|United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|
|Location||E. Barrett Prettyman U.S. Courthouse|
|Established||February 9, 1893|
|Circuit Justice||John Roberts|
|Chief Judge||Sri Srinivasan|
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (in case citations, D.C. Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. It has the smallest geographical jurisdiction of any of the U.S. federal appellate courts, and covers only one district court: the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. It meets at the E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse, near Judiciary Square, Washington, D.C.
The D.C. Circuit's prominence and prestige among American courts is second only to the U.S. Supreme Court because its jurisdiction contains the U.S. Congress and many of the U.S. government agencies, and therefore it is the main appellate court for many issues of American administrative law and constitutional law.Four of the current nine justices on the Supreme Court were previously judges on the D.C. Circuit: Chief Justice John Roberts and Associate Justices Clarence Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Brett Kavanaugh. Former justices Fred M. Vinson, Wiley Blount Rutledge, Warren E. Burger, and Antonin Scalia also served as judges on the D.C. Circuit before their appointments to the Supreme Court.
Because the D.C. Circuit does not represent any state, confirmation of nominees can be procedurally and practically easier than for nominees to the Courts of Appeals for the other geographical districts, as home-state senators have historically been able to hold up confirmation through the "blue slip" process. However, in recent years, several nominees to the D.C. Circuit were stalled, and some were ultimately not confirmed because senators claimed that the court had become larger than necessary to handle its caseload.
As of June 18,2020 [update] :
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|58||Chief Judge||Sri Srinivasan||Washington, D.C.||1967||2013–present||2020–present||—||Obama|
|49||Circuit Judge||Karen L. Henderson||Washington, D.C.||1944||1990–present||—||—||G.H.W. Bush|
|51||Circuit Judge||Judith W. Rogers||Washington, D.C.||1939||1994–present||—||—||Clinton|
|52||Circuit Judge||David S. Tatel||Washington, D.C.||1942||1994–present||—||—||Clinton|
|53||Circuit Judge||Merrick Garland||Washington, D.C.||1952||1997–present||2013–2020||—||Clinton|
|56||Circuit Judge||Thomas B. Griffith||Washington, D.C.||1954||2005–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|59||Circuit Judge||Patricia Millett||Washington, D.C.||1963||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|60||Circuit Judge||Cornelia Pillard||Washington, D.C.||1961||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|61||Circuit Judge||Robert L. Wilkins||Washington, D.C.||1963||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|62||Circuit Judge||Gregory G. Katsas||Washington, D.C.||1964||2017–present||—||—||Trump|
|63||Circuit Judge||Neomi Rao||Washington, D.C.||1973||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|64||Circuit Judge||Justin R. Walker||Washington, D.C.||1982||beg. 2020||—||—||Trump|
|38||Senior Circuit Judge||Harry T. Edwards||Washington, D.C.||1940||1980–2005||1994–2001||2005–present||Carter|
|43||Senior Circuit Judge||Laurence Silberman||Washington, D.C.||1935||1985–2000||—||2000–present||Reagan|
|44||Senior Circuit Judge||James L. Buckley||inactive||1923||1985–1996||—||1996–present||Reagan|
|45||Senior Circuit Judge||Stephen F. Williams||Washington, D.C.||1936||1986–2001||—||2001–present||Reagan|
|46||Senior Circuit Judge||Douglas H. Ginsburg||Washington, D.C.||1946||1986–2011||2001–2008||2011–present||Reagan|
|47||Senior Circuit Judge||David B. Sentelle||Washington, D.C.||1943||1987–2013||2008–2013||2013–present||Reagan|
|50||Senior Circuit Judge||A. Raymond Randolph||Washington, D.C.||1943||1990–2008||—||2008–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|#||Judge||State||Born–died||Active service||Chief Judge||Senior status||Appointed by||Reason for|
