2. "Monument - definition of". thefreedictionary.com. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  3. John Young Cole; Henry Hope Reed (1997). The Library of Congress: The Art and Architecture of the Thomas Jefferson Building. Norton. p. 16. ISBN   978-0-393-04563-5.
  4. Patton, Mark (1993) Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany. Routledge, London, ISBN   0415067294, pp. 1–7
  5. David Gardner Chardavoyne (2012), United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan: People, Law, and Politics, Wayne State University Press, p. 194
  6. "World Heritage". unesco.org.
  7. CyArk preserving monuments digitally. slashgear.com. October 22, 2013
  8. "Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial". abmc.gov.

Further reading