Lincoln Memorial

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Lincoln Memorial
Aerial view of Lincoln Memorial - east side EDIT.jpeg
(2010)
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LocationWest End of National Mall, Washington, D.C.
Coordinates 38°53′21.4″N77°3′0.5″W / 38.889278°N 77.050139°W / 38.889278; -77.050139 Coordinates: 38°53′21.4″N77°3′0.5″W / 38.889278°N 77.050139°W / 38.889278; -77.050139
Area27,336 square feet (2,539.6 m2)
Built1914–1922
Architect Henry Bacon (architect)
Daniel Chester French (sculptor)
Architectural style Greek Revival [1]
Visitation7,956,117 (2017)
Website Lincoln Memorial
NRHP reference # 66000030 [1]
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966
Future site of the Memorial, c. 1912 West Potomac Park c1912 prior to construction of the Lincoln Memorial.jpg
Future site of the Memorial, c. 1912
President Warren G. Harding speaking at the dedication, 1922 Lincoln Memorial Dedication with President Harding crop.jpg
President Warren G. Harding speaking at the dedication, 1922

The Lincoln Memorial is an American national memorial built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon; the designer of the primary statue – Abraham Lincoln , 1920 – was Daniel Chester French; the Lincoln statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers; [2] and the painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin. Dedicated in May 1922, it is one of several memorials built to honor an American president. It has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has been a symbolic center focused on race relations.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Abraham Lincoln 16th president of the United States

Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman, politician, and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

National Mall national park in Washington, D.C.

The National Mall is a landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the United States National Park System. It is located near the downtown area of Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States, and is administered by the National Park Service (NPS) of the United States Department of the Interior.

Contents

The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address. The memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

Doric order Order of ancient Greek and Roman architecture, with no base to the column, simple capital, and triglyphs on the frieze

The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. The Doric is most easily recognized by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns. Originating in the western Dorian region of Greece, it is the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above.

Abraham Lincolns second inaugural address One of U.S. President Lincolns most famous and acclaimed speeches

Abraham Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address on March 4, 1865, during his second inauguration as President of the United States. At a time when victory over secessionists in the American Civil War was within days and slavery in all of the Union was near an end, Lincoln did not speak of happiness, but of sadness. Some see this speech as a defense of his pragmatic approach to Reconstruction, in which he sought to avoid harsh treatment of the defeated South by reminding his listeners of how wrong both sides had been in imagining what lay before them when the war began four years earlier. Lincoln balanced that rejection of triumphalism, however, with recognition of the unmistakable evil of slavery. The address is inscribed, along with the Gettysburg Address, in the Lincoln Memorial.

Martin Luther King Jr. U.S. civil rights movement leader

Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968. Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi helped inspire.

Like other monuments on the National Mall including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and National World War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. In 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. More than 7 million people visit the memorial annually. [3]

Vietnam Veterans Memorial war memorial in Washington, DC, United States

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a 2-acre U.S. national memorial in Washington, D.C. It honors service members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War, service members who died in service in Vietnam/South East Asia, and those service members who were unaccounted for during the war.

Korean War Veterans Memorial artwork by Frank Gaylord

The Korean War Veterans Memorial is located in Washington, D.C.'s West Potomac Park, southeast of the Lincoln Memorial and just south of the Reflecting Pool on the National Mall. It memorializes those who served in the Korean War.

National Park Service United States federal agency

The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. The NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while also making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment.

History

Chief Justice Taft, President Harding and Robert Todd Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922 Taft-Harding-Lincoln.jpg
Chief Justice Taft, President Harding and Robert Todd Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922

The first public memorial to United States President Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D.C., was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after the Lincoln's assassination. [4] [5] Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincoln's death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument. His plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time, and called for a 70-foot (21 m) structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot (3.7 m) statue of Abraham Lincoln. Subscriptions for the project were insufficient. [6]

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

<i>Abraham Lincoln</i> (Flannery) artwork by Lot Flannery

Abraham Lincoln is a marble sculpture of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln by Irish artist Lot Flannery, located in front of the old District of Columbia City Hall in Washington, D.C., United States. It was installed several blocks from Ford's Theatre, where Lincoln was assassinated. Dedicated in 1868 on the third anniversary of Lincoln's death, dignitaries at the unveiling ceremony included President Andrew Johnson and Generals Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman and Winfield Scott Hancock. The statue has been removed and rededicated twice. The first rededication was in 1923 following an outpouring of support from citizens and a veterans group that the statue be restored. The second rededication took place in 2009 after a three-year remodeling of the old City Hall. The statue is the nation's oldest extant memorial to the president. It previously stood on a column, but now rests on top of an octagonal base.

