Chief Justice of the United States

Last updated

Chief Justice of the United States
Seal of the United States Supreme Court.svg
Seal of the Supreme Court
Official roberts CJ.jpg
Incumbent
John Roberts

since September 29, 2005
Supreme Court of the United States
Style Mr. Chief Justice
(informal)
Your Honor
(within court)
The Honorable
(formal)
Status Chief justice
Member of Federal judiciary
Judicial Conference
Administrative Office of the Courts
Seat Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C.
AppointerThe President
with Senate advice and consent
Term length Life tenure
Constituting instrument Constitution of the United States
FormationMarch 4, 1789
(231 years ago)
 (1789-03-04)
First holder John Jay
Website SupremeCourt.gov

The chief justice of the United States [1] [2] is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and the highest-ranking officer of the U.S. federal judiciary. Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the U.S. Constitution grants plenary power to the president of the United States to nominate, and with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, appoint "Judges of the supreme Court", who serve until they resign, retire, are impeached and convicted, or die. The existence of a chief justice is explicit in Article One, Section 3, Clause 6 which states that the chief justice shall preside on the impeachment trial of the president.

Contents

The chief justice has significant influence in the selection of cases for review, presides when oral arguments are held, and leads the discussion of cases among the justices. Additionally, when the court renders an opinion, the chief justice, if in the majority, chooses who writes the court's opinion. When deciding a case, however, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any other justice.

Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 designates the chief justice to preside during presidential impeachment trials in the Senate; this has occurred three times. While nowhere mandated, the presidential oath of office is by tradition typically administered by the chief justice. The chief justice serves as a spokesperson for the federal government's judicial branch and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts. The chief justice presides over the Judicial Conference and, in that capacity, appoints the director and deputy director of the Administrative Office. The chief justice is an ex officio member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and, by custom, is elected chancellor of the board.

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 17 people have served as chief justice, beginning with John Jay (1789–1795). The current chief justice is John Roberts (since 2005). Five of the 17 chief justices—John Rutledge, Edward Douglass White, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan Fiske Stone, and William Rehnquist—served as associate justice prior to becoming chief justice.

Origin, title, and appointment

The United States Constitution does not explicitly establish an office of chief justice but presupposes its existence with a single reference in Article I, Section 3, Clause 6: "When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside." Nothing more is said in the Constitution regarding the office. Article III, Section 1, which authorizes the establishment of the Supreme Court, refers to all members of the court simply as "judges". The Judiciary Act of 1789 created the distinctive titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

In 1866, Salmon P. Chase assumed the title of Chief Justice of the United States, and Congress began using the new title in subsequent legislation. [2] The first person whose Supreme Court commission contained the modified title was Melville Fuller in 1888. [3] The associate justice title was not altered in 1866 and remains as originally created.

The chief justice, like all federal judges, is nominated by the president and confirmed to office by the U.S. Senate. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution specifies that they "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior". This language means that the appointments are effectively for life and that once in office, a justice's tenure ends only when the justice dies, retires, resigns, or is removed from office through the impeachment process. Since 1789, 15 presidents have made a total of 22 official nominations to the position. [4]

The salary of the chief justice is set by Congress; the current (2019) annual salary is $270,700, which is slightly higher than that of associate justices, which is $258,900. [5] The practice of appointing an individual to serve as chief justice is grounded in tradition; while the Constitution mandates that there be a chief justice, it is silent on the subject of how one is chosen and by whom. There is no specific constitutional prohibition against using another method to select the chief justice from among those justices properly appointed and confirmed to the Supreme Court.

Three incumbent associate justices have been nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate as chief justice: Edward Douglass White in 1910, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1941, and William Rehnquist in 1986. A fourth, Abe Fortas, was nominated to the position in 1968 but was not confirmed. As an associate justice does not have to resign his or her seat on the court in order to be nominated as chief justice, Fortas remained an associate justice. Similarly, when Associate Justice William Cushing was nominated and confirmed as chief justice in January 1796 but declined the office, he too remained on the court. Two former associate justices subsequently returned to service on the court as chief justice. John Rutledge was the first. President Washington gave him a recess appointment in 1795. However, his subsequent nomination to the office was not confirmed by the Senate, and he left office and the court. In 1930, former Associate Justice Charles Evans Hughes was confirmed as chief justice. Additionally, in December 1800, former Chief Justice John Jay was nominated and confirmed to the position a second time but ultimately declined it, opening the way for the appointment of John Marshall. [4]

Powers and duties

Along with his general responsibilities as a member of the Supreme Court, the chief justice has several unique duties to fulfill.

