Air Force One

Last updated

SAM 28000, one of the two VC-25As used as Air Force One, flying over Mount Rushmore in February 2001 Air Force One over Mt. Rushmore.jpg
SAM 28000, one of the two VC-25As used as Air Force One, flying over Mount Rushmore in February 2001

Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign for a United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. [1] In common parlance the term describes those U.S. Air Force aircraft designed, built, and used to transport the president. The presidential aircraft is a prominent symbol of the American presidency and its power. [2]

Air traffic control A public service provided for the purpose of maintaining the safe and orderly flow of air traffic

Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC plays a security or defensive role, or is operated by the military.

In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or even cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity.

United States Air Force Air and space warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.

Contents

The idea of designating specific military aircraft to transport the President arose in 1943, when officials of the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor to the U.S. Air Force, became concerned over the reliance on commercial airlines to transport the president. A C-87 Liberator Express was reconfigured for use as the first dedicated VIP and presidential transport aircraft and named Guess Where II, but the Secret Service rejected it because of its safety record. A C-54 Skymaster was then converted for presidential use; this aircraft, dubbed the Sacred Cow, carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Yalta Conference in February 1945 and was subsequently used for another two years by President Harry S. Truman.

Military aircraft Aircraft designed or utilized for use in or support of military operations

A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. Military aircraft can be either combat or non-combat:

Transportation of the President of the United States

The United States government has maintained a variety of vehicles for the President. Because of his role as Commander-in-Chief he exclusively uses military transports for international travel, however the civilian Secret Service operates the President's motorcade.

United States Army Air Forces Aerial warfare branch of the United States army from 1941 to 1947

The United States Army Air Forces, informally known as the Air Force,or United States Army Air Force, was the aerial warfare service component of the United States Army during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply, and the Army Air Forces. Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff.

The "Air Force One" call sign was created after a 1953 incident during which a Lockheed Constellation named Columbine II , carrying President Dwight D. Eisenhower, entered the same airspace as a commercial airline flight using the same flight number. [3] [4] [5]

Military call signs are call signs assigned as unique identifiers to military communications. In wartime, monitoring an adversary's communications can be a valuable form of intelligence. Consistent call signs can aid in this monitoring, so in wartime, military units often employ tactical call signs and sometimes change them at regular intervals. In peacetime, some military stations will use fixed call signs in the international series.

Lockheed Constellation Family of four-engine propeller-driven airliners

The Lockheed Constellation ("Connie") is a propeller-driven, four-engine airliner built by Lockheed Corporation between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California. Lockheed built 856 in numerous models—all with the same triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. Most were powered by four 18-cylinder Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclones. The Constellation was used as a civil airliner and as a military and civilian air transport, seeing service in the Berlin and the Biafran airlifts. The Constellation series was the first pressurized-cabin civil airliner series to go into widespread use. Its pressurized cabin enabled large numbers of commercial passengers to fly well above most bad weather for the first time, thus significantly improving the general safety and ease of air-travel. Three of them served as the presidential aircraft for Dwight D. Eisenhower.

<i>Columbine II</i>

Columbine II is a Lockheed VC-121A-LO Constellation ; the aircraft that was to become the first plane to use the Air Force One callsign and the only Presidential aircraft ever sold to a private party. The aircraft was ferried from long term storage in the Sonoran Desert at Marana Regional Airport, Arizona, to the east coast for restoration in March 2016.

A number of aircraft types have been used as Air Force One since the creation of the presidential fleet, starting with two Lockheed Constellations in the late 1950s: Columbine II and Columbine III. It also operated two Boeing 707s, introduced in the 1960s and 1970s; since 1990, the presidential fleet has been two Boeing VC-25As, which are specifically configured, highly customized Boeing 747-200B series aircraft. The U.S. Air Force plans to procure the Boeing 747-8 for the next version of Air Force One.

Boeing 707 Narrow-body jet airliner family

The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979. Versions of the aircraft have a capacity from 140 to 219 passengers and a range of 2,500 to 5,750 nautical miles.

Boeing VC-25 US Air Force presidential transport aircraft by Boeing

The Boeing VC-25 is a military version of the Boeing 747 airliner, modified for presidential transport and operated by the United States Air Force as Air Force One, the call sign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States.

Boeing 747-8 Wide-body airliner, current production series of the 747

The Boeing 747-8 is a wide-body jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was officially announced in 2005. The 747-8 is the third generation of the 747, with a lengthened fuselage, redesigned wings, new engines, and improved efficiency. The 747-8 is the largest 747 version, the largest commercial aircraft built in the United States, and the longest passenger aircraft in the world.

History

Background

Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Arch Hoxsey before their flight from St. Louis in October 1910 Theodore Roosevelt and Archibald Hoxsey (1910).jpg
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Arch Hoxsey before their flight from St. Louis in October 1910

On 11 October 1910, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. president to fly in an aircraft, an early Wright Flyer from Kinloch Field near St. Louis, Missouri. He was no longer in office at the time, having been succeeded by William Howard Taft. The record-making occasion was a brief overflight of the crowd at a county fair but was nonetheless the beginning of presidential air travel. [6]

Theodore Roosevelt 26th president of the United States

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, sportsman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He previously served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is generally ranked as one of the five best presidents.

