United States Capitol rotunda

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Rotunda viewed from behind the statue of George Washington USCapitolRotunda.JPG
Rotunda viewed from behind the statue of George Washington

The United States Capitol rotunda is the central rotunda of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., built 1818–1824. It is located below the Capitol dome, built 1857–1866; the later construction also extended the height of the rotunda walls. It is the tallest part of the Capitol and has been described as its "symbolic and physical heart."

Rotunda (architecture) building with a circular ground plan

A rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan, and sometimes covered by a dome. It can also refer to a round room within a building. The Pantheon in Rome is a famous rotunda. A Band Rotunda is a circular bandstand, usually with a dome.

United States Capitol dome dome situated above the United States Capitol which reaches upwards to 288 feet (88 m) in height and 96 feet (29 m) in diameter

The United States Capitol dome is the dome situated above the United States Capitol which reaches upwards to 288 feet (88 m) in height and 96 feet (29 m) in diameter. The dome was designed by Thomas U. Walter, the fourth Architect of the Capitol, and constructed between 1855 and 1866 at a cost of $1,047,291.

Contents

The rotunda is connected by corridors leading south to the House of Representatives and north to the Senate chambers. To the immediate south is the semi-circular National Statuary Hall, which was the House of Representatives chamber until 1857. To the northeast is the Old Senate Chamber, used by the Senate until 1859 and by the Supreme Court until 1935.

National Statuary Hall

National Statuary Hall is a chamber in the United States Capitol devoted to sculptures of prominent Americans. The hall, also known as the Old Hall of the House, is a large, two-story, semicircular room with a second story gallery along the curved perimeter. It is located immediately south of the Rotunda. The meeting place of the U.S. House of Representatives for nearly 50 years (1807–1857), after a few years of disuse in 1864 it was repurposed as a statuary hall; this is when the National Statuary Hall Collection was established. By 1933 the collection had outgrown this single room, and a number of statues are placed elsewhere within the Capitol.

Old Senate Chamber

The Old Senate Chamber is a room in the United States Capitol that was the legislative chamber of the United States Senate from 1810 to 1859 and served as the Supreme Court chamber from 1860 until 1935. It was designed in Neoclassical style and is elaborately decorated. Restored in 1976 as part of United States Bicentennial celebrations, it is preserved as a museum and for the Senate's use.

The rotunda is 96 feet (29 m) in diameter, rises 48 feet (15 m) to the top of its original walls and 180 feet 3 inches (54.94 m) to the canopy of the dome, and is visited by thousands of people each day. It is also used for ceremonial events authorized by concurrent resolution, including the lying in state of honored dead.

Tour Groups inside the Rotunda Capitol Rotunda Tour Group.jpg
Tour Groups inside the Rotunda

Design and construction

Capitol dome US Capitol dome Jan 2006.jpg
Capitol dome
Capitol rotunda USA-US Capitol6.JPG
Capitol rotunda
Capitol rotunda USA-US Capitol4.JPG
Capitol rotunda

The doctor and architect William Thornton was the winner of the contest to design the Capitol in 1793. Thornton had first conceived the idea of a central rotunda. However, due to lack of funds or resources, oft-interrupted construction, and the British attack on Washington during the War of 1812, work on the rotunda did not begin until 1818. The rotunda was completed in 1824 under Architect of the Capitol Charles Bulfinch, as part of a series of new buildings and projects in preparation for the final visit of Marquis de Lafayette in 1824. The rotunda was designed in the neoclassical style and was intended to evoke the design of the Pantheon.

William Thornton British architect and activist

Dr. William Thornton was a British-American physician, inventor, painter and architect who designed the United States Capitol. He also served as the first Architect of the Capitol and first Superintendent of the United States Patent Office.

Burning of Washington

The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, during the Battle of Bladensburg in the War of 1812. On August 24, 1814, after defeating the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, a British force led by Major General Robert Ross burned down multiple buildings, including the White House, the Capitol building, as well as other facilities of the U.S. government. The attack was in part a retaliation for the recent American destruction of Port Dover in Upper Canada. The Burning of Washington marks the only time since the American Revolutionary War that a foreign power has captured and occupied the United States capital.

