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A press pool is a group of news gathering organizations that combine their resources in the collection of news. A pool feed is then distributed to members of the broadcast pool who are free to edit it or use it as they see necessary. In the case of print reporters, a written pool report is distributed to all members. A pool spray is a brief photo opportunity, for instance, at the White House following a meeting.
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Pool coverage is sometimes required because of the nature of the news event being covered. For example, judges will often allow only one broadcast camera in the courtroom during a trial. As a result, interested broadcasters will select one of their own to provide the "pool camera" for the day, with that organization agreeing to share the footage with all other broadcasters in the pool.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and, typically, in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers or solicitors of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might also be an examining magistrate.
A courtroom is the enclosed space in which courts of law are held in front of a judge. A number of courtrooms, which may also be known as "courts", may be housed in a courthouse.
Similarly, a daily rotating pool is set up at the White House for organizations that cover the president. They are allowed special access to certain events with the understanding that the information and footage will then be shared with the rest of the White House press corps. For instance, when the president meets with a foreign dignitary, the two will sometimes make a statement together in the Oval Office. Since it is not possible to accommodate all interested journalists in that room, pool coverage is the only practical way to handle the event.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. and has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800. The term "White House" is often used as a metonym for the president and his advisers.
The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
The White House press corps is the group of journalists, correspondents, or members of the media usually stationed at the White House in Washington, D.C., to cover the president of the United States, White House events, and news briefings. Their offices are located in the West Wing.
At other times, pool coverage takes place as a more cost-effective way of covering events that only occasionally "make news." For example, the major networks rely on a pool feed of the daily briefing at the State Department for their live coverage, since the press conference is usually only of national interest when there is a significant breaking story relating to international diplomacy. Since "coverage" of such an event consists merely of pointing a camera at a person standing behind a lectern, a pool feed is a practical means of ensuring the event will be available as needed without all five major US TV news outlets paying for their own individual live crews.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It usually refers to the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. Diplomacy entails influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments and officials through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means.
A lectern is a reading desk, with a slanted top, usually placed on a stand or affixed to some other form of support, on which documents or books are placed as support for reading aloud, as in a scripture reading, lecture, or sermon. To facilitate eye-contact and improve posture when facing an audience, lecterns may have adjustable height and slant. People generally use lecterns while standing.
Pool situations are also often set up because of the physical immensity of certain events. One prominent example of this was the international broadcast of the state funeral of John F. Kennedy, which involved four major venues and a lengthy procession. Likewise, presidential inaugurations and political conventions tend to involve pool coverage in the US (particularly since there is no state broadcaster that would naturally handle the coverage on its own).
The state funeral of John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States, took place in Washington, D.C., during the three days that followed his assassination on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.
A procession is an organized body of people walking in a formal or ceremonial manner.
An ordinary broadcast press pool is often confused with a "host feed." While pool coverage is always handled by press organizations, a host feed is provided by a third party (usually the organization being covered). For example, under normal circumstances, the only cameras allowed in the chambers of Congress are those operated by government employees under rules established by congressional leaders. Under such circumstances, press organizations have three choices: take the host feed as it is, rely on unofficial feeds which may be unauthorized or illegal, or have no video at all.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 435 representatives and 100 senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house, sit and vote in congressional committees, and introduce legislation.
While there are not necessarily formal rules, there tends to be a set of informal expectations for pool members. Primarily, all pool members are expected to "share the load" equally. For example, in the case of ongoing events, a different station might provide a pool reporter and/or camera every day. For one-time events, each organization may have its own responsibility (such as providing all cameras or mobile trucks). If there are different venues, each location can be covered by a different member of the pool. If there is not a practical way to divide the responsibilities, organizations in the pool will split the cost.
In addition, it is paramount that no pool members use their special access in order to garner an "exclusive" for themselves. In the case of television, a pool photographer is expected to turn over all of the material that was taped rather than keeping certain select shots for his or her own employer. Print pool reporters are prohibited from including any detail in their own stories that was not included in the pool report, even if it is only a matter of local color. As a result, White House pool reports are often written in excruciating detail. At a state dinner, the report will likely include what the president ate and details about his clothes.
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming. The C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, and C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, and a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to approximately 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D.C. and is available throughout the U.S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, and globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, and Android devices.
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media, broadcast news, and more recently the Internet.