Impeachment trials

Article I, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution stipulates that the chief justice shall preside over the Senate trial of an impeached president of the United States. Three chief justices have presided over presidential impeachment trials: Salmon P. Chase (1868 trial of Andrew Johnson), William Rehnquist (1999 trial of Bill Clinton), and John Roberts (2020 trial of Donald Trump). All three presidents were acquitted in the Senate. Although the Constitution is silent on the matter, the chief justice would, under Senate rules adopted in 1999 prior to the Clinton trial, preside over the trial of an impeached vice president. [6] [7] This rule was established to preclude the possibility of a vice president presiding over their own trial.

Seniority

Many of the court's procedures and inner workings are governed by the rules of protocol based on the seniority of the justices. The chief justice always ranks first in the order of precedence—regardless of the length of the officeholder's service (even if shorter than that of one or more associate justices). This elevated status has enabled successive chief justices to define and refine both the court's culture and its judicial priorities.

The chief justice sets the agenda for the weekly meetings where the justices review the petitions for certiorari, to decide whether to hear or deny each case. The Supreme Court agrees to hear less than one percent of the cases petitioned to it. While associate justices may append items to the weekly agenda, in practice this initial agenda-setting power of the chief justice has significant influence over the direction of the court. Nonetheless, a chief justice's influence may be limited by circumstances and the associate justices' understanding of legal principles; it is definitely limited by the fact that he has only a single vote of nine on the decision whether to grant or deny certiorari. [8] [9]

Despite the chief justice's elevated stature, his vote carries the same legal weight as the vote of each associate justice. Additionally, he has no legal authority to overrule the verdicts or interpretations of the other eight judges or tamper with them. [8] The task of assigning who shall write the opinion for the majority falls to the most senior justice in the majority. Thus, when the chief justice is in the majority, he always assigns the opinion. [10] Early in his tenure, Chief Justice John Marshall insisted upon holdings which the justices could unanimously back as a means to establish and build the court's national prestige. In doing so, Marshall would often write the opinions himself and actively discouraged dissenting opinions. Associate Justice William Johnson eventually persuaded Marshall and the rest of the court to adopt its present practice: one justice writes an opinion for the majority, and the rest are free to write their own separate opinions or not, whether concurring or dissenting. [11]

The chief justice's formal prerogative—when in the majority—to assign which justice will write the court's opinion is perhaps his most influential power, [9] as this enables him to influence the historical record. [8] He may assign this task to the individual justice best able to hold together a fragile coalition, to an ideologically amenable colleague, or to himself. Opinion authors can have a large influence on the content of an opinion; two justices in the same majority, given the opportunity, might write very different majority opinions. [9] A chief justice who knows the associate justices well can therefore do much—by the simple act of selecting the justice who writes the opinion of the court—to affect the general character or tone of an opinion, which in turn can affect the interpretation of that opinion in cases before lower courts in the years to come.

The chief justice chairs the conferences where cases are discussed and tentatively voted on by the justices. He normally speaks first and so has influence in framing the discussion. Although the chief justice votes first—the court votes in order of seniority—he may strategically pass in order to ensure membership in the majority if desired. [9] It is reported that:

Chief Justice Warren Burger was renowned, and even vilified in some quarters, for voting strategically during conference discussions on the Supreme Court in order to control the Court's agenda through opinion assignment. Indeed, Burger is said to have often changed votes to join the majority coalition, cast "phony votes" by voting against his preferred position, and declined to express a position at conference. [12]

Presidential oath

The chief justice commonly administers the oath of office of the president of the United States. This is a tradition, rather than a constitutional responsibility of the chief justice; the Constitution does not require that the oath be administered by anyone in particular, simply that it be taken by the president. Law empowers any federal or state judge, as well as notaries public, to administer oaths and affirmations. The chief justice ordinarily administers the oath of office to newly appointed and confirmed associate justices, whereas the seniormost associate justice will normally swear in a new chief justice.