<i>Wright Flyer</i> First powered aircraft built by the Wright brothers

The Wright Flyer was the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft. It was designed and built by the Wright brothers. They flew it four times on December 17, 1903, near Kill Devil Hills, about four miles (6.4 km) south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Today, the airplane is exhibited in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C. The U.S. Smithsonian Institution describes the aircraft as "the first powered, heavier-than-air machine to achieve controlled, sustained flight with a pilot aboard." The flight of Flyer I marks the beginning of the "pioneer era" of aviation.

St. Louis Independent city in the United States

St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U.S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois. The Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world. The city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, and the 22nd-largest in the United States.

Prior to World War II, overseas and cross-country presidential travel was rare. The lack of wireless telecommunication and available modes of transportation made long-distance travel impractical, as it took too much time and isolated the president from events in Washington, D.C. Railroads were a safer and more reliable option if the president needed to travel to distant states. By the late 1930s, with the arrival of aircraft such as the Douglas DC-3, increasing numbers of the U.S. public saw passenger air travel as a reasonable mode of transportation. All-metal aircraft, more reliable engines, and new radio aids to navigation had made commercial airline travel safer and more convenient. Life insurance companies even began to offer airline pilots insurance policies, albeit at extravagant rates, and many commercial travelers and government officials began using the airlines in preference to rail travel, especially for longer trips.

Douglas DC-3 Airliner and military transport aircraft family

The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner that revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever produced. It has a cruise speed of 207 mph (333 km/h), capacity of 21 to 32 passengers or 6,000 lbs of cargo and a range of 1,500 mi (2,400 km).

First presidential aircraft

Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to fly in an aircraft while in office. The first aircraft obtained specifically for presidential travel was a Douglas Dolphin amphibian delivered in 1933 which was designated RD-2 by the US Navy and based at the Naval base at Anacostia D.C. The Dolphin was modified with luxury upholstery for four passengers and a small separate sleeping compartment. [7] The aircraft remained in service as a presidential transport from 1933 until 1939. [8] There are no reports, however, on whether the president actually flew in the aircraft. During World War II, Roosevelt traveled on the Dixie Clipper, a Pan Am-crewed Boeing 314 flying boat to the 1943 Casablanca Conference in Morocco, a flight that covered 5,500 miles (8,890 km) in three legs. [9] The threat from the German submarines throughout the Battle of the Atlantic made air travel the preferred method of VIP transatlantic transportation. [10]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Douglas C-54 Skymaster aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow Sacred Cow airplane.jpg
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Douglas C-54 Skymaster aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow

Concerned about relying upon commercial airlines to transport the president, USAAF leaders ordered the conversion of a military aircraft to accommodate the special needs of the Commander-in-Chief. [11] The first dedicated aircraft proposed for presidential use was a C-87A VIP transport aircraft. This aircraft, number 41-24159, was modified in 1943 for use as a presidential VIP transport, the Guess Where II, intended to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt on international trips. [12] Had it been accepted, it would have been the first aircraft to be used in presidential service. However, after a review of the C-87's highly controversial safety record in service, the Secret Service flatly refused to approve the Guess Where II for presidential carriage. [12] As the C-87 was a derivative of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber, it presented strong offensive impressions to enemy fighter aircraft as well as foreign destinations visited, an issue not present with airplanes that were used purely for transport. The Guess Where II was used to transport senior members of the Roosevelt administration on various trips. In March 1944, it transported Eleanor Roosevelt on a goodwill tour of several Latin American countries. The C-87 was scrapped in 1945. [12]

The Secret Service subsequently reconfigured a Douglas C-54 Skymaster for presidential transport duty. The VC-54C aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow, included a sleeping area, radio telephone, and retractable elevator to lift Roosevelt in his wheelchair. As modified, the VC-54C was used by President Roosevelt only once before his death, on his trip to the Yalta Conference in February 1945. [11]

Sacred Cow is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

Late 1940s and 1950s

The VC-118 Independence used primarily by President Truman Independence aircraft.png
The VC-118 Independence used primarily by President Truman

After Roosevelt's death in April 1945, Vice President Harry S. Truman became president. The legislation that created the U.S. Air Force, the National Security Act of 1947, was signed by Truman while on board the VC-54C. [11] He replaced the VC-54C in 1947 with a modified C-118 Liftmaster, calling it the Independence (name of Truman's Missouri hometown). This was the first presidential aircraft that had a distinctive exteriora bald eagle head painted on its nose.

The presidential call sign was established for security purposes during the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower. The change stemmed from a 1953 incident where an Eastern Airlines commercial flight (8610) had the same call sign as the flight the president was on (Air Force 8610). The airliner accidentally entered the same airspace, and after the incident, the unique presidential aircraft call sign "Air Force One" was introduced. The first official flight using the call sign Air Force One was in 1959, during the Eisenhower administration.