War of 1812 32-month military conflict between the United States and the British Empire

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars; in the United States and Canada, it is seen as a war in its own right.

The sandstone rotunda walls rise 48 feet (15 m) above the floor; everything above this—the Capitol domewas designed in 1854 by Thomas U. Walter, the fourth Architect of the Capitol. Walter had also designed the Capitol's north and south extensions. Work on the dome began in 1856, and in 1859, Walter redesigned the rotunda to consist of an inner and outer dome, with a canopy suspended between them that would be visible through an oculus at the top of the inner dome. In 1862, Walter asked painter Constantino Brumidi to design "a picture 65 feet (20 m) in diameter, painted in fresco, on the concave canopy over the eye of the New Dome of the U.S. Capitol." At this time, Brumidi may have added a watercolor canopy design over Walter's tentative 1859 sketch. The dome was being finished in the middle of the American Civil War and was constructed from fireproof cast iron. During the Civil War, the rotunda was used as a military hospital for Union soldiers. The dome was finally completed in 1866.

Sandstone A clastic sedimentary rock composed mostly of sand-sized particles

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments.

Oculus architectural feature

An oculus is a circular opening in the center of a dome or in a wall. Originating in antiquity, it is a feature of Byzantine and Neoclassical architecture. It is also known as an œil de boeuf from the French, or simply a "bull's-eye".

Constantino Brumidi Greek-Italian-American painter

Constantino Brumidi was a Greek-Italian-American historical painter, best known and honored for his fresco work in the Capitol Building in Washington, DC.

The Crypt

Originally the crypt had an open ceiling into the rotunda. Visitors can still see the holes in the stone circle that marked the rim of the open space in the rotunda floor. Underneath the floor of the crypt lies a tomb that was the intended burial place for George Washington but after a lengthy battle with his estate and the state of Virginia the plans for him to be buried in the crypt were abandoned. [1]

Renovation

Capitol dome and rotunda under renovation in May 2016 United States Capitol under construction May 2016.jpg
Capitol dome and rotunda under renovation in May 2016

In January 2013, the Architect of the Capitol announced a four-year, $10 million project to repair and conserve the Capitol Dome's exterior and the Capitol rotunda. The proposal required the stripping of lead paint from the interior of the dome, repair to the ironwork, repainting of the interior of the dome, rehabilitation of the interstitial space between the dome and rotunda, and installation of new lighting in the interstitial space and the rotunda. The dome and rotunda, which were last conserved in 1960, were showing significant signs of rust and disrepair. There was a danger that decorative ironwork could have fallen from the rotunda to the space below, and that weather-related problems could damage the artwork in the rotunda. Without immediate repair, safety netting was installed, temporarily blocking the rotunda's artwork from view. [2]

Historical paintings

Eight niches in the rotunda hold large, framed historical paintings. All are oil-on-canvas and measure 12 by 18 feet (3.7 by 5.5 metres). Four of these are scenes from the American Revolution, painted by John Trumbull, who was commissioned by Congress to do the work in 1817. These are Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, and General George Washington Resigning His Commission. These were placed between 1819 and 1824. Between 1840 and 1855, four more paintings were added. These depicted the exploration and colonization of America and were all done by different artists. These paintings are Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn, Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, and Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir.

PaintingArtistDatesDescriptionNotes
Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence (1819), by John Trumbull.jpg
Declaration of Independence
John TrumbullCommissioned 1817, purchased 1819, placed 1826 [3] John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston, Benjamin Franklin, and the principal author, Thomas Jefferson members of the Committee of Five, who drafted the Declaration of Independence present the declaration to the Second Continental Congress and President John Hancock on June 28, [3] 1776 at Independence Hall in Philadelphia. [3] The first painting Trumbull completed for the rotunda and probably the most widely recognized, the iconic Declaration of Independence is somewhat historically inaccurate and anachronistic. Of the 56 signers, 42 are represented. The rest are absent, possibly because they were not present at the adoption of the declaration or had died by the time of Trumbull's painting. Four are included who did not sign, but whom Trumbull found worthy of inclusion: George Clinton, Robert R. Livingston, Thomas Willing, and John Dickinson. [4] A reproduction appears on the United States two-dollar bill. [5]
Surrender of General Burgoyne Surrender of General Burgoyne.jpg
Surrender of General Burgoyne
John TrumbullCommissioned 1817, purchased 1822, placed 1826 British soldiers under General John Burgoyne surrender after the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. The central figure, from the Continental Army, is General Horatio Gates, who refused to accept the traditional sword of surrender that Burgoyne offered. Instead, treating his former foe as a gentleman, General Gates invited General Burgoyne into his tent. The other Americans, shown to the right, are officers serving in the Continental Army.Trumbull planned this outdoor scene to contrast with Declaration of Independence (above), displayed beside it on the wall of the U.S. Capitol rotunda. [6] Both paintings show large groups of people, but one is an indoor scene, while the other is an outdoor scene of similar perspective.