If the chief justice is ill or incapacitated, the oath is usually administered by the seniormost member of the Supreme Court. Seven times, someone other than the chief justice of the United States administered the oath of office to the president. [13] Robert Livingston, as chancellor of the state of New York (the state's highest ranking judicial office), administered the oath of office to George Washington at his first inauguration; there was no chief justice of the United States, nor any other federal judge prior to their appointments by President Washington in the months following his inauguration. William Cushing, an associate justice of the Supreme Court, administered Washington's second oath of office in 1793. Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary public, administered the oath to his son after the death of Warren Harding. [14] This, however, was contested upon Coolidge's return to Washington, and his oath was re-administered by Judge Adolph A. Hoehling, Jr. of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. [15] John Tyler and Millard Fillmore were both sworn in on the death of their predecessors by Chief Justice William Cranch of the Circuit Court of the District of Columbia. [16] Chester A. Arthur and Theodore Roosevelt's initial oaths reflected the unexpected nature of their taking office. On November 22, 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Judge Sarah T. Hughes, a federal district court judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, administered the oath of office to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson aboard the presidential airplane.

Other duties

Since the tenure of William Howard Taft, the office of chief justice has moved beyond just first among equals. [17] The chief justice also:

Unlike Senators and Representatives, who are constitutionally prohibited from holding any other "office of trust or profit" of the United States or of any state while holding their congressional seats, the chief justice and the other members of the federal judiciary are not barred from serving in other positions. John Jay served as a diplomat to negotiate the Jay Treaty, Robert H. Jackson was appointed by President Truman to be the U.S. prosecutor in the Nuremberg trials of leading Nazis, and Earl Warren chaired the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy.

Disability or vacancy

Under 28 U.S.C.   § 3, when the chief justice is unable to discharge his functions, or when that office is vacant, the chief justice's duties are carried out by the most senior associate justice until the disability or vacancy ends. [20] Currently, Clarence Thomas is the most senior associate justice.

List of chief justices

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, the following 17 men have served as chief justice: [21] [22]

Chief JusticeDate confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure [lower-alpha 1] Tenure lengthAppointed byPrior position [lower-alpha 2]
1 CJ Jay.tif John Jay
(1745–1829)
September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 19, 1789

June 29, 1795
(resigned)
5 years, 253 days George Washington Acting
United States Secretary of State
(1789–1790)
2 John Rutledge color painting.jpg John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
December 15, 1795
(10–14) [lower-alpha 3]
August 12, 1795 [lower-alpha 4]

December 28, 1795
(resigned, nomination having been rejected)
138 daysChief Justice of the
South Carolina Court of
Common Pleas and Sessions
(1791–1795)
Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1789–1791)
3 CJ Ellsworth.tif Oliver Ellsworth
(1745–1807)
March 4, 1796
(21–1)
March 8, 1796

December 15, 1800
(resigned)
4 years, 282 days United States Senator
from Connecticut
(1789–1796)
4 CJ Marshall copy.png John Marshall
(1755–1835)
January 27, 1801
(acclamation)
February 4, 1801

July 6, 1835
(died)
34 years, 152 days John Adams 4th
United States Secretary of State
(1800–1801)
5 CJ Taney.tif Roger B. Taney
(1777–1864)
March 15, 1836
(29–15)
March 28, 1836

October 12, 1864
(died)
28 years, 198 days Andrew Jackson 12th
United States Secretary
of the Treasury

(1833–1834)
6 CJ Chase.tif Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
December 6, 1864
(acclamation)
December 15, 1864

May 7, 1873
(died)
8 years, 143 days Abraham Lincoln 25th
United States Secretary
of the Treasury

(1861–1864)
7 CJ Waite.tif Morrison Waite
(1816–1888)
January 21, 1874
(63–0)
March 4, 1874

March 23, 1888
(died)
14 years, 19 days Ulysses S. Grant Ohio State Senator
(1849–1850)
Presiding officer,
Ohio constitutional convention
(1873)
8 CJ Fuller.tif Melville Fuller
(1833–1910)
July 20, 1888
(41–20)
October 8, 1888