|1||Richard Henry Alvey||MD||1826–1906||1893–1905||1893–1905||—||Cleveland||retirement|
|2||Martin Ferdinand Morris||DC||1834–1909||1893–1905||—||—||Cleveland||retirement|
|3||Seth Shepard||TX||1847–1917||1893–1917||1905–1917||—|| Cleveland (associate);|
T. Roosevelt (chief)
|4||Charles Holland Duell||NY||1850–1920||1905–1906||—||—||T. Roosevelt||resignation|
|5||Louis E. McComas||MD||1846–1907||1905–1907||—||—||T. Roosevelt||death|
|6||Charles Henry Robb||VT||1867–1939||1906 –1937||—||1937–1939||T. Roosevelt||death|
|7||Josiah Alexander Van Orsdel||WY||1860–1937||1907 –1937||—||—||T. Roosevelt||death|
|8||Constantine Joseph Smyth||NE||1859–1924||1917–1924||1917–1924||—||Wilson||death|
|9||George Ewing Martin||OH||1857–1948||1924–1937||1924–1937||1937–1948||Coolidge||death|
|11||Duncan Lawrence Groner||VA||1873–1957||1931–1948||1937–1948||1948–1957|| Hoover (associate);|
F. Roosevelt (chief)
|12||Harold Montelle Stephens||UT||1886–1955||1935–1955||1948–1955||—|| F. Roosevelt (associate);|
|13||Justin Miller||CA||1888–1973||1937–1945||—||—||F. Roosevelt||resignation|
|14||Henry White Edgerton||DC||1888–1970||1937–1963||1955–1958||1963–1970||F. Roosevelt||death|
|15||Fred M. Vinson||KY||1890–1953||1938–1943||—||—||F. Roosevelt||resignation|
|16||Wiley Blount Rutledge||KY||1894–1949||1939–1943||—||—||F. Roosevelt||elevation to Supreme Court|
|17||Thurman Arnold||WY||1891–1969||1943–1945||—||—||F. Roosevelt||resignation|
|18||Bennett Champ Clark||MO||1890–1954||1945–1954||—||—||Truman||death|
|19||E. Barrett Prettyman||DC||1891–1971||1945–1962||1958–1960||1962–1971||Truman||death|
|20||Wilbur Kingsbury Miller||KY||1892–1976||1945–1964||1960–1962||1964–1976||Truman||death|
|21||James McPherson Proctor||DC||1882–1953||1948–1953||—||—||Truman||death|
|22||David L. Bazelon||IL||1909–1993||1949 –1979||1962–1978||1979–1993||Truman||death|
|23||Charles Fahy||GA||1892–1979||1949 –1967||—||1967–1979||Truman||death|
|24||George Thomas Washington||OH||1908–1971||1949 –1965||—||1965–1971||Truman||death|
|25||John A. Danaher||CT||1899–1990||1953 –1969||—||1969–1990||Eisenhower||death|
|26||Walter Maximillian Bastian||DC||1891–1975||1954 –1965||—||1965–1975||Eisenhower||death|
|27||Warren E. Burger||MN||1907–1995||1956–1969||—||—||Eisenhower||elevation to Supreme Court|
|28||James Skelly Wright||LA||1911–1988||1962–1986||1978–1981||1986–1988||Kennedy||death|
|29||Carl E. McGowan||IL||1911–1987||1963–1981||1981–1981||1981–1987||Kennedy||death|
|30||Edward Allen Tamm||DC||1906–1985||1965–1985||—||—||L. Johnson||death|
|31||Harold Leventhal||DC||1915–1979||1965–1979||—||—||L. Johnson||death|
|32||Spottswood William Robinson III||VA||1916–1998||1966–1989||1981–1986||1989–1998||L. Johnson||death|
|35||Malcolm Richard Wilkey||TX||1918–2009||1970–1984||—||1984–1985||Nixon||retirement|
|39||Ruth Bader Ginsburg||NY||1933–present||1980–1993||—||—||Carter||elevation to Supreme Court|
|41||Antonin Scalia||IL||1936–2016||1982–1986||—||—||Reagan||elevation to Supreme Court|
|48||Clarence Thomas||GA||1948–present||1990–1991||—||—||G.H.W. Bush||elevation to Supreme Court|
|54||John Roberts||MD||1955–present||2003–2005||—||—||G.W. Bush||elevation to Supreme Court|
|55||Janice Rogers Brown||CA||1949–present||2005–2017||—||—||G.W. Bush||retirement|
|57||Brett Kavanaugh||MD||1965–present||2006–2018||—||—||G.W. Bush||elevation to Supreme Court|
|as Chief Justice|
|as Chief Judge|
When Congress established this court in 1893 as the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, it had a Chief Justice, and the other judges were called Associate Justices, which was similar to the structure of the Supreme Court. The Chief Justiceship was a separate seat: the President would appoint the Chief Justice, and that person would stay Chief Justice until he left the court.
On June 25, 1948, 62 Stat. 869 and 62 Stat. 985 became law. These acts made the Chief Justice a Chief Judge. In 1954, another law, 68 Stat. 1245, clarified what was implicit in those laws: that the Chief Judgeship was not a mere