The battle was a key victory for the Americans, prevented the division of New England, and secured French military assistance to the Americans.

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.jpg
Surrender of Lord Cornwallis
John Trumbullcommissioned 1817, placed 1820A combined American-French force led by George Washington, the Marquis de Lafayette, and Comte de Rochambeau accept the final surrender of British troops under Lord Cornwallis after the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. American General Benjamin Lincoln is portrayed at the center of the painting riding a white horse, with French officers on the left and Americans on the right, led by Washington on the brown horse. The British were represented by officers, but Lord Cornwallis himself was not present and was represented instead by Charles O'Hara.The scene here depicts the same event as the "Surrender of Cornwallis" panel of the "Frieze of American History." Trumbull was proud of the fact that he had painted portraits of the French officers while in France and included a small self-portrait of himself under the American flag on the right side of the painting. [7] As noted above, Washington declined O'Hara's sword because according to the custom of the time it would only be proper for Washington to receive the sword from Cornwallis himself; Major General Lincoln accepted the sword in Washington's place. The surrender led to the cessation of major Revolutionary War hostilities and British recognition of American independence in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
General George Washington Resigning His Commission General George Washington Resigning his Commission.jpg
General George Washington Resigning His Commission
John Trumbullcommissioned 1817, placed 1824George Washington addresses Congress to resign his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, on December 23, 1783. Washington is depicted along with two aides-de-camp, as he addresses the president of the Congress. Also shown in the painting are Thomas Mifflin, Elbridge Gerry, and three future U.S. presidents: Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and James Madison. His wife, Martha Washington, and her three grandchildren, are shown watching from the gallery section (balcony area at right), although they were not in fact present at Washington's resignation. [8] This celebrated incident established a strong tradition of civilian control of the military in the United States and the rejection of military dictatorship in favor of liberal democracy. The U.S. Congress, at the time, was meeting at the Maryland State House in Annapolis.
Landing of Columbus Landing of Columbus (2).jpg
Landing of Columbus
John Vanderlyncommissioned 1836/1837, placed 1847In the foreground, Christopher Columbus raises the royal banner to claim the land for Kingdom of Castile, and he stands bareheaded with his hat at his feet in honor of the sanctity of the event. The captains of the ships Niña and Pinta follow, carrying the banner of the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. The crew displays a range of emotions, and some search for gold in the sand. Nearby, natives watch from behind a tree at the right. [9] Columbus landed in the West Indies, on San Salvador Island (Guanahani), on October 12, 1492.
Discovery of the Mississippi Discovery of the Mississippi.jpg
Discovery of the Mississippi
William Henry Powellcommissioned 1847, purchased 1855At the center of the canvas, Spanish navigator and conquistador Hernando de Soto rides a white horse. De Soto and his troops approach Native Americans in front of tepees, with a chief holding a ceremonial pipe. The foreground is filled by weapons and soldiers to represent the devastating battle at Mauvila (or Mabila), in which de Soto suffered a Pyrrhic victory over Choctaws under Tuscaloosa. To the right, a monk prays as a large crucifix is set into the ground. [10] Discovery of the Mississippi was the last painting to be commissioned by Congress for the rotunda. De Soto is thought to have become the first European to see the Mississippi River in 1541.
Baptism of Pocahontas Baptism of Pocahontas.jpg
Baptism of Pocahontas
John Gadsby Chapmancommissioned 1837, placed 1840Dressed in white, Pocahontas kneels, surrounded by family members, including her father, Chief Powhatan, and colonists. Her brother Nantequaus turns away from the ceremony. The baptism occurred before her marriage to Englishman John Rolfe, who stands behind her.Pocahontas was baptized (under the name "Rebecca") by the Anglican priest Alexander Whitaker in Jamestown, Virginia. This event is believed to have taken place in 1613 or 1614. Her union with Rolfe is said to be the first recorded marriage between an Englishman and a Native American woman. The scene symbolizes the belief of some Americans at the time that native tribes should accept Christianity and other European customs of the period.
Embarkation of the Pilgrims Embarkation of the Pilgrims.jpg
Embarkation of the Pilgrims
Robert Walter Weircommissioned 1837, placed 1844The Pilgrims appear on the deck of the ship Speedwell as they depart Delfshaven in South Holland on July 22, 1620. William Brewster, holding the Bible, and pastor John Robinson lead Governor Carver, William Bradford, Miles Standish, and their families in prayer. The rainbow, at the left side of the painting, symbolizes hope and divine protection. [11] The Pilgrims traveled aboard the Speedwell to Southampton. There they met additional colonists and transferred to the Mayflower .