The VC-121 Columbine III used by President Eisenhower Lockheed VC-121E Super Constellation.jpg
The VC-121 Columbine III used by President Eisenhower

Eisenhower introduced four propeller-driven aircraft to presidential service. This group included two Lockheed C-121 Constellations, the aircraft Columbine II (VC-121A 48-610) [13] [14] [15] the only primary presidential airplane ever soldand Columbine III (VC-121E 53-7885). [16] They were named by First Lady Mamie Eisenhower after the columbine, the official state flower of her adopted home state of Colorado. Two Aero Commanders were added to the fleet and earned the distinction of being the smallest aircraft ever to serve as Air Force One. President Eisenhower also upgraded Air Force One's technology by adding an air-to-ground telephone and an air-to-ground teletype machine.

Boeing 707s and entry to jet age

Boeing 707 SAM 26000 served Presidents Kennedy to Clinton, and was the primary transport from Kennedy to Nixon. VC-137-1 Air Force One.jpg
Boeing 707 SAM 26000 served Presidents Kennedy to Clinton, and was the primary transport from Kennedy to Nixon.

Toward the end of Eisenhower's term in 1958, the Air Force added three Boeing 707 jets (as VC-137s designated SAM 970, 971, and 972), into the fleet. [17] Eisenhower became the first president to use the VC-137 during his "Flight to Peace" Goodwill tour, from 3 December through 22 December 1959. He visited 11 Asian nations, flying 22,000 miles (35,000 km) in 19 days, about twice as fast as he could have covered that distance via one of the Columbines.

SAM 26000

Under John F. Kennedy, presidential air travel entered the jet age. [18] He had used the Eisenhower-era jets for trips to Canada, France, Austria, and the United Kingdom. [19] Then in October 1962, the U.S. Air Force purchased a Boeing C-137 Stratoliner, a modified long-range Boeing 707—Special Air Mission (SAM) 26000. [20]

The Air Force had designed a special presidential livery in red and metallic gold, with the nation's name in block letters. Kennedy felt the aircraft appeared too regal, and, on advice from his wife, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, he contacted the French-born American industrial designer Raymond Loewy for help in designing a new livery and interiors for the VC-137 jet. [2] Loewy met with the president, and his earliest research on the project took him to the National Archives, where he looked at the first printed copy of the United States Declaration of Independence; he saw the country's name set widely spaced and in upper case in Caslon typeface. He chose to expose the polished aluminum fuselage on the bottom side and used two blues – slate-blue associated with the early republic and the presidency and a more contemporary cyan to represent the present and future. The presidential seal was added to both sides of the fuselage near the nose, a large American flag was painted on the tail, and the sides of the aircraft read "United States of America" in all capital letters. Loewy's work won immediate praise from the president and the press. The VC-137 markings were adapted for the larger VC-25A when it entered service in 1990. [21]

SAM 26000 was in service from 1962 to 1998, serving Presidents Kennedy to Clinton. On 22 November 1963, SAM 26000 carried President Kennedy to Dallas, Texas, where it served as the backdrop as the Kennedys greeted well-wishers at Dallas's Love Field. Later that afternoon, Kennedy was assassinated, and Vice President Lyndon Johnson assumed the office of President and took the oath of office aboard SAM 26000. On Johnson's orders, the plane carried Kennedy's body back to Washington. [22] A decade later, SAM 26000 took Johnson's body home to Texas after his state funeral in Washington. [23] [24]

Johnson used SAM 26000 to travel extensively domestically and to visit troops in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. SAM 26000 served President Nixon on several groundbreaking overseas voyages, including his famous visit to the People's Republic of China in February 1972 and trip to the Soviet Union later that year, both firsts for an American president. [25] Nixon dubbed the plane the "Spirit of '76" in honor of the forthcoming bicentennial of the United States; that logo was painted on both sides of the plane's nose. [26]

SAM 26000 is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

SAM 27000

Boeing 707 SAM 27000 served Presidents Nixon to George W. Bush; it was the primary transport for Nixon through Reagan. Air Force One SAM 27000.jpg
Boeing 707 SAM 27000 served Presidents Nixon to George W. Bush; it was the primary transport for Nixon through Reagan.

SAM 26000 was replaced in December 1972 by another VC-137, Special Air Mission 27000, although SAM 26000 was kept as a backup until it was finally retired in 1998. [27] Richard Nixon was the first president to use SAM 27000; the newer aircraft served every president until it was replaced by two VC-25A aircraft (SAM 28000 and 29000) in 1990.