Lot Flannery American sculptor

Lot Flannery was an Irish-American sculptor from Washington, D.C., best known for his work on the Abraham Lincoln statue, the nation's oldest extant memorial to the assassinated president.

The matter lay dormant until the start of the 20th century, when, under the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills were introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission. The first five bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, and 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill (Senate Bill 9449), introduced on December 13, 1910, passed. The Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and United States President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission's president. Progress continued at a steady pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commission's choice of design and location. [6]

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

Illinois State of the United States of America

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product (GDP), the sixth largest population, and the 25th largest land area of all U.S. states. Illinois has been noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, and natural resources such as coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, and is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population. The Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, and the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports. Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics.

Joseph Gurney Cannon American politician

Joseph Gurney Cannon was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican Party. Cannon served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1903 to 1911, and many consider him to be the most dominant Speaker in United States history, with such control over the House that he could often control debate.

There were questions regarding the commission's plan. Many thought that architect Henry Bacon's Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincoln's humble character. Instead they proposed a simple log cabin shrine. The site too did not go unopposed. The recently reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many to be either too swampy or too inaccessible. Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park location, situated on the Washington MonumentCapitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was ideal. Furthermore, the Potomac Park site had already been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument. [6] [7]

West Potomac Park Urban park

West Potomac Park is a U.S. national park in Washington, D.C., adjacent to the National Mall. It includes the parkland that extends south of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, from the Lincoln Memorial to the grounds of the Washington Monument. The park is the site of many national landmarks, including the Korean War Veterans Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, and the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial.

Washington Monument obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States. Located almost due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial, the monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world's tallest predominantly stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 554 feet 7 1132 inches (169.046 m) tall according to the National Geodetic Survey or 555 feet 5 18 inches (169.294 m) tall according to the National Park Service. It is the tallest monumental column in the world if all are measured above their pedestrian entrances. It was the tallest structure in the world from 1884 to 1889, when it was overtaken by the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

United States Capitol seat of the United States Congress

The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants.

With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and the following month the actual construction began. Work progressed steadily according to schedule. Some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln, originally designed to be 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, was enlarged to 19 feet (5.8 m) to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber. As late as 1920, the decision was made to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille which was to have guarded the entrance. Despite these changes, the Memorial was finished on schedule. Commission president William H. Taft – who was then Chief Justice of the United States – dedicated the Memorial on May 30, 1922, and presented it to United States President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American people. Lincoln's only surviving son, 78-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance. [8]

The Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. [9]

Exterior

The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and features Yule marble quarried from Colorado. The structure measures 189.7 by 118.5 feet (57.8 by 36.1 m) and is 99 feet (30 m) tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, one for each of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death, and two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade. The columns stand 44 feet (13 m) tall with a base diameter of 7.5 feet (2.3 m). Each column is built from 12 drums including the capital. The columns, like the exterior walls and facades, are inclined slightly toward the building's interior. This is to compensate for perspective distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the top when compared with the bottom, a common feature of Ancient Greek architecture. [10]

Detail of the Memorial's friezes Lincoln Memorial Friezes crop.jpg
Detail of the Memorial's friezes

Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death and the dates in which they entered the Union. [Note 1] Their names are separated by double wreath medallions in bas-relief. The cornice is composed of a carved scroll regularly interspersed with projecting lions' heads and ornamented with palmetto cresting along the upper edge. Above this on the attic frieze are inscribed the names of the 48 states present at the time of the Memorial's dedication. A bit higher is a garland joined by ribbons and palm leaves, supported by the wings of eagles. All ornamentation on the friezes and cornices was done by Ernest C. Bairstow. [10]