Apotheosis of Washington

The Apotheosis of Washington, as seen looking up from the rotunda Apotheosis of George Washington.jpg
The Apotheosis of Washington , as seen looking up from the rotunda

The Apotheosis of Washington is a large fresco by Greek-Italian Constantino Brumidi, visible through the oculus of the dome of the rotunda. The fresco depicts George Washington sitting exalted amongst the heavens. It is suspended 180 feet (55 m) above the rotunda floor and covers an area of 4,664 square feet (433.3 m2).

Frieze of American History

The Frieze of American History is painted to appear as a carved stone bas-relief frieze but is actually a trompe-l'œil fresco cycle depicting 19 scenes from American history. The "frieze" occupies a band immediately below the 36 windows. Brumidi designed the frieze and prepared a sketch in 1859 but did not begin painting until 1878. Brumidi painted seven and a half scenes. While working on William Penn and the Indians, Brumidi fell off the scaffolding and held on to a rail for 15 minutes until he was rescued. He died a few months later in 1880. After Brumidi's death, Filippo Costaggini was commissioned to complete the eight and a half remaining scenes in Brumidi's sketches. He finished in 1889 and left a 31-foot (9 m) gap due to an error in Brumidi's original design. In 1951, Allyn Cox completed the frieze.

Except for the last three panels named by Allyn Cox, the scenes have no particular titles and many variant titles have been given. The names given here are the names used by the Architect of the Capitol, which uses the names that Brumidi used most frequently in his letters and that were used in Edward Clark and by newspaper articles. The 19 panels are:

