Logging

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A mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) being felled using springboards, c. 1884-1917, Australia Felling a gumtree c1884-1917 Powerhouse Museum.jpg
A mountain ash ( Eucalyptus regnans ) being felled using springboards, c.1884–1917, Australia
McGiffert Log Loader in East Texas, USA circa 1907 McGiffert Log Loader c. 1907.jpg
McGiffert Log Loader in East Texas, USA circa 1907

Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks [1] or skeleton cars. Logging is the process of cutting trees, processing them, and moving them to a location for transport. It is the beginning of a supply chain that provides raw material for many products societies worldwide use for housing, construction, energy, and consumer paper products. Logging systems are also used to manage forests, reduce the risk of wildfires, and restore ecosystem functions. [2]

Contents

In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, however, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities.

Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft by the timber mafia. [3] [4] It can also refer to the harvesting, transportation, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including the use of corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits. [5]

Clearcut logging is not necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method and is simply called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers".

Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value, often diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading. It is sometimes called selective logging, and confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees. [6]

Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded by damming to create reservoirs. Such trees are logged using underwater logging or by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. [7]

Clearcutting

Clearing 150,000 trees at Cwmcarn Forest, Ebbw Valle, Wales

Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes essentially all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, [8] including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, (for example, healthy regeneration of new trees on the site) and a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, and retention cutting.

Log transportation Logging in North Vancouver.jpg
Log transportation

Logging methods

The Washington Iron Works Skidder in Nuniong is the only one of its kind in Australia, with donkey engine, spars, and cables still rigged for work. Washington winch panorama.jpg
The Washington Iron Works Skidder in Nuniong is the only one of its kind in Australia, with donkey engine, spars, and cables still rigged for work.

The above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods:

Tree-length logging / stem-only harvesting

Trees are felled and then delimbed and topped at the stump. The log is then transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash (and the nutrients it contains) in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern.

Whole-tree logging

Horse logging in Poland Zrywka drewna w Masywie Snieznika PL.jpg
Horse logging in Poland
Cable logging in French Alps (cable grue Larix 3T) Larix3T.JPG
Cable logging in French Alps (cable grue Larix 3T)
Hardwood logs transported down the Suriname River, Suriname, South America in 1955 Hardwood logs transported down Suriname river.jpg
Hardwood logs transported down the Suriname River, Suriname, South America in 1955

Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down, top, and delimb a tree in the same process. This ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head that can be used. The trees are then delimbed, topped, and bucked at the landing. This method requires that slash be treated at the landing. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting also refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops. [9] This technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, however, depending on the species, many of the limbs are often broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.

Cut-to-length logging

Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing, bucking, and sorting (pulpwood, sawlog, etc.) at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree, delimb, and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder. This method is routinely available for trees up to 900 mm (35 in) in diameter. Harvesters are employed effectively in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are highly computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, and use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting.

Transporting logs

Timber rafting in Joensuu canal in 2009 Joensuun kanava2.jpg
Timber rafting in Joensuu canal in 2009
Log transport in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) c. 1870. Houtverwerking op de rivier, anoniem, 1850 - 1890 - Rijksmuseum crop.jpg
Log transport in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) c. 1870.
Paperwood awaiting transfer Logging in Finnish Lapland.jpg
Paperwood awaiting transfer
Timberjack Harvester at work TJ harvesteri.jpg
Timberjack Harvester at work

Felled logs are then generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill. The cheapest and historically most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. (Some logs sink because of high resin content; these are called deadheads.) To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat that was constructed of 1 12 inch (38 mm) steel. [10] In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, which was a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders, but in the 1930s tractors replaced the oxen. [11] In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet (7.3 m) high and a front dozer blade that was 30 feet (9.1 m) across and 6 feet (1.8 m) high. [12] Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are often far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones. When felled logs sit adjacent to a road, heavy machinery may simply lift logs onto trucks. Most often, special heavy equipment is used to gather the logs from the site and move them close to the road to be lifted on trucks. Many methods exist to transport felled logs lying away from roads. Cable logging involves a yarder, which pulls one or several logs along the ground to a platform where a truck is waiting. When the terrain is too uneven to pull logs on the ground, a skyline can lift logs off the ground vertically, similar to a ski lift. Heli-logging, which uses heavy-lift helicopters to remove cut trees from forests by lifting them on cables attached to a helicopter, may be used when cable logging is not allowed for environmental reasons or when roads are lacking. It reduces the level of infrastructure required to log in a specific location, reducing the environmental impact of logging. [13] Less mainstream or now for the most part superseded forms of log transport include horses, oxen, or balloon logging.