In June 1974, while President Nixon was on his way to a scheduled stop in Syria, Syrian fighter jets intercepted Air Force One to act as escorts. However, the Air Force One crew was not informed in advance and, as a result, took evasive action including a dive. [28]

After announcing his intention to resign the presidency, Nixon boarded SAM 27000 (with call sign "Air Force One") to travel to California. Colonel Ralph Albertazzie, then pilot of Air Force One, recounted that after Gerald Ford was sworn in as president, the plane had to be redesignated as SAM 27000, indicating no president was on board the aircraft. Over Jefferson City, Missouri, Albertazzie radioed: "'Kansas City, this was Air Force One. Will you change our call sign to Sierra Alpha Mike (SAM) 27000?' Back came the reply: 'Roger, Sierra Alpha Mike 27000. Good luck to the President.'" [29]

SAM 27000's last flight as Air Force One was on 29 August 2001 when it flew President George W. Bush from San Antonio to Waco, Texas. Following the flight, it was formally decommissioned, then flown to San Bernardino International Airport (former Norton AFB) in California. It was dismantled and taken to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, where it was reassembled and is on permanent display.

Boeing VC-25A

SAM 28000 sits on the ramp as Air Force One (SAM 29000 in the background) descends on final approach into Hickam Field in Honolulu, Hawaii with President George W. Bush aboard. The two Boeing VC-25A Air Force One.jpg
SAM 28000 sits on the ramp as Air Force One (SAM 29000 in the background) descends on final approach into Hickam Field in Honolulu, Hawaii with President George W. Bush aboard.

Though Ronald Reagan's two terms as president saw no major changes to Air Force One, the manufacture of the presidential aircraft version of the 747 began during his presidency. The USAF issued a Request For Proposal in 1985 for two wide-body aircraft with a minimum of three engines and an unrefueled range of 6,000 miles (9,700 km). Boeing with the 747 and McDonnell Douglas with the DC-10 submitted proposals, and the Reagan Administration ordered two identical 747s to replace the aging 707s he used. [30] The interior designs, drawn up by First Lady Nancy Reagan, were reminiscent of the American Southwest. [30] The first of two aircraft, designated VC-25A, was delivered in 1990, during the administration of George H. W. Bush. Delays were experienced to allow for additional work to protect the aircraft from electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects.

The VC-25 is equipped with both secure and unsecure phone and computer communications systems, enabling the president to perform duties while airborne, in the event of an attack on the US. The presidential air fleet is operated by the 89th Airlift Wing at Andrews Field, Maryland.

President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush walk on the parking ramp as Air Force One sits at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan, 1 March 2006. George and Laura Bush at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan.jpg
President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush walk on the parking ramp as Air Force One sits at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan, 1 March 2006.

The Air Force usually does not have fighter aircraft escort the presidential aircraft over the United States but it has occurred, for example during the attack on the World Trade Center. [28]

9/11 to present

On 11 September 2001, President George W. Bush was interrupted as he attended an event at Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Florida, after the attack on the World Trade Center South Tower in New York City. He took off on a VC-25 from Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport with Colonel Mark Tillman, the senior pilot of Air Force One that day, in charge. Air traffic controllers gave Air Force One an ominous warning that a passenger jet was close to Air Force One and was unresponsive to calls. Tillman recalls: "As we got over Gainesville, Florida, we got the word from Jacksonville Center. They said, 'Air Force One you have traffic behind you and basically above you that is descending into you, we are not in contact with them – they have shut their responder[ sic ] off.' And at that time it kind of led us to believe maybe someone was coming into us in Sarasota, they saw us take off, they just stayed high and are following us at this point. We had no idea what the capabilities of the terrorists were at that point." [31]

In response to this reported threat, Col. Tillman said he flew Air Force One over the Gulf of Mexico to test whether the other aircraft would follow. The other jet continued on its route, and Tillman said that it was later explained to him that an airliner had lost its transponder and that the pilots on-board neglected to switch to another radio frequency. An aircraft transponder broadcasts an electronic identification signal. [31] A threat came again when Tillman received a message warning of an imminent attack on Air Force One. "We got word from the vice president and the staff that 'Angel was next.' Angel being the classified call sign for Air Force One. Once we got into the Gulf [of Mexico] and they passed to us that 'Angel was next,' at that point I asked for fighter support. If an airliner was part of the attack, it would be good to have fighters on the wing to go ahead and take care of us." At this point, Tillman said that the plan to fly the president back to Washington, DC, was aborted and instead Tillman landed at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana and Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, where the president made a speech. Tillman explained that this was due to his concern that because of the reported threat, Air Force One would be attacked when he returned to Andrews Air Force Base. [31]

President Barack Obama meets with staff mid-flight aboard Air Force One, in the conference room, 3 April 2009. Barack Obama meets his staff in Air Force One Conference Room.jpg
President Barack Obama meets with staff mid-flight aboard Air Force One, in the conference room, 3 April 2009.

After the preliminary stops, the president was returned to Washington. The next day, officials at the White House and the Justice Department explained that President Bush did this because there was "specific and credible information that the White House and Air Force One were also intended targets." [32] The White House could not confirm evidence of a threat made against Air Force One, and investigation found the original claim to be a result of miscommunication. [33]

Presidents have invited other world leaders to travel with them on Air Force One at times, including Nixon inviting Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev to travel with him to California from Washington, D.C. in June 1973. [34] In 1983, President Reagan and Queen Elizabeth II toured the U.S. West Coast aboard Air Force One. [35] In March 2012, President Obama took British Prime Minister David Cameron to a basketball game in Ohio aboard Air Force One. [36]

On 27 April 2009, a low-flying VC-25 circled New York City for a photo-op and training exercise and caused a scare for many in New York. [37] Fallout from the photo op incident led to the resignation of the director of the White House Military Office.