The Memorial is anchored in a concrete foundation, 44 to 66 feet (13 to 20 m) in depth, constructed by M. F. Comer and Company and the National Foundation and Engineering Company, and is encompassed by a 187-by-257-foot (57 by 78 m) rectangular granite retaining wall measuring 14 feet (4.3 m) in height. [10]

Leading up to the shrine on the east side are the main steps. Beginning at the edge of the Reflecting Pool, the steps rise to the Lincoln Memorial Circle roadway surrounding the edifice, then to the main portal, intermittently spaced with a series of platforms. Flanking the steps as they approach the entrance are two buttresses each crowned with an 11-foot (3.4 m) tall tripod carved from pink Tennessee marble [10] by the Piccirilli Brothers. [11]

Interior

President Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, and former Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton walk past the statue of President Abraham Lincoln to participate in the ceremony on the 50th anniversary of the historic March on Washington and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech Lincoln Memorial, "I Have a Dream" 50th anniversary.jpg
President Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, and former Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton walk past the statue of President Abraham Lincoln to participate in the ceremony on the 50th anniversary of the historic March on Washington and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech

The Memorial's interior is divided into three chambers by two rows of four Ionic columns, each 50 feet (15 m) tall and 5.5 feet (1.7 m) across at their base. The central chamber, housing the statue of Lincoln, is 60 feet wide, 74 feet deep, and 60 feet high. [12] The north and south chambers display carved inscriptions of Lincoln's second inaugural address and his Gettysburg Address. [Note 2] Bordering these inscriptions are pilasters ornamented with fasces, eagles, and wreaths. The inscriptions and adjoining ornamentation are by Evelyn Beatrice Longman. [10]

The Memorial is replete with symbolic elements. The 36 columns represent the states of the Union at the time of Lincoln's death; the 48 stone festoons above the columns represent the 48 states in 1922. Inside, each inscription is surmounted by a 60-by-12-foot (18.3 by 3.7 m) mural by Jules Guerin portraying principles seen as evident in Lincoln's life: Freedom, Liberty, Immortality, Justice, and the Law on the south wall; Unity, Fraternity, and Charity on the north. Cypress trees, representing Eternity, are in the murals' backgrounds. The murals' paint incorporated kerosene and wax to protect the exposed artwork from fluctuations in temperature and moisture. [13]

The ceiling consists of bronze girders ornamented with laurel and oak leaves. Between these are panels of Alabama marble, saturated with paraffin to increase translucency. But feeling that the statue required even more light, Bacon and French designed metal slats for the ceiling to conceal floodlights, which could be modulated to supplement the natural light; this modification was installed in 1929. The one major alteration since was the addition of a handicapped elevator in the 1970s. [13]

Statue

IN THIS TEMPLE
AS IN THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE
FOR WHOM HE SAVED THE UNION
THE MEMORY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN
IS ENSHRINED FOREVER

--Epitaph by Royal Cortissoz
Abraham Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French Lincoln Memorial.jpg
Abraham Lincoln , by Daniel Chester French

Lying between the north and south chambers is the central hall containing the solitary figure of Lincoln sitting in contemplation. The statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers under the supervision of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and took four years to complete. The statue, originally intended to be only 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, was, on further consideration, enlarged so that it finally stood 19 feet (5.8 m) tall from head to foot, the scale being such that if Lincoln were standing, he would be 28 feet (8.5 m) tall. The widest span of the statue corresponds to its height. Of Georgia white marble, it weighs 175 short ton s (159  t ) and was shipped in twenty-eight pieces. [13]

The statue rests upon an oblong pedestal of Tennessee marble 10 feet (3.0 m) high, 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, and 17 feet (5.2 m) deep. Directly beneath this lies a platform of Tennessee marble about 34.5 feet (10.5 m) long, 28 feet (8.5 m) wide, and 6.5 inches (0.17 m) high. Lincoln's arms rest on representations of Roman fasces, a subtle touch that associates the statue with the Augustan (and imperial) theme (obelisk and funerary monuments) of the Washington Mall. [14] The statue is discretely bordered by two pilasters, one on each side. Between these pilasters, and above Lincoln's head, is engraved an epitaph of Lincoln [13] by Royal Cortissoz. [15]