SceneArtistYearDescription
America and History America and History.jpg
America and History
Constantino Brumidi1878This is the first panel and the only allegorical one, portraying a personification of America, wearing a liberty cap, with spear and shield in the center, surrounded by other allegorical figures. To the right is a Native American maiden with a bow and arrows, representing the wild North American continent. At America's feet is a female personification of History, with a stone tablet to record events. To the left of History is an eagle, perched on a fasces, the ancient Roman bundle of birch rods symbolizing authority. To the left of America is another eagle, carrying the olive branch of peace. To the center-left in the background is a man in same pose as the prospector at the end of "Discovery of Gold in California"; this is because Brumidi planned to have the scene connect with his planned last one.
Landing of Columbus Landing of Columbus.jpg
Landing of Columbus
Constantino Brumidi Christopher Columbus is depicted arriving in the Americas in the first of four scenes of the Spanish conquest. Columbus disembarks off a plank from the Santa María . His crew, armed with weapons, stays aboard; one crew member has a spyglass. Native Americans are portrayed greeting Columbus. Indian women and children are shown, along with native warriors to the right. The Columbus figure may have been based on Luigi Persico statue of Columbus, which was at the time of the painting the on the east central steps of the Capitol.
Cortez and Montezuma at Mexican Temple Cortez and Montezuma at Mexican Temple.jpg
Cortez and Montezuma at Mexican Temple
Constantino BrumidiThis panel shows the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés entering an Aztec temple, being welcomed by Moctezuma II. At the beginning of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Moctezuma and the Aztecs honored Cortés as a god, believing that he was the returning god Quetzalcoatl. The Aztec calendar stone and cult images are based on sketches drawn by Brumidi in Mexico City.
Pizarro Going to Peru Pizarro Going to Peru.jpg
Pizarro Going to Peru
Constantino BrumidiSpanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro is depicted leading his horse through the jungle in search of El Dorado, the mythical land of gold, in this representation of the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.
Burial of DeSoto Burial of DeSoto.jpg
Burial of DeSoto
Constantino BrumidiThis panel depict the burial of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in the Mississippi River after his death from a fever. De Soto led the largest European expedition of both 15th and 16th centuries through the Southeast and Midwest searching for gold, silver, and other valuables.
Captain Smith and Pocahontas Captain Smith and Pocahontas.jpg
Captain Smith and Pocahontas
Constantino Brumidi Pocahontas is portrayed saving Captain John Smith, one of the founders of Jamestown, Virginia, from being clubbed to death.
Landing of the Pilgrims Landing of the Pilgrims.jpg
Landing of the Pilgrims
Constantino Brumidi Pilgrims led by William Brewster give thanks to God for their safe voyage aboard the Mayflower in this scene depicting Plymouth Colony.
William Penn and the Indians William Penn and the Indians.jpg
William Penn and the Indians
Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
1880 Quaker leader and Province of Pennsylvania founder William Penn is depicted with Lenape (Delaware) Native Americans under the elm tree at Shackamaxon. This is the last panel on which Brumidi worked.
Colonization of New England Colonization of New England.jpg
Colonization of New England
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
This panel shows New England settlers busily logging, sawing, and using lumber to construct a building. This is the first scene painted entirely by Filippo Costaggini.
Oglethorpe and the Indians Oglethorpe and the Indians.jpg
Oglethorpe and the Indians
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
James Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia Colony and first Georgia governor, is shown with the Muskogee (Creek) leaders in Savannah, Georgia. The Muskogee present Oglethorpe with a buffalo skin with an eagle in the center, a symbol of friendship and trust.
Battle of Lexington Battle of Lexington.jpg
Battle of Lexington
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
This panel depicts the "shot heard 'round the world" at the Battle of Lexington, the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War. Major John Pitcairn is shown on horseback at center, with British Army or Royal Marines troops to the right and Lexington militiamen at left.
Reading of the Declaration of Independence Costaggini painting--Reading of the Declaration of Independence.jpg
Reading of the Declaration of Independence
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
Idealized depiction of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin, authors of the Declaration of Independence, reading the declaration to celebrating colonists.
Surrender of Cornwallis Surrender of Cornwallis.jpg
Surrender of Cornwallis
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
Depiction of George Washington on horseback receiving the ceremonial sword of surrender from Charles O'Hara, who represented Lord Cornwallis after the final British defeat at the Battle of Yorktown. In reality, it is thought that Washington declined O'Hara's sword because according to the custom of the time it would only be proper for Washington to receive the sword from Cornwallis himself; Major General Benjamin Lincoln instead accepted the sword.
Death of Tecumseh Death of Tecumseh.jpg
Death of Tecumseh
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
This panel depicts the death of Shawnee chief and Indian Confederation leader Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada during the War of 1812 (partially an extension of Tecumseh's War).
American Army Entering the City of Mexico American Army Entering the City of Mexico.jpg
American Army Entering the City of Mexico
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
U.S. Army troops led by Winfield Scott enter Mexico City after the fall of Mexico City, which ended the Mexican–American War with a decisive American victory. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which provided for the massive Mexican Cession of territory in what is now the Western United States.
Discovery of Gold in California Discovery of Gold in California.jpg
Discovery of Gold in California
Designed by Constantino Brumidi
Completed by Filippo Costaggini
1889 Prospectors dig and pan for gold with picks, shovels, and other tools in this depiction of the California Gold Rush. In the center, three men (one possibly representing John Sutter) examine a prospector's pan. This was the last scene designed by Brumidi and painted by Costaggini.
Peace at the End of the Civil War Peace at the End of the Civil War.jpg
Peace at the End of the Civil War
Allyn CoxThis scene, the first of Cox's three panels, depicts a Confederate soldier and a Union soldier shaking hands at the end of the American Civil War, symbolizing reconciliation and reunification. The cotton plant and the Northern pine tree symbolize the South and the North.
Naval Gun Crew in the Spanish-American War Naval Gun Crew in the Spanish-American War.jpg
Naval Gun Crew in the Spanish–American War
Allyn CoxA group of United States Navy sailors in a gun crew are depicted in a naval battle during the Spanish–American War. and the United States won a victory over Spain in the war. The 1898 Treaty of Paris provided for Cuba's independence from Spain and the American acquisition of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
The Birth of Aviation The Birth of Aviation.jpg
The Birth of Aviation
Allyn Cox1951This scene depicts the Wright brothers' first flight at Kitty Hawk in 1903. The Wright Flyer is shown just off the ground, with Orville Wright in the plane and Wilbur Wright running alongside to steady the wing. To the left are Leonardo da Vinci, Samuel Pierpont Langley, and Octave Chanute, other aviation pioneers, holding models of other Early flying machines. An eagle holds an olive branch in the bottom right.