When President Bush came to the end of his second term in 2009, a VC-25 was used to transport him to Texas. For this purpose the aircraft call sign was Special Air Mission 28000, as the aircraft did not carry the current President of the United States. Similar arrangements were made for former Presidents Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama.

On 26 December 2018, a VC-25A (92-9000) carrying President Donald Trump on a secret flight to a US military base in Iraq, using a fake hex code and callsign 'Reach 358' to disguise it, was spotted by an amateur aviation photographer on the ground in the United Kingdom before the visit was announced. [38] [39]

VC-25B

President Donald Trump disembarking Air Force One in Germany for the G20 Summit., July 2017 President Trump Arrives in Germany for the G20 Summit (35760177825).jpg
President Donald Trump disembarking Air Force One in Germany for the G20 Summit., July 2017

The VC-25As are to be replaced, as they have become less cost-effective to operate. [40] On 28 January 2015, the Air Force announced that the Boeing 747-8 will serve as the next presidential aircraft. [41] [42] On 6 December 2016, then-President-elect Donald Trump tweeted his opposition to the Air Force One replacement due to its high cost of "more than $4 billion". The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimated the total cost at $3.2 billion, and the U.S. Air Force's budget for the program is projected to be nearly $4 billion. In December 2016, Boeing was on contract for preliminary development worth $170 million. [43] [44] [45]

On 1 August 2017, Defense One reported that in an effort to pay less for the replacement program, the U.S. Air Force has contracted to purchase two of the bankrupt Russian airline Transaero's undelivered 747-8 Intercontinentals from Boeing, which is storing them in the Mojave Desert to prevent corrosion. These airplanes, which were flight-tested but never delivered, will be retrofitted with telecommunications and security equipment to bring them to the required security level for the presidential aircraft. [46] [47]

Other presidential aircraft

VC-6A used as Air Force One Beech VC-6A USAF.jpg
VC-6A used as Air Force One
A Boeing C-32 (Boeing 757) serving as Air Force Two USAF C-32A.jpg
A Boeing C-32 (Boeing 757) serving as Air Force Two

During the Johnson Administration, the United States Air Force acquired a Beechcraft King Air B90 which was designated VC-6A. [48] The aircraft was used to transport President Johnson between Bergstrom Air Force Base and his family ranch near Johnson City, Texas, [49] and was used at least once to transport the President to Princeton, New Jersey. [50] It was referred to as Lady Bird's airplane and later in its service life featured a basic color scheme similar to civilian aircraft. [51] When the President was aboard, the aircraft used the call sign Air Force One. [50]

United Airlines is the only commercial airline to have operated Executive One , the call sign given to a civilian flight on which the U.S. President is aboard. On 26 December 1973, President Richard Nixon and his family flew as commercial passengers on a United DC-10 from Washington Dulles to Los Angeles International Airport. His staff explained that this was done to conserve fuel by not having to fly the usual Boeing 707 Air Force aircraft. [52]

The President regularly flies in helicopters (call sign Marine One) operated by the U.S. Marine Corps. [53]

In November 1999, President Bill Clinton flew from Ankara, Turkey, to Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station outside Izmit, Turkey, aboard a marked C-20C (Gulfstream III) using the call sign "Air Force One", escorted by three F-16s. [54]

On 8 March 2000, President Clinton flew to Pakistan aboard an unmarked Gulfstream III while another aircraft with the call sign "Air Force One" flew on the same route a few minutes later. This diversion was reported by several U.S. press outlets. [55] [56] [57]

On 1 May 2003, President George W. Bush flew in the co-pilot seat of a Sea Control Squadron Thirty-Five (VS-35) S-3B Viking from Naval Air Station North Island, California to the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast, where Bush delivered his "Mission Accomplished" speech. During the flight, the aircraft used the call sign of "Navy One" for the first time. This aircraft is now on display at the National Naval Aviation Museum at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. [58]

When required by circumstances, the President makes domestic flights using a Boeing C-32, sometimes to allow access to smaller airports that cannot support the larger VC-25. [59]

Air Force One aircraft on display

Lockheed JetStar used by President Johnson on display at the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park Lockheed JetStar Air One on Display.jpg
Lockheed JetStar used by President Johnson on display at the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park

Several presidential aircraft that have formerly served as Air Force One (Sacred Cow, Independence, Columbine III, SAM 26000, and other smaller presidential aircraft) are on display in the presidential hangar of the National Museum of the United States Air Force (located at Wright-Patterson AFB near Dayton, Ohio) and at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington (earlier VC-137B SAM 970). The Boeing VC-137C that served as Air Force One from the Nixon years through the George H. W. Bush administration (SAM 27000) is on display in Simi Valley, California at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. The library's Air Force One Pavilion was opened to the public on 24 October 2005.