Sculptural features

The sculpture has been at the center of two urban legends. Some have claimed that the face of General Robert E. Lee was carved onto the back of Lincoln's head, [16] and looks back across the Potomac toward his former home, Arlington House, now within the bounds of Arlington National Cemetery. Another popular legend is that Lincoln is shown using sign language to represent his initials, with his left hand shaped to form an "A" and his right hand to form an "L", the president's initials. The National Park Service denies both legends. [16]

However, historian Gerald Prokopowicz writes that, while it is not clear that sculptor Daniel Chester French intended Lincoln's hands to be formed into sign language versions of his initials, it is possible that French did intend it, because he was familiar with American Sign Language, and he would have had a reason to do so, that is, to pay tribute to Lincoln for having signed the federal legislation giving Gallaudet University, a university for the deaf, the authority to grant college degrees. [17] The National Geographic Society's publication "Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C." states that Daniel Chester French had a son who was deaf and that the sculptor was familiar with sign language. [18] [19] Historian James A. Percoco has observed that, although there are no extant documents showing that French had Lincoln's hands carved to represent the letters "A" and "L" in American Sign Language, "I think you can conclude that it's reasonable to have that kind of summation about the hands." [20]

Sacred space

The March on Washington in 1963 brought 250,000 people to the National Mall and is famous for Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech. View of Crowd at 1963 March on Washington.jpg
The March on Washington in 1963 brought 250,000 people to the National Mall and is famous for Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.
The location on the steps where King delivered the speech is commemorated with this inscription. I-have-a-dream-site crop.jpg
The location on the steps where King delivered the speech is commemorated with this inscription.

The Memorial has become a symbolically sacred venue especially for the Civil Rights Movement. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow the African-American contralto Marian Anderson to perform before an integrated audience at the organization's Constitution Hall. At the suggestion of Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harold L. Ickes, the Secretary of the Interior, arranged for a performance on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday of that year, to a live audience of 75,000 and a nationwide radio audience. [21]

On August 28, 1963, the memorial grounds were the site of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which proved to be a high point of the American Civil Rights Movement. It is estimated that approximately 250,000 people came to the event, where they heard Martin Luther King Jr., deliver his historic "I Have a Dream" speech before the memorial honoring the president who had issued the Emancipation Proclamation 100 years earlier. King's speech, with its language of patriotism and its evocation of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, was meant to match the symbolism of the Lincoln Memorial as a monument to national unity. [22] The D.C. police also appreciated the location because it was surrounded on three sides by water, so that any incident could be easily contained. [23] Twenty years later, on August 28, 1983, crowds gathered again to mark the 20th Anniversary Mobilization for Jobs, Peace and Freedom, to reflect on progress in gaining civil rights for African Americans and to commit to correcting continuing injustices. King's speech is such a part of the Lincoln Memorial story, that the spot on which King stood, on the landing eighteen steps below Lincoln's statue, was engraved in 2003 in recognition of the 40th anniversary of the event. [24]

At the memorial on May 9, 1970, President Richard Nixon had a middle-of-the-night impromptu, brief meeting with protesters who, just days after the Kent State shootings, were preparing to march against the Vietnam War. [25]

Vandalism

In September 1962, amid the civil rights movement, vandals painted the words "nigger lover" in foot-high pink letters on the rear wall. [26]

On the morning of July 26, 2013, the memorial was shut down after the statue's base and legs were splashed with green paint. [27] It reopened later that day. [28] A 58-year-old Chinese national, Jiamei Tian, was later found responsible for the vandalism. Following her arrest at the Washington National Cathedral, she was admitted to St. Elizabeths Hospital, a psychiatric facility, and was later found to be incompetent to stand trial; she has since been released from the hospital. [29]

On February 27, 2017, graffiti written in permanent marker was found at the memorial, the Washington Monument, the District of Columbia War Memorial, and the National World War II Memorial, saying "Jackie shot JFK", "blood test is a lie", as well as other claims. Street signs and utility boxes were also defaced. Authorities believed that a single person was responsible for all the vandalism. [30]

On August 15, 2017, graffiti that Reuters reported that "Fuck law" was spray painted in red on one of the columns. The initials "M+E" were etched on the same pillar. A "mild, gel-type architectural paint stripper" was used to remove the paint without damaging the memorial. However, the etching was deemed "permanent damage." A Smithsonian Institution directional sign several blocks away was also defaced. [31] [32]