July 4, 1910
(died)
21 years, 269 days Grover Cleveland President,
Illinois State Bar Association
(1886)
Illinois State Representative
(1863–1865)
9 CJ White.tif Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
December 12, 1910 [lower-alpha 5]
(acclamation)
December 19, 1910

May 19, 1921
(died)
10 years, 151 days William Howard Taft Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1894–1910)
10 CJ Taft.tif William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
June 30, 1921
(acclamation)
July 11, 1921

February 3, 1930
(retired)
8 years, 207 days Warren G. Harding 27th
President of the United States
(1909–1913)
11 CJ Hughes.tif Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
February 13, 1930
(52–26)
February 24, 1930

June 30, 1941
(retired)
11 years, 126 days Herbert Hoover 44th
United States Secretary of State
(1921–1925)
Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1910–1916)
12 CJ Stone.tif Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
June 27, 1941 [lower-alpha 5]
(acclamation)
July 3, 1941

April 22, 1946
(died)
4 years, 293 days Franklin D. Roosevelt Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1925–1941)
13 CJ Vinson.tif Fred M. Vinson
(1890–1953)
June 20, 1946
(acclamation)
June 24, 1946

September 8, 1953
(died)
7 years, 76 days Harry S. Truman 53rd
United States Secretary
of the Treasury

(1945–1946)
14 CJ Warren.tif Earl Warren
(1891–1974)
March 1, 1954
(acclamation)
October 5, 1953 [lower-alpha 4]

June 23, 1969
(retired)
15 years, 261 days Dwight D. Eisenhower 30th
Governor of California
(1943–1953)
15 CJ Burger.tif Warren E. Burger
(1907–1995)
June 9, 1969
(74–3)
June 23, 1969

September 26, 1986
(retired)
17 years, 95 days Richard Nixon Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1956–1969)
16 CJ Rehnquist.tif William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
September 17, 1986 [lower-alpha 5]
(65–33)
September 26, 1986

September 3, 2005
(died)
18 years, 342 days Ronald Reagan Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1972–1986)
17 CJ Roberts.tif John Roberts
(born 1955)
September 29, 2005
(78–22)
September 29, 2005

Incumbent
15 years, 59 days George W. Bush Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(2003–2005)

Notes

  1. The start date given here for each chief justice is the day they took the oath of office, and the end date is the day of the justice's death, resignation, or retirement.
  2. Listed here (unless otherwise noted) is the position—either with a U.S. state or the federal government—held by the individual immediately prior to becoming Chief Justice of the United States.
  3. This was the first Supreme Court nomination to be rejected by the United States Senate. Rutledge remains the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  4. 1 2 Recess appointment. Note: the date on which the justice took the judicial oath is here used as the date of the beginning of their service, not the date of the recess appointment.
  5. 1 2 3 Elevated from associate justice to chief justice while serving on the Supreme Court. The nomination of a sitting associate justice to be chief justice is subject to a separate confirmation process.

Related Research Articles

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Member of the U.S. Supreme Court other than the Chief Justice

An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is any member of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the chief justice of the United States. The number of associate justices is eight, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869.

Impeachment Officially accusing a civil officer

Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body addresses charges against a government official. National legislations differ regarding the definition and consequences of an impeachment. In many countries, for example those in Latin America, "impeachment" refers to a definitive destitution; a president in these jurisdictions is therefore only considered "impeached" when he or she has been definitely removed from office. In the United States, on the other hand, "impeachment" refers to a previous step, that of the authority's indictment; a U. S. president impeached by the House of Representatives remains in power while charges are addressed by the Senate, and may be found not guilty.

Supreme Court of the United States Highest court in the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal and state court cases that involve a point of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party". The Court holds the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution. It is also able to strike down presidential directives for violating either the Constitution or statutory law. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction. The Court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide non-justiciable political questions.

Federal government of the United States National government of the United States

The federal government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories and several island possessions. The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of Congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court.

Samuel Chase Justice on the US Supreme Court (1741-1811)

Samuel Chase was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. He was impeached by the House on grounds of letting his partisan leanings affect his court decisions but was acquitted by the Senate and remained in office.