In October 2005, President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, and former First Lady Nancy Reagan toured SAM 27000, the aircraft that served seven presidents from 1972 to 2001; it is now housed at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. George W. Bush Tours Air Force One.jpg
In October 2005, President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, and former First Lady Nancy Reagan toured SAM 27000, the aircraft that served seven presidents from 1972 to 2001; it is now housed at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.

A VC-118A Liftmaster used by John F. Kennedy is on display at the Pima Air & Space Museum adjacent to Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona. A Lockheed JetStar which was used by Lyndon Johnson during his presidency is on display at the LBJ Ranch (now the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park) in Stonewall, Texas. The ranch had a runway, but was too small to accommodate a large plane such as a Boeing 707. President Johnson would take the larger Air Force One to Bergstrom AFB in Austin, where he would transfer to the smaller JetStar for the short flight to the ranch. [60]

A McDonnell Douglas VC-9C used by Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton is on display at Castle Air Museum in Atwater, California, adjacent to the former Castle Air Force Base. [61]

Notable appearances in media

Air Force One is shown as being equipped with a one-person escape pod and parachutes for emergency use by the President of the United States in at least five films: Escape from New York , Air Force One , White House Down , Bermuda Tentacles , and Big Game . However, the actual Air Force One does not have an escape pod or parachutes for emergency use. [62] [63]

See also

Related Research Articles

Wide-body aircraft twin-aisle jet airliner classification

A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles with seven or more seats abreast. The typical fuselage diameter is 5 to 6 m. In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast, allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850 passengers. The largest wide-body aircraft are over 6 m (20 ft) wide, and can accommodate up to eleven passengers abreast in high-density configurations.

National Museum of the United States Air Force Military and Aviation Museum in southwest Ohio, USA

The National Museum of the United States Air Force is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 6 miles (9.7 km) northeast of Dayton, Ohio. The NMUSAF is the oldest and largest military aviation museum in the world, with more than 360 aircraft and missiles on display. The museum draws about 1 million visitors each year, making it one of the most frequently visited tourist attractions in Ohio.

Boeing C-32 Executive transport aircraft by Boeing

The Boeing C-32 is a military passenger transportation version of the Boeing 757-200 as designated by the United States Air Force. The C-32 provides transportation for United States leaders to locations around the world. The primary users are the Vice President of the United States, the First Lady, and the Secretary of State. On rare occasions, other members of the U.S. Cabinet and Congressional leaders have been authorized to fly aboard the C-32 for various missions. The C-32, since its debut, has also served as Air Force One in place of the larger VC-25A to airports that cannot support that Boeing 747-based jumbo jet.

Ronald Reagan Presidential Library Library and museum for 40th President of the United States in Simi Valley, California

The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library and burial site of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989), and his wife Nancy Reagan. Designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates, the library is in Simi Valley, California, about 40 miles (64 km) northwest of Downtown Los Angeles and 15 miles (24 km) west of Chatsworth.

Boeing Commercial Airplanes Designs, assembles, markets and sells commercial jet aircraft

Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) is a division of the Boeing Company. It designs, assembles, markets, and sells jet airliners and business jets ; it also provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide. It operates from division headquarters in Renton, Washington, with more than a dozen engineering, manufacturing, and assembly facilities located throughout the U.S. and internationally. BCA includes the assets of the Douglas Aircraft division of the former McDonnell Douglas Corporation, which merged with Boeing in 1997.

Air transports for heads of state and government are, in many countries, provided by the air force in specially equipped airliners or business jets. One such aircraft in particular has become part of popular culture: Air Force One, used by the President of the United States and operated by the United States Air Force.

Brazilian Air Force One

Brazilian Air Force One is the Brazilian Air Force call sign of the aircraft carrying the President of Brazil. On international flights the aircraft uses the Brazilian Air Force ICAO code BRS1 and callsign Brazilian Air Force 01. The Special Transport Group (GTE) is the unit of the Brazilian Air Force responsible for transporting the President, Vice-President and other senior government officials.

1254th Air Transport Wing

The 1254th Air Transport Wing was a United States Air Force unit, existing between 1948 and 1966. It was last stationed at Andrews AFB, Maryland.

VC-137C SAM 27000

SAM 27000 was the second of two Boeing VC-137C United States Air Force aircraft that were specifically configured and maintained for the use of the President of the United States. It used the call sign Air Force One when the President was on board, and at other times it used the call sign SAM 27000. The VC-137C serial number 72-7000 was a customized version of the Boeing 707 which entered service during the Nixon administration in 1972. It served all US presidents until George W. Bush and was retired in 2001. It is now on display at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.

VC-137C SAM 26000

SAM 26000 was the first of two Boeing VC-137C United States Air Force aircraft specifically configured and maintained for use by the President of the United States. It used the callsign Air Force One when the President was on board, SAM 26000 otherwise.