On September 18, 2017, Nurtilek Bakirov from Kyrgyzstan was arrested when a police officer saw him vandalizing the Memorial at around 1:00 PM EDT. Bakirov used a penny to carve the letters "HYPT MAEK" in what appeared to Cyrillic letters into the fifth pillar on the north side. As of 20 September 2017, police do not know what the words mean, although there is a possibility that they contain a reference to the vandal's name. Court documents indicate that the letters can not be completely removed, but could be polished at the cost of approximately $2,000. A conservator for the National Park Service said that the stone would weather over time, helping to obscure the letters, although she characterized it as "permanent damage". [33]

USA - Lincoln Memorial.JPG
With Reflecting Pool
Lincoln Memorial at Sunrise.jpg
At sunrise
Lincoln Memorial (May 2014) crop.jpg
Daytime
Lincoln Memorial (8).jpg
At dusk

As one of the most prominent American monuments, the Lincoln Memorial is often featured in books, films, and television shows that take place in Washington; by 2003 it had appeared in over 60 films, [34] and in 2009, Mark S. Reinhart compiled some short sketches of dozens of uses of the Memorial in film and television. [35]

Some examples of films include Mr. Smith Goes to Washington , in a key scene where the statue and its inscription provide inspiration to freshman Senator Jefferson Smith, played by James Stewart [36] the Park Service did not want director Frank Capra to film at the Memorial, so he sent a large crew elsewhere as a distraction while a smaller crew filmed Stewart and Jean Arthur at the Memorial; [37] The Day the Earth Stood Still , a science fiction film in which the alien Klaatu visits the Memorial and is impressed by Lincoln's words carved there; the 2001 version of Planet of the Apes ; X-Men: First Class ; the 2011 film Transformers: Dark of the Moon , where Megatron destroys the statue of Lincoln and then sits on the chair as a throne; [38] and the 2016 horror movie The Purge: Election Year , in which the Lincoln Memorial is shown with dead and burning bodies on the steps and the columns defaced with giant letters that spell out "PURGE", written in human blood. [39]

Other films and television programs which have featured the Memorial include In the Line of Fire ; National Treasure, in which the main characters discuss the possibility of stealing the Declaration of Independence while sitting on the steps of the Memorial; the comedy Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian , where the statue of Lincoln helps defeat the Horus warriors; the "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" episode of The Simpsons ; [40] the scene from Forrest Gump , in which Forrest (Tom Hanks) delivers a speech standing on a podium in front of the Memorial facing the reflecting pool; and the 2013 film White House Down , in which the President (Jamie Foxx) requests a fly-by of the Lincoln Memorial, at both the beginning and the end of the movie to pay homage to his hero. [36]

Many of the appearances of the Lincoln Memorial are actually digital visual effects, due to restrictive filming rules. [40] As of 2017, according to the National Park Service, "Filming/photography is prohibited above the white marble steps and the interior chamber of the Lincoln Memorial." [41]

Mitchell Newton-Matza argued in 2016, "Reflecting its cherished place in the hearts of Americans, the Lincoln Memorial has often been featured prominently in popular culture, especially motion pictures." [42] According to Tracey Gold Bennett, "The majesty of the Lincoln Memorial is a big draw for film location scouts, producers, and directors because this landmark has appeared in a considerable number of films." [43]

Jay Sacher writes:

From high to low, the memorial is cultural shorthand for both American ideals and 1960s radicalism. From Forrest Gump's Zelig-like insertion into anti-war rallies on the steps of the memorial, to the villainous Decepticon robots discarding the Lincoln statue and claiming it as a throne. ... The memorial's place in the culture is assured even as it is parodied. [40]

Depictions on U.S. currency

US $5 series 2003 reverse.jpg
2005 Penny Rev Unc D.png
Reverse of a 2003 United States five-dollar bill and 2006 Lincoln cent

From 1959 (the 150th anniversary of Lincoln's birth) to 2008, the memorial, with statue visible through the columns, was depicted on the reverse of the United States one-cent coin, which since 1909 has depicted a bust of Lincoln on its front. [44]

The memorial has appeared on the back of the U.S. five-dollar bill since 1929. [45] The front of the bill bears Lincoln's portrait.