Statues

Floor plan showing locations of rotunda paintings, statues and busts in 1978 (prior to the Eisenhower, Reagan, and Ford statues, King bust, and women's suffrage monument). USCapitolBuildingRotunda.jpg
Floor plan showing locations of rotunda paintings, statues and busts in 1978 (prior to the Eisenhower, Reagan, and Ford statues, King bust, and women's suffrage monument).

From the Statuary Hall Collection

Among the group of eleven statues currently encircling the rotunda against the wall at floor level are six from the National Statuary Hall Collection:

These six statues representing the presidents will remain in the rotunda indefinitely or until an act of Congress.

Abraham Lincoln (1871, marble) by Vinnie Ream Vinnie Ream - Lincoln.jpg
Abraham Lincoln (1871, marble) by Vinnie Ream

George Washington

A statue of George Washington a copy after French neo-classical sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon's 1790 full-length marble in the Virginia State Capitol holds a prominent place. William James Hubard created a plaster copy after Houdon, that stood in the Rotunda from the late-1850s to 1934. It is now in the Smithsonian American Art Museum. [13] The present bronze copy replaced Hubard's plaster copy in 1934. [14]

James Garfield by Charles Niehaus Garfield NSHC.jpg
James Garfield by Charles Niehaus

James Garfield

James Garfield was the last American president to be born in a log cabin. Sculptor Niehaus returned to America in 1881 and by virtue of being a native Ohioan was commissioned to sculpt a monument to the recently assassinated President James Garfield, who was also from Ohio.

Martin Luther King, Jr., is one of two African-American honored with a bust in the United States Capitol. Mlk bust.jpg
Martin Luther King, Jr., is one of two African-American honored with a bust in the United States Capitol.

Bust of Martin Luther King, Jr.

The bust of his head and shoulders is 36 inches (91 cm) high and stands on a pyramidal Belgian black marble base that is 66 inches (168 cm) high. Because the bust would be such an important and visible work of art, the Joint Committee on the Library decided to have a national competition to select a sculptor.

On December 21, 1982, the Congress passed House Concurrent Resolution 153, which directed the procurement of a marble bust "to serve to memorialize King's contributions on such matters as the historic legislation of the 1960s affecting civil rights and the right to vote." Senator Charles Mathias, Jr., Chairman of the Joint Committee on the Library, the congressional committee overseeing the procurement, said at the unveiling that "Martin Luther King takes his rightful place among the heroes of this nation."