Death and state funeral of Richard Nixon

On April 22, 1994, Richard Milhous Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, died after suffering a stroke four days earlier, at the age of 81. His state funeral followed five days later at the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in his hometown of Yorba Linda, California.

Special Air Mission

The United States Air Force Special Air Mission provides air transportation for the President of the United States (POTUS), Vice President of the United States (VPOTUS), First Lady of the United States (FLOTUS), Presidential Cabinet, U.S. Congressional delegations (CODELs), and other high-ranking American and foreign dignitaries.

Boeing C-137 Stratoliner VIP transport aircraft derived from the Boeing 707

The Boeing C-137 Stratoliner is a VIP transport aircraft derived from the Boeing 707 jet airliner used by the United States Air Force. Other nations also bought both new and used 707s for military service, primarily as VIP or tanker transports. In addition, the 707 served as the basis for several specialized versions, such as the E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft. The designation C-18 covers several later variants based on the 707-320B/C series. The C-137 should not be confused with the superficially-similar Boeing C-135 Stratolifter; although they share a common ancestor the two aircraft have different fuselages.

Air India One

Air India One is the call sign of any aircraft with the Prime Minister or President of India on board. Air India is the national airline of India. The aircraft is operated as VIP flight by the Indian Air Force (IAF). The IAF's Air Headquarters Communication Squadron, based at Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi, is in charge of operating these aircraft.