See also

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The Lincoln Tomb is the final resting place of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, and three of their four sons, Edward, William, and Thomas. It is located in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois. Constructed of granite, the tomb has a single-story rectangular base, surmounted by an obelisk, with a semicircular receiving room entrance-way, on one end, and semicircular crypt or burial room on the opposite side.

Outdoor sculpture in Washington, D.C. Wikimedia list article

There are many outdoor sculptures in Washington, D.C. In addition to the capital's most famous monuments and memorials, many figures recognized as national heroes have been posthumously awarded with his or her own statue in a park or public square. Some figures appear on several statues: Abraham Lincoln, for example, has at least three likenesses, including those at the Lincoln Memorial, in Lincoln Park, and the old Superior Court of the District of Columbia. A number of international figures, such as Mohandas Gandhi, have also been immortalized with statues. The Statue of Freedom is a 19½-foot tall allegorical statue that rests atop the United States Capitol dome.

District of Columbia War Memorial artwork by Frederick H. Brooke

The District of Columbia War Memorial commemorates the citizens of the District of Columbia who served in World War I.

Washington Monument (Baltimore) artwork by Enrico Causici and Robert Mills

The Washington Monument is the centerpiece of intersecting Mount Vernon Place and Washington Place, an urban square in the Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood north of downtown Baltimore, Maryland. It was the first major monument begun to honor George Washington (1732-1799).

Perrys Victory and International Peace Memorial battle monument in Ohio, USA

Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial commemorates the Battle of Lake Erie that took place near Ohio's South Bass Island, in which Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry led a fleet to victory in one of the most significant naval battles to occur in the War of 1812. Located on an isthmus on the island, the memorial also celebrates the lasting peace between Britain, Canada, and the United States that followed the war.

Ulysses S. Grant Memorial artwork by Henry Shrady

The Ulysses S. Grant Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C., honoring American Civil War general and 18th United States President Ulysses S. Grant. It sits at the base of Capitol Hill, below the west front of the United States Capitol. Its sculpture of Grant on horseback faces west, overlooking the Capitol Reflecting Pool and facing toward the Lincoln Memorial, which honors Grant's wartime president, Abraham Lincoln. Grant's statue rests on a pedestal decorated with bronze reliefs of the infantry; flanking pedestals hold statues of protective lions and bronze representations of the Union cavalry and artillery. The Grant and Lincoln memorials define the eastern and western ends, respectively, of the National Mall.

United States Capitol rotunda Component of United States Capitol

The United States Capitol rotunda is the central rotunda of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., built 1818–1824. It is located below the Capitol dome, built 1857–1866; the later construction also extended the height of the rotunda walls. It is the tallest part of the Capitol and has been described as its "symbolic and physical heart."

Battle Monument monument in Baltimore, Maryland, USA

The Battle Monument, located in Battle Monument Square on North Calvert Street between East Fayette and East Lexington Streets in Baltimore, Maryland, commemorates the Battle of Baltimore with the British fleet of the Royal Navy's bombardment of Fort McHenry, the Battle of North Point, southeast of the city in Baltimore County on the Patapsco Neck peninsula, and the stand-off on the eastern siege fortifications along Loudenschlager and Potter's Hills, later called Hampstead Hill, in what is now Patterson Park since 1827, east of town. It honors those who died during the month of September 1814 during the War of 1812. The monument lies in the middle of the street and is between the two Baltimore City Circuit Courthouses that are located on the opposite sides of North Calvert Street. It was sponsored by the City and the "Committee of Vigilance and Safety" led by Mayor Edward Johnson and military commanders: Brig. Gen. John Stricker, Maj. Gen. Samuel Smith and Lt. Col. George Armistead.

<i>Emancipation Memorial</i> artwork by Thomas Ball

The Emancipation Memorial, also known as the Freedman's Memorial or the Emancipation Group, and sometimes referred to as the "Lincoln Memorial" before the more prominent so-named memorial was built, is a monument in Lincoln Park in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington, D.C.

Abraham Lincoln Statue (Kentucky)

The Abraham Lincoln Statue is a historic statue in the Hodgenville Commercial Historic District's public square in Hodgenville, Kentucky. Adolph Alexander Weinman sculpted the statue, as he also did the Lincoln statue at the capitol rotunda at Frankfort, Kentucky. The Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park is nearby.