Infotainment, also called soft news, is a type of media, usually television, that provides a combination of information and entertainment. The term is usually used disapprovingly against more serious hard news. Many existing, self-described infotainment websites and social media apps provide a variety of functions and services.
Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions.
In journalism, a source is a person, publication, or other record or document that gives timely information. Outside journalism, sources are sometimes known as "news sources". Examples of sources include official records, publications or broadcasts, officials in government or business, organizations or corporations, witnesses of crime, accidents or other events, and people involved with or affected by a news event or issue.
A kisha club, or "reporters' club", from the Japanese word kisha (記者), meaning reporter, is a Japanese news-gathering association of reporters from specific news organizations, whose reporting centers on a press room set up by sources such as the Prime Minister's Official Residence, government ministries, local authorities, the police, or corporate bodies. In English, it also called a Press Club.
Electronic news-gathering (ENG) is when reporters and editors make use of electronic video and audio technologies in order to gather and present news. ENG can involve anything from a single reporter with a single professional video camera, to an entire television crew taking a truck on location. This term was coined during the rise of videotape technology in the 1970s. This term was commonly used in the television news in the 1980s and '90s, but is used less frequently now, as the technology has become commonplace.
Breaking news, interchangeably termed late-breaking news and also known as a special report or special coverage or news flash, is a current issue that broadcasters feel warrants the interruption of scheduled programming and/or current news in order to report its details. Its use is also assigned to the most significant story of the moment or a story that is being covered live. It could be a story that is simply of wide interest to viewers and has little impact otherwise. Many times, breaking news is used after the news organization has already reported on the story. When a story has not been reported on previously, the graphic and phrase "Just In" is sometimes used instead.
Journalism ethics and standards comprise principles of ethics and of good practice as applicable to the specific challenges faced by journalists. This subset of media ethics is widely known to journalists as their professional "code of ethics" or the "canons of journalism". The basic codes and canons commonly appear in statements drafted by both professional journalism associations and individual print, broadcast, and online news organizations.
A weekly newspaper is a general-news publication that is published once or twice a week.
In sports broadcasting, a sports commentator gives a running commentary of a game or event in real time, usually during a live broadcast, traditionally delivered in the historical present tense. Radio was the first medium for sports broadcasts, and radio commentators must describe all aspects of the action to listeners who cannot see it for themselves. In the case of televised sports coverage, commentators are usually presented as a voiceover, with images of the contest shown on viewers' screens and sounds of the action and spectators heard in the background. Television commentators are rarely shown on screen during an event, though some networks choose to feature their announcers on camera either before or after the contest or briefly during breaks in the action.
News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism. The content is usually either produced locally in a radio studio or television studio newsroom, or by a broadcast network. It may also include additional material such as sports coverage weather forecasts, traffic reports, commentary, and other material that the broadcaster feels is relevant to their audience.
Associated Press Television News, often abbreviated AP Television News or APTN, is a global video news agency operated by the Associated Press.
Fox Sports South is an American regional sports network that is owned by The Walt Disney Company, and operates as an affiliate of Fox Sports Networks. The network carries regional coverage of professional and collegiate sports events from across the Southern United States, along with other sporting events and programming from FSN.
ABC News Radio is the radio service of ABC News, a division of the ABC Television Network in the United States. Formerly known as ABC Radio News, ABC News Radio feeds, through Skyview Networks, five minute newscasts on the hour and news briefs at half-past the hour, to its network affiliates. ABC News Radio is the largest commercial radio news organization in the US.
A news bureau is an office for gathering or distributing news. Similar terms are used for specialized bureaux, often to indicate geographic location or scope of coverage: a ‘Tokyo bureau’ refers to a given news operation's office in Tokyo; 'foreign bureau' is a generic term for a news office set up in a country other than the primary operations center; a ‘Washington bureau’ is an office, typically located in Washington, D.C., that covers news related to national politics in the United States. The person in charge of a news bureau is often called the bureau chief.
The term "journalism genres" refers to various journalism styles, fields or separate genres, in writing accounts of events.
A news conference or press conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions. A joint press conference instead is held between two or more talking sides.
The Persian Gulf War, codenamed Operation Desert Storm and commonly referred to as the Gulf War, was a war waged by a United Nations-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait. Media coverage of the Gulf War was significant for many reasons including CNN's live reporting from a Baghdad hotel, alternative and international coverage, and the use of images.