References

Notes

  1. "Order 7110.65R (Air Traffic Control)." Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Federal Aviation Administration, 14 March 2007. Retrieved: 27 August 2007.
  2. 1 2 Walsh 2003.
  3. "First Air Force One plane decaying in Arizona field". NBC. AP. October 2, 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  4. First Air Force One (3 June 2014). "AMERICA'S LOST AIR FORCE ONE" . Retrieved 5 October 2018 via YouTube.
  5. Price, Mark J. "Local history: Cuyahoga Falls aviator Billy Draper named 'Air Force One' as Eisenhower’s pilot." Akron Beacon Journal , 23 November 2014. Retrieved:24 November 2014.
  6. Hardesty 2003 , pp. 31–32.
  7. "Mayflower Of The Air Ready For President." Popular Mechanics, May 1933.
  8. Donald 1997, p. 364.
  9. Hardesty 2003, p. 38.
  10. Hardesty 2003, p. 39.
  11. 1 2 3 "Factsheet: Douglas VC-54C SACRED COW." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 19 October 2009.
  12. 1 2 3 Dorr 2002, p. l34.
  13. Dagenhart, Jenna (23 March 2016). "First Air Force One Aircraft Lands in Bridgewater for Restorations". WVIR . Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  14. Villarreal, Phil. "1st Air Force One fades in Marana." Arizona Daily Star , 11 July 2013. Retrieved: 16 July 2013.
  15. Petersen, Ralph M. "N9463 c/n 2602." Lockheed Constellation Survivors, Retrieved: 16 July 2013.
  16. Petersen, Ralph M. "53-7885 c/n 4151." Lockheed Constellation Survivors. Retrieved: 16 July 2013.
  17. "First of 3 Jets for President and Top Aides Is Unveiled." The New York Times, 28 April 1959, p. 3.
  18. Walsh 2003 , p. 60.
  19. terHorst & Albertazzie , pp. 198–201.
  20. Walsh 2003 , p. 63.
  21. Hardesty 2003 , p. 70.
  22. Johnson 1971, pp. 11–17.
  23. "LBJ buried near his Texas birthplace." The Boston Globe, 26 January 1973, p. 1.
  24. "Body of LBJ Lies in State in Washington: Lyndon B. Johnson returned in death ... to a capital ... aboard the presidential jet ...(that) bore ... serial number 26000." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 25 January 1973, p. 1.
  25. "Boeing VC-137C SAM 26000." National Museum of the United States Air Force, 8 March 2010. Retrieved: 16 February 2012.
  26. Dorr 2002 , p. 80.
  27. Thomma, Steve. "Presidential Plane Heads for History; This Air Force One Served Every President Since Kennedy. A Museum is Next." The Philadelphia Inquirer, 20 May 1998, p. A14.
  28. 1 2 "Washington Post Online conversation with Kenneth Walsh on his Air Force One: A History of the Presidents and Their Planes." Washington Post, 22 May 2002. Retrieved: 18 October 2009.
  29. Hevesi, Dennis. "Ralph Albertazzie, Nixon’s Pilot, Dies at 88." The New York Times , 16 August 2011, p. B16. Retrieved: 17 August 2011.
  30. 1 2 Williams, Rudi. "Reagan Makes First, Last Flight in Jet He Ordered." United States Department of Defense, 10 June 2004. Retrieved: 23 June 2009.
  31. 1 2 3 "'Angel is next': The terrifying message pilot of Air Force One got as he flew President Bush on 9/11." The Daily Mail, 7 September 2011.
  32. "Press Briefing by Ari Fleischer." White House News releases, September 2001. Retrieved: 18 October 2009.
  33. Allen, Mike. "White House Drops Claim of Threat to Bush." The Washington Post, 27 September 2001, p. A08. Retrieved: 28 February 2007.
  34. "Richard Nixon en route to California with Leonid Brezhnev." CVCE, 22 June 1973. Retrieved: 14 March 2012.
  35. Dorr, Robert. "Air Force One." Zenith Imprint, 2002. Retrieved: 22 June 2013.
  36. Robinson, Nick. "David Cameron, Barack Obama and the Special Relationship." BBC, 13 March 2012. Retrieved: 13 March 2012.
  37. Rao, Mythili and Ed Henry. " 'Furious' Obama orders review of NY plane flyover." cnn.com, 28 April 2009. Retrieved: 18 October 2009.
  38. Ball, James (2018-12-28). "How a Guy With a Camera Outsmarted the United States". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  39. "Air Force One seen over Sheffield on secret journey". BBC News. 27 December 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  40. Trimble, Stephen. "US considers Airbus A380 as Air Force One and potentially a C-5 replacement." Flight Global, 17 October 2007. Retrieved: 6 December 2016.
  41. "AF Identifies Boeing 747-8 platform for next Air Force One." United States Air Force, 28 January 2015. Retrieved: 28 January 2015.
  42. Capaccio. Anthony. "Boeing to build Air Force One replacement with bids for systems." Bloomberg News, 28 January 2015. Retrieved: 25 April 2015.
  43. "Trump says Air Force One Boeing order should be cancelled". BBC News. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  44. Mark Odell (7 December 2016). "Trump speaks to Boeing chief on Air Force One replacement costs". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  45. Mehta, Aaron (6 December 2016). "Trump Tweets US Should Cancel Air Force One Replacement". Defense News. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  46. "Trump Wanted a Cheaper Air Force One. So the USAF Is Buying a Bankrupt Russian Firm's Undelivered 747s". Defense One. August 1, 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-02.
  47. Ostrower, Jon; Browne, Ryan (August 5, 2017). "US finalizes deal for new Air Force One jets once destined for Russian airliner". CNN. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  48. "Factsheets: Beech V-6A." National Museum of the United States Air Force, 19 June 2006. Retrieved: 28 February 2012.
  49. Hardesty 2005, p. 84.
  50. 1 2 Collins, Richard L. "C90 King Airs." Flying Magazine, Volume 127, Issue 1, 2000, pp. 67–70.
  51. Dorr 2002, p. 74.
  52. Mudd, Roger and Richard Wagner. Vanderbilt Television News Archive "President / Commercial Airline Flight." CBS News , 27 December 1973. Retrieved: 23 June 2009.
  53. "On Board Marine One, Presidential Fleet". National Geographic, 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  54. Martin, Swayne (2014-10-16). "6 Gulfstream Missions That Have Nothing To Do With Luxury". Bold Method. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  55. Sammon, Bill. "Clinton uses decoy flight for security." Washington Times, 26 March 2000, p. C.1.
  56. Haniffa, Aziz. "Playing hide-and-seek on trip to Islamabad." India Abroad. New York: 31 March 2000, Vol. XXX, Issue 27, p. 22.
  57. "Clinton's trip to Asia cost at least $50 million." Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 9 April 2000, p. 175 A.
  58. Donald, David: Warplanes of the Fleet, pages 168, 171. AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN   1-880588-81-1
  59. Dwyer, Devin. "President Obama wraps blitz with Air Force One rally in Ohio." ABC News, 25 October 2012. Retrieved: 25 October 2012.
  60. "Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park." Aviation Museums. Retrieved: 7 July 2012.
  61. "Douglas VC-9C | Castle Air Museum, Atwater & Merced". Castle Air Museum. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  62. McAllister, J.F.O. (1997-07-28). "Air Force One: On the Real Thing, No Pods and No Parachutes". CNN . TIME . Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  63. Berman, Russell (2015-01-31). "Air Force One-Point-Three - After a quarter-century of service, the aging presidential airplanes are being replaced by a pair of state-of-the-art Boeing 747-8s". The Atlantic . Retrieved 2016-11-12.

Bibliography

  • Abbott, James A. and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1998. ISBN   0-442-02532-7.
  • Albertazzie, Ralph and Jerald TerHorst Flying White House: The Story of Air Force One. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1979. ISBN   0-698-10930-9.
  • Braun, David "Q&A: U.S. Presidential Jet Air Force One." National Geographic News, 29 May 2003.
  • Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN   978-0-7607-0592-6.
  • Dorr, Robert F. Air Force One. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 2002. ISBN   0-7603-1055-6.
  • Hardesty, Von. Air Force One: The Aircraft that Shaped the Modern Presidency. Chanhassen, Minnesota: Northword Press, 2003. ISBN   1-55971-894-3.
  • Harris, Tom. "How Air Force One Works." HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved: 10 October 2006.
  • Johnson, Lyndon Baines. The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963–1969. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1971. ISBN   978-0-03084-492-8.
  • Walsh, Kenneth T. Air Force One: A History of the Presidents and Their Planes. New York: Hyperion, 2003. ISBN   1-4013-0004-9