<i>Abraham Lincoln</i> (1920 statue) statue at the Lincoln Memorial

Abraham Lincoln (1920) is a colossal seated figure of United States President Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865) sculpted by Daniel Chester French (1850–1931) and carved by the Piccirilli Brothers. It is situated in the Lincoln Memorial, on the National Mall, Washington, D.C., USA, and was unveiled in 1922. Stylistically, the work follows in the Beaux Arts and American Renaissance traditions.

<i>Abraham Lincoln</i> (relief by Schwarz) Rudolph Schwarz plaque

The Abraham Lincoln commemorative plaque is a work of public art designed by Marie Stewart in 1906, created by Rudolph Schwarz, and dedicated on 12 February 1907.

Dupont Circle Fountain artwork by Daniel Chester French

The Dupont Circle Fountain, formally known as the Rear Admiral Samuel Francis Dupont Memorial Fountain, is a fountain located in the center of Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C. It honors Rear Admiral Samuel Francis Du Pont, a prominent American naval officer and member of the Du Pont family. The fountain replaced a statue of Du Pont that was installed in 1884. Designed by Henry Bacon and sculpted by Daniel Chester French, the fountain was dedicated in 1921. Prominent guests at the dedication ceremony included First Lady Florence Harding, Secretary of War John W. Weeks and Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby.

Memorials to Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States from 1861 to 1865, has been memorialized in many town, city, and county names, Along with George Washington, he is an iconic image of American democracy and American nationalism.

George Berry Washington Memorial

The George Berry Washington Memorial is a monumental funerary sculpture located on Arkansas Highway 149 north of Earle, Arkansas. It is the only major funerary sculpture in Crittenden County, and it commemorates the life and accomplishments of the Rev. George Berry Washington (1864-1928), an African American who was probably born into slavery, but ended his life as one of the county's largest landowners. Washington's grave site is on a low mound in an open field on the east side Highway 149. Two elaborately-carved stone piers, 3 feet (0.91 m) in height, flank wide steps leading up to the monument. The monument is a marble statue of an angel 5 feet (1.5 m) in height, mounted on a column of marble blocks 6 feet (1.8 m) high.

References

Second Inauguration mistake in Lincoln Memorial cropped.jpg

Notes

  1. The date for Ohio was incorrectly entered as 1802, as opposed to the correct year, 1803.
  2. In the line from the second inaugural, "With high hope for the future," the F in FUTURE was carved as an E. To obscure this error the spurious bottom line of the E is not painted in with black paint.