John Woodrow Wilson, the artist was awarded a $50,000 commission to cast the model in bronze. The bust was unveiled in the Rotunda on January 16, 1986, the fifty-seventh anniversary of Dr. King's birth, by Mrs. King, accompanied by their four children and Dr. King's sister. [15]

Women's suffrage

This group portrait monument is known formally as the Portrait Monument to Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony, pioneers of the women's suffrage movement in the United States. Their efforts, and the work of later suffrage activists like Alice Paul, eventually led to the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920. The work was sculpted by Adelaide Johnson (1859-1955) from a 16,000-pound (7,300 kg) block of marble in Carrara, Italy. The portraits are copies of the individual busts she carved for the Court of Honor of the Woman's Building at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. The detailed busts are surrounded by rough-hewn marble at the top of the sculpture. This part of the statue, according to some, is left unfinished representing the unfinished work of women's rights. Contrary to a popular story, the intention was not that it be completed upon the ascension of the first female President — the rough-hewn section is too small to carry a proportional bust. The monument was presented to the Capitol as a gift from the women of the United States by the National Woman's Party and was accepted on behalf of Congress by the Joint Committee on the Library on February 10, 1921. The unveiling ceremony was held in the Rotunda on February 15, 1921, the 101st anniversary of the birth of Susan B. Anthony, and was attended by representatives of over 70 women's organizations. Shortly after its unveiling, however, the statue was moved into the Capitol Crypt. It remained on display there for 75 years, until HCR 216 ordered it moved to the Rotunda. The statue was placed in its current location, in the Rotunda, in May 1997. [16]

Other statuary and artifacts

In addition to the National Statuary Hall Collection and the memorial statuary, there are a number of other pieces in the Rotunda. Next to the south entrance, opposite of the statue of George Washington, is a bronze statue of Thomas Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence. Donated by Uriah P. Levy, it is the only work of art in the Capitol given by a private donor. [17] At the west entrance, are marble statues of General Ulysses S. Grant and President Abraham Lincoln. The Lincoln statue was a commissioned by Congress and designed by Vinnie Ream. The statue of Grant was a gift to Congress by the Grand Army of the Republic. Located in the southwest portion of the Rotunda is a statue of Alexander Hamilton.

Lying in State and Honor

Lying in state in the Capitol rotunda
ThaddeusStevensLyingInState.png
Thaddeus Stevens lying in state on August 13, 1868. The plaster statue of Abraham Lincoln behind the casket is credited to Henry Jackson Ellicott.
Pershing at casket of Unknown Soldier.jpg
General John J. Pershing saluting the casket of the Unknown Soldier of World War I on November 9, 1921.
US Navy 061230-N-0773H-038 The Sea Chanters chorus sings, Eternal Father Strong to Save, as Vice President Richard Cheney and members of Congress honor former President Gerald R. Ford.jpg
Vice President Dick Cheney and members of Congress view the lying in state of Gerald Ford on December 30, 2006.

The main difference between lying in state and lying in honor is the designated guard of honor that keeps watch over the casket. When a person lies in state, a guard of honor from the United States Armed Forces watches over the casket; when a person lies in honor, the United States Capitol Police watches as a civilian guard of honor over the casket.

Lain in state

People to have lain in state in the Capitol rotunda are as follows: [18]

Lain in honor

People to have lain in honor in the United States Capitol Rotunda are as follows: [18]

Other notable individuals, several of them being the Chief Justice of the United States, have lain in state in the United States Supreme Court Building while other individuals such as Ronald H. Brown, have lain in state in the Herbert C. Hoover Building. [19]

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Charles Henry Niehaus, was an American sculptor.

Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul (Philadelphia)

The Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul, head church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia, is located at 18th Street and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, on the east side of Logan Square in Philadelphia. It was built between 1846 and 1864, and was designed by Napoleon LeBrun, from original plans by the Reverend Mariano Muller and the Reverend John B. Tornatore, with the dome and Palladian facade, designed by John Notman, added after 1850. The interior was largely decorated by Constantino Brumidi.

Missouri State Capitol capitol building in Missouri

The Missouri State Capitol is the building that houses the legislative and executive branches of the government of the U.S. state of Missouri, as well as the Missouri General Assembly. Located in Jefferson City at 201 West Capitol Avenue, it is the third capitol in the city after the other two were demolished when they were damaged in fires. The domed building, designed by the New York City architectural firm of Tracy and Swartwout, was completed in 1917.

Idaho State Capitol capitol building

The Idaho State Capitol in Boise is the home of the government of the state of Idaho. Although Lewiston, Idaho, briefly served as Idaho's capital from the formation of Idaho Territory in 1863, the territorial Legislature moved the capital to Boise on December 24, 1864.