Safety considerations

Logging is a dangerous occupation. In the United States, it has consistently been one of the most hazardous industries and was recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. [14] [15]

In 2008, the logging industry employed 86,000 workers, and accounted for 93 deaths. This resulted in a fatality rate of 108.1 deaths per 100,000 workers that year. This rate is over 30 times higher than the overall fatality rate. [16] Forestry/logging-related injuries (fatal and non-fatal) are often difficult to track through formal reporting mechanisms. Thus, some programs have begun to monitor injuries through publicly available reports such as news media. [17] The logging industry experiences the highest fatality rate of 23.2 per 100,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) workers and a non-fatal incident rate of 8.5 per 100 FTE workers. The most common type of injuries or illnesses at work include musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), which include an extensive list of "inflammatory and degenerative conditions affecting the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, peripheral nerves, and supporting blood vessels." [18] Loggers work with heavy, moving weights, and use tools such as chainsaws and heavy equipment on uneven and sometimes steep or unstable terrain. Loggers also deal with severe environmental conditions, such as inclement weather and severe heat or cold. An injured logger is often far from professional emergency treatment.

Traditionally, the cry of "Timber!" developed as a warning alerting fellow workers in an area that a tree is being felled, so they should be alert to avoid being struck. The term "widowmaker" for timber that is neither standing nor fallen to the ground demonstrates another emphasis on situational awareness as a safety principle.

In British Columbia, Canada, the BC Forest Safety Council was created in September 2004 as a not-for-profit society dedicated to promoting safety in the forest sector. It works with employers, workers, contractors, and government agencies to implement fundamental changes necessary to make it safer to earn a living in forestry. [19]

The risks experienced in logging operations can be somewhat reduced, where conditions permit, by the use of mechanical tree harvesters, skidders, and forwarders.

See also

Related Research Articles

Forestry economic sector

Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences.

Lumberjack workers who perform the initial harvesting of trees

Lumberjacks are mostly North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term usually refers to a bygone era when hand tools were used in harvesting trees. Because of its historical ties, the term lumberjack has become ingrained in popular culture through folklore, mass media and spectator sports. The actual work was difficult, dangerous, intermittent, low-paying, and primitive in living conditions. However, the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, masculinity, confrontation with danger, and resistance to modernization.

Illegal logging harvest, transportation, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws

Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission, or from a protected area; the cutting down of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits.

Cut-to-length logging mechanized harvesting system in which trees are delimbed and cut to length

Cut-to-length logging (CTL) is a mechanized harvesting system in which trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump. CTL is typically a two-man, two-machine operation with a harvester felling, delimbing, and bucking trees and a forwarder transporting the logs from the felling to a landing area close to a road accessible by trucks.

Harvester (forestry) type of heavy forestry vehicle

A harvester is a type of heavy forestry vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees. A forest harvester is typically employed together with a forwarder that hauls the logs to a roadside landing.

Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, and quality of forests to meet values and needs, specifically timber production.

Clearcutting Forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down

Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, it is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystems and to promote select species that require an abundance of sunlight or grow in large, even-age stands. Logging companies and forest-worker unions in some countries support the practice for scientific, safety and economic reasons, while detractors consider it a form of deforestation that destroys natural habitats and contributes to climate change.

This article is the index of forestry topics.

Selection cutting

Selection cutting, also known as selection system, is the silvicultural practice of harvesting trees in a way that moves a forest stand towards an uneven-aged or all-aged condition, or 'structure'. Using stocking models derived from the study of old growth forests, '"Selection cutting"', also known as 'selection system', or 'selection silviculture', manages the establishment, continued growth and final harvest of multiple age classes of trees within a stand. A closely related approach to forest management is Continuous Cover Forestry (CCF), which makes use of selection systems to achieve a permanently irregular stand structure.

Sakari Pinomäki (1933–2011) was a Finnish systems engineer and an inventor, who pioneered the mechanized forestry industry. He was the founder of PIKA Forest Machines which produced the first purpose-built forest machine in 1964 in Ylöjärvi , Finland. His inventions had over 50 patents.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and guide to forestry:

Felling the process of downing individual trees

Felling is the process of cutting down individual trees, an element of the task of logging. The person cutting the trees is a feller.

Underwater logging is the process of logging trees from underwater forests. When artificial reservoirs and dams are built, large areas of forest are often inundated; although the trees die, the wood is often preserved. The trees can then be felled using special underwater machinery and floated up to the surface. One such machine is the sawfish harvester. There is an ongoing debate to determine whether or not underwater logging is a sustainable practice and if it is more environmentally sustainable than traditional logging.