Citations

  1. 1 2 National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service.
  2. "Lincoln Memorial National Memorial; Washington, DC National Park Service
  3. "Annual Park Recreation Visitation (1904 - Last Calendar Year)" National Park Service
  4. "Renovation and Expansion of the Historic DC Courthouse" (PDF). DC Court of Appeals. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  5. "Washington's Lincoln: The First Monument to the Martyred President". The Intowner. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 NRHP Nomination, p. 4
  7. Thomas, Christopher A. (2002) The Lincoln Memorial and American Life Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN   069101194X
  8. NRHP Nomination, p. 5
  9. NRHP Nomination, p. 6
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 NRHP Nomination, p. 2
  11. Concklin, Edward F. (1927) The Lincoln Memorial, Washington. United States Government Printing Office
  12. U. S. Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks. Lincoln Memorial Building Statistics
  13. 1 2 3 4 NRHP Nomination, p. 3
  14. See Buchner, Edmund (1976). "Solarium Augusti und Ara Pacis", Römische Mitteilungen 83: 319–375; (1988). Die Sonnenuhr des Augustus: Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik (Berlin); P. Zanker The Augustan Program of Cultural Renewal Archived 2012-05-30 at Archive.today for a full discussion of the Augustan solarium and its architectural features.
  15. "Lincoln Memorial Design Individuals". National Park Service . Retrieved 2009-11-02.
  16. 1 2 "Lincoln Memorial: Frequently Asked Questions" on the National Park Service website
  17. Prokopowicz, Gerald J. (2008) Did Lincoln Own Slaves? And Other Frequently Asked Questions About Abraham Lincoln. Pantheon. ISBN   978-0-375-42541-7
  18. Evelyn, Douglas E. and Dickson, Paul A. (1999) On this Spot: Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C. National Geographic Society. ISBN   0-7922-7499-7
  19. Library.gallaudet.edu Archived 2009-01-04 at the Wayback Machine
  20. Percoco, James A., speech given on April 17, 2008, in the Jefferson Room of the National Archives and Records Administration as part of the National Archive's "Noontime Programs" lecture series. Broadcast on the C-Span cable television network on April 4 and April 5, 2009. c-spanvideo.org
  21. "Eleanor Roosevelt and Marian Anderson". FDR Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  22. Fairclough, Adam (1997) "Civil Rights and the Lincoln Memorial: The Censored Speeches of Robert R. Moton (1922) and John Lewis (1963)" Journal of Negro History v.82 pp.408–416.
  23. Jennings, Peter and Brewster, Todd (1998) The Century: A Chronicle of the 20th Century Doubleday.
  24. "Stand Where Martin Luther King, Jr. Gave the "I Have a Dream" Speech". National Park Service. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  25. Director: Joe Angio (2007-02-15). Nixon a Presidency Revealed (television). History Channel.
  26. "Vandals Deface Lincoln Memorial" Ocala Star-Banner (September 27, 1962)
  27. Fard, Maggie Fazeli & Ruane, Michael E. (July 26, 2013). "Lincoln Memorial is shut down after vandals splash paint on it". The Washington Post . Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  28. CNN Staff (July 26, 2013). "Vandals splatter Lincoln Memorial with green paint". CNN. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  29. Alexander, Keith L. (January 6, 2015) "Case dismissed against woman accused of throwing green paint on D.C. landmarks" The Washington Post
  30. Staff (February 21, 2017) "World War II Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, DC War Memorial Vandalized" NBC 4 Washington News
  31. Staff (August 15, 2017) "Lincoln Memorial Vandalized With Red Spray Paint" NBC 4 Washington News
  32. Reuters (August 15, 2017) "Lincoln Memorial in Washington Defaced With Expletive" The New York Times
  33. Mower, Justin Wm. (September 19, 2017). "Police arrest man accused of vandalizing the Lincoln Memorial with a penny". The Washington Post . Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  34. Rosales, Jean K. and Jose, Michael R. (2003) DC Goes to the Movies: A Unique Guide to Reel Washington iUniverse. p.149 ISBN   9780595267972
  35. Reinhart, Mark S. (2009). Abraham Lincoln on Screen: Fictional and Documentary Portrayals on Film and Television. McFarland. ISBN   978-0-7864-5261-3.
  36. 1 2 Toney, Veronica (September 17, 2015). "It's not just 'Forrest Gump.' The National Mall has had an iconic role in many movies". The Washington Post . Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  37. Rosales, Jean K. and Jose, Michael R. (2003) DC Goes to the Movies: A Unique Guide to Reel Washington iUniverse. p.245 ISBN   9780595267972
  38. Staff (July 26, 2013). "Lincoln Memorial's role in U.S. history, pop culture". The Washington Post . Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  39. Kim, Kristen Yoonsoo (June 30, 2016) "'The Purge: Election Year' Hits the Upgrade Button in Literally Every Way" Complex: Pop Culture"
  40. 1 2 3 Sacher, Jay (May 6, 2014). Lincoln Memorial: The Story and Design of an American Monument. Chronicle Books. pp. 83–85. ISBN   9781452131986 . Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  41. "Permit FAQS" National Park Service
  42. Mitchell Newton-Matza (2016). Historic Sites and Landmarks that Shaped America. ABC-CLIO. p. 324.
  43. Tracey Gold Bennett (2014). Washington, D.C., Film and Television. Arcadia. p. 27.
  44. Bowers, Q. David (2008). A Guide Book of Lincoln Cents. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing. pp. 45, 49–51. ISBN   978-0-7948-2264-4.
  45. "$5". U.S. Currency Education Program. United States Government. $5 Note (1914-1993) (PDF). Retrieved May 28, 2018.

Bibliography

External video
Lincoln Memorial in June 2012.jpg
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Laser Scan: Lincoln Memorial (0:33), DJS Associates from the Lincoln Memorial Project