William Cushing Justice on the US Supreme Court

William Cushing was one of the original five associate justices of the United States Supreme Court; confirmed by the United States Senate on September 26, 1789, he served until his death. His Supreme Court tenure of 20 years and 11 months was the longest among the Court's inaugural members. In January 1796, he was nominated by President George Washington to become the Court's Chief Justice; though confirmed, he declined the appointment. He was the last judge in the United States to wear a full wig.

New Hampshire Supreme Court The highest court in the U.S. state of New Hampshire

The New Hampshire Supreme Court is the supreme court of the U. S. state of New Hampshire and sole appellate court of the state. The Supreme Court is seated in the state capital, Concord. The Court is composed of a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices appointed by the Governor and Executive Council to serve during "good behavior" until retirement or the age of seventy. The senior member of the Court is able to specially assign lower-court judges, as well as retired justices, to fill vacancies on the Court.

Harlan F. Stone United States federal judge

Harlan Fiske Stone was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1925 to 1941 and then as the Chief Justice of the United States from 1941 until his death in 1946. He also served as the U.S. Attorney General from 1924 to 1925 under President Calvin Coolidge, with whom he had attended Amherst College as a young man. His most famous dictum was: "Courts are not the only agency of government that must be assumed to have capacity to govern."

Benjamin Robbins Curtis United States Supreme Court Justice

Benjamin Robbins Curtis was an American attorney and United States Supreme Court Justice. Curtis was the first and only Whig justice of the Supreme Court. He was also the first Supreme Court justice to have a formal legal degree and is the only justice to have resigned from the court over a matter of principle. He successfully acted as chief counsel for the Impeachment of U.S. President Andrew Johnson during the first presidential impeachment trial and is notable as one of the two dissenters in the Dred Scott decision.

Impeachment in the United States Officially accusing a civil officer

Impeachment in the United States is the process by which a legislature brings charges against a civil officer of government for crimes alleged to have been committed, analogous to the bringing of an indictment by a grand jury. Impeachment may occur at the federal level or the state level. The federal House of Representatives can impeach federal officials, including the president, and each state's legislature can impeach state officials, including the governor, in accordance with their respective federal or state constitution.

John Roberts 17th Chief Justice of the United States

John Glover Roberts Jr. is an American lawyer and jurist who serves as Chief Justice of the United States. Roberts has authored the majority opinion in several landmark cases, including Shelby County v. Holder, National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, King v. Burwell, Department of Commerce v. New York, and Department of Homeland Security v. Regents of the University of California. He has been described as having a conservative judicial philosophy but has shown a willingness to work with the Supreme Court's liberal bloc, and since the retirement of Anthony Kennedy in 2018 has come to be regarded as a key swing vote on the Court. Roberts presided over the impeachment trial of President Donald Trump.

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines highest judicial officer

The chief justice of the Supreme Court presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the Philippines. As of October 23, 2019, the position is currently held by Diosdado Peralta, who was appointed by President Rodrigo Duterte following the mandatory retirement of his predecessor Lucas Bersamin in October 2019.

John Roberts Supreme Court nomination United States supreme court nomination

On September 5, 2005, President George W. Bush announced that he would nominate Judge John Roberts for the position of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, to succeed William H. Rehnquist, who had died two days earlier. In July 2005, Roberts had been nominated to replace retiring Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor; however, following Rehnquist's death, that still-pending nomination was withdrawn.

Roberts Court Period of the Supreme Court of the United States from 2005-present

The Roberts Court is the time since 2005 during which the Supreme Court of the United States has been led by Chief Justice John Roberts. It is generally considered more conservative than the preceding Rehnquist Court, as well as the most conservative court since the 1940s Vinson Court. This is due to the retirement of moderate Justices Sandra Day O'Connor and Anthony Kennedy, and the death of liberal Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and the subsequent confirmation of the conservative Justices Samuel Alito, Brett Kavanaugh, and Amy Coney Barrett respectively in their place.

Jay Court

The Jay Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States from 1789 to 1795, when John Jay served as the first Chief Justice of the United States. Jay served as Chief Justice until his resignation, at which point John Rutledge took office as a recess appointment. The Supreme Court was established in Article III of the United States Constitution, but the workings of the federal court system were largely laid out by the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established a six-member Supreme Court, composed of one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. As the first President, George Washington was responsible for appointing the entire Supreme Court. The act also created thirteen judicial districts, along with district courts and circuit courts for each district.