Forest product any product derived from a forestery

A forest product is any material derived from forestry for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber, paper, or forage for livestock. Wood, by far the dominant product of forests, is used for many purposes, such as wood fuel or the finished structural materials used for the construction of buildings, or as a raw material, in the form of wood pulp, that is used in the production of paper. All other non-wood products derived from forest resources, comprising a broad variety of other forest products, are collectively described as non-timber forest products (NTFP). Non-timber forest products are viewed to have fewer negative effects on forest ecosystem when providing income sources for local community.

Variable retention is a relatively new silvicultural system that retains forest structural elements for at least one rotation in order to preserve environmental values associated with structurally complex forests.

Heli-logging method of logging that uses helicopters to remove cut trees from forests

Heli-logging, or helicopter logging, is a method of logging that uses helicopters to remove cut trees from forests by lifting them on cables attached to a helicopter. Helicopter logging is often used in inaccessible areas of forests. Because the use of helicopters reduces the level of infrastructure required to log in a specific location, the method also helps to reduce the environmental impact of logging. It also can increase the productivity in these remote areas.

Even-aged timber management

Even-aged timber management is a group of forest management practices employed to achieve a nearly coeval cohort group of forest trees. The practice of even-aged management is often pursued to minimize costs to loggers. In some cases, the practices of even aged timber management are frequently implicated in biodiversity loss and other ecological damage. Even-aged timber management can also be beneficial to restoring natural native species succession.

When logging began in British Columbia, Canada, in the late 19th century, the overriding concern was to harvest timber in the most economical fashion. Reforestation, aesthetics and protection of fish and wildlife habitat were not issues of great concern.

Deforestation in British Columbia

The deforestation in British Columbia has occurred at a heavy rate during periods of the past, but with new sustainable efforts and programs the rate of deforestation is decreasing in the province. In British Columbia, forests cover over 55 million hectares, which is 57.9% of British Columbia's 95 million hectares of land. The forests are mainly composed of coniferous trees, such as pines, spruces and firs.

The wood industry or lumber industry is a—usually private—economic sector concerned with forestry, logging, timber trade, and the production of forest products, timber/lumber, primary forest and wood products and secondary products like wood pulp for the pulp and paper industry. Some largest producers are also among the biggest timberland owners.

References

  1. Society of American Foresters, 1998. Dictionary of Forestry. Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Keifer, Matthew; Casanova, Vanessa; Garland, John; Smidt, Mathew; Struttmann, Tim (2019-04-03). "Foreword by the Editor-in-Chief and Guest Editors". Journal of Agromedicine. 24 (2): 119–120. doi:10.1080/1059924X.2019.1596697. ISSN   1059-924X. PMID   30890041.
  3. Virginia Tech: Dealing with Timber Theft Archived 2008-10-17 at the Wayback Machine
  4. msnbc.com — Guilty pleas in cedar tree theft September 23, 2008 [ dead link ]
  5. Illegal Logging.Info
  6. Forest Matters: Just Say No to High Grading page 8 Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Triton Logging". Archived from the original on 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
  8. Society of American Foresters, 1998. Dictionary of Forestry. Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ceres.ca.gov — Fire-Silviculture Relationships in Sierra Forests Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  10. "Water Bulldozer." Popular Science, June 1960, p. 94, bottom of page.
  11. "Wanted An-Inventor!" Popular Mechanics Monthly, July 1930, pp 66-70, see pg 67 middle photo
  12. "Huge Logging Tractor Moves on Wheels 24 Feet High." Popular Science, June 1960, pp. 96-98.
  13. Helicopter logging or Heli-logging Archived 2009-06-04 at the Wayback Machine , Forestry.com
  14. "CDC - NORA Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Sector Council". www.cdc.gov. 2019-02-10. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
  15. Keifer, Matthew; Casanova, Vanessa; Garland, John; Smidt, Mathew; Struttmann, Tim (2019-04-03). "Foreword by the Editor-in-Chief and Guest Editors". Journal of Agromedicine. 24 (2): 119–120. doi:10.1080/1059924X.2019.1596697. ISSN   1059-924X. PMID   30890041.
  16. "NIOSH Logging Safety". United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  17. Weichelt, Bryan; Gorucu, Serap (2018-02-17). "Supplemental surveillance: a review of 2015 and 2016 agricultural injury data from news reports on AgInjuryNews.org". Injury Prevention. 25 (3): injuryprev–2017–042671. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042671. ISSN   1353-8047. PMID   29386372.
  18. Rodriguez, Anabel; Casanova, Vanessa; Levin, Jeffrey L.; Porras, David Gimeno Ruiz de; Douphrate, David I. (2019-04-03). "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Loggers in the Ark-La-Tex Region". Journal of Agromedicine. 24 (2): 167–176. doi:10.1080/1059924X.2019.1567423. ISSN   1059-924X. PMC   7008449 . PMID   30624156.
  19. BC Forest Safety Council

Further reading