<i>Peace Monument</i> artwork by Franklin Simmons

The Peace Monument, also known as the Naval Monument or Civil War Sailors Monument, stands on the grounds of the United States Capitol in Peace Circle at First Street, N.W., and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C. The 44 foot high white marble memorial was erected from 1877-1878 to commemorate the naval deaths at sea during the American Civil War. Today it stands as part of a three-part sculptural group including the James A. Garfield Monument and the Ulysses S. Grant Memorial.

United States Capitol Visitor Center

The United States Capitol Visitor Center (CVC) is a large underground addition to the United States Capitol complex which serves as a gathering point for up to 4,000 tourists and an expansion space for the US Congress. It is located below the East Front of the Capitol and its plaza, between the Capitol building and 1st Street East. The complex contains 580,000 square feet (54,000 m2) of space below ground on three floors. The overall project's budget was $621 million.

Franklin Simmons American artist

Franklin Bachelder Simmons was a prominent American sculptor of the nineteenth century. Three of his statues are in the National Statuary Hall Collection, three of his busts are in the United States Senate Vice Presidential Bust Collection, and his statue of Ulysses S. Grant is in the United States Capitol Rotunda.

Brumidi Corridors

The Brumidi Corridors are the vaulted, ornately decorated corridors on the first floor of the Senate wing in the United States Capitol.

United States Capitol crypt

The United States Capitol crypt is the large circular room filled with forty neoclassical Doric columns directly beneath the United States Capitol rotunda. It was built originally to support the rotunda as well as offer an entrance to Washington's Tomb. It currently serves as a museum and a repository for thirteen statues of the National Statuary Hall Collection.

Hall of Columns

The Hall of Columns is a more than 100-foot-long (30 m) hallway lined with twenty-eight fluted columns in the south wing extension of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. It is also the gallery for eighteen statues of the National Statuary Hall Collection.

<i>George Washington</i> (Houdon) statue by French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon

George Washington is a statue by French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon from the late 18th century. Based on a life mask and other measurements of George Washington taken by Houdon, it is considered one of the most accurate depictions of the subject. The original sculpture is located in the rotunda of the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia, and has been copied extensively.

Henry Jackson Ellicott American sculptor

Henry Jackson Ellicott was an American sculptor and architectural sculptor, best known for his work on American Civil War monuments.

<i>James A. Garfield</i> (Niehaus)

James A. Garfield refers to two different sculptures depicting the American president of the same name by Charles Henry Niehaus. One is installed in Cincinnati, Ohio, and the other is installed at the United States Capitol's rotunda, in Washington, D.C., as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection.

References

  1. West Moore, Joseph (1884). "Picturesque Washington": 92.
  2. Neibauer, Michael. "U.S. Capitol Dome Restoration Kicks Off With Contractor Search." Washington Business Journal. January 31, 2013. Accessed 2013-02-04.
  3. 1 2 3 Declaration of Independence. Architect of the Capitol
  4. "The Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull". AmericanRevolution.ORG.
  5. "Facts About $2 Notes." Bureau of Engraving and Printing, United States Department of the Treasury. Archived 2006-10-07 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Surrender of General Burgoyne
  7. Surrender of Cornwallis
  8. Washington's Resignation
  9. Landing of Columbus
  10. Discovery of the Mississippi
  11. Embarkation of the Pilgrims
  12. Camia, Catalina (May 3, 2011). "Gerald Ford honored with statue in U.S. Capitol". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  13. George Washington (sculpture), from Smithsonian Institution Research Information System.
  14. George Washington (sculpture), from SIRIS.
  15. Martin Luther King, Jr
  16. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/rotunda/suffrage.cfm
  17. Usofsky, Melvin I. (Summer 2002). "The Levy Family and Monticello". Virginia Quarterly Review : 395–412.
  18. 1 2 "Those Who Have Lain in State" The Architect of the Capitol
  19. "The Catafalque" The Architect of the Capitol

Coordinates: 38°53′24″N77°0′32.4″W / 38.89000°N 77.009000°W / 38.89000; -77.009000