William Rehnquist Former Chief Justice of the United States

William Hubbs Rehnquist was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986 and then as Chief Justice from 1986 until his death in 2005. Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendment's reservation of powers to the states. Under this view of federalism, the court, for the first time since the 1930s, struck down an act of Congress as exceeding its power under the Commerce Clause.

Robert Trimble Former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

Robert Trimble was a lawyer and jurist who served as Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, as United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky and as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1826 to his death in 1828. During his brief Supreme Court tenure he authored several majority opinions, including the decision in Ogden v. Saunders, which was the only majority opinion that Chief Justice John Marshall ever dissented from during his 34 years on the Court.

Nomination and confirmation to the Supreme Court of the United States political process

The nomination, confirmation, and appointment of Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States involves several steps set forth by the United States Constitution, which have been further refined and developed by decades of tradition. Candidates are nominated by the President of the United States and must face a series of hearings in which both the nominee and other witnesses make statements and answer questions before the Senate Judiciary Committee, which can vote to send the nomination to the full United States Senate. Confirmation by the Senate allows the President to formally appoint the candidate to the court. The Constitution does not set any qualifications for service as a Justice, thus the President may nominate any individual to serve on the Court.

References

  1. Rutkus, Denis Steven (2007). The Chief Justice of the United States. Nova Publishers. ISBN   9781600212253.
  2. 1 2 Biskupic, Joan (March 26, 2019). The Chief: The Life and Turbulent Times of Chief Justice John Roberts. Basic Books. ISBN   9780465093281.
  3. "Administrative Agencies: Office of the Chief Justice, 1789–present". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
  4. 1 2 McMillion, Barry J.; Rutkus, Denis Steven (July 6, 2018). "Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 to 2017: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President" (PDF). fas.org (Federation of American Scientists). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  5. "Judicial Compensation". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  6. https://www.senate.gov/reference/Index/Impeachment.htm
  7. Sisco, Gary (January 13, 1999). "IMPEACHMENT OF PRESIDENT WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS; RULES OF PROCEDURE AND PRACTICE IN THE SENATE WHEN SITTING ON IMPEACHMENT TRIALS; ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT AGAINST PRESIDENT WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON; PRESIDENT CLINTON'S ANSWER; AND REPLICATION OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES" (PDF). govinfo.gov. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  8. 1 2 3 "Judiciary". Ithaca, New York: Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Cross, Frank B.; Lindquist, Stefanie (June 2006). "The decisional significance of the Chief Justice" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania Law Review. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Law School. 154 (6): 1665–1707. doi:10.2307/40041349. JSTOR   40041349.
  10. O'Brien, David M. (2008). Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (8th ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. p.  267. ISBN   978-0-393-93218-8.
  11. O'Brien, David M. (2008). Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (8th ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. p.  115. ISBN   978-0-393-93218-8.
  12. Johnson, Timothy R.; Spriggs II, James F.; Wahlbeck, Paul J. (June 2005). "Passing and Strategic Voting on the U.S. Supreme Court". Law & Society Review. Law and Society Association, through Wiley. 39 (2): 349–377. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.509.6707 . doi:10.1111/j.0023-9216.2005.00085.x.
  13. "Presidential Inaugurations: Presidential Oaths of Office". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  14. "Excerpt from Coolidge's autobiography". Historicvermont.org. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  15. "Prologue: Selected Articles". Archives.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  16. "Presidential Swearing-In Ceremony, Part 5 of 6". Inaugural.senate.gov. Archived from the original on February 3, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  17. O'Brien, David M. (2008). Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (8th ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. p.  153. ISBN   978-0-393-93218-8.
  18. "Alien Terrorist Removal Court, 1996-present". Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  19. "Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. March 6, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  20. Pettys, Todd E. (2006). "Choosing a Chief Justice: Presidential Prerogative or a Job for the Court?". Journal of Law & Politics. The University of Iowa College of Law. 22 (3): 231–281. SSRN   958829 .
  21. "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789–Present". www.senate.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  22. "Justices 1789 to Present". www.supremecourt.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2018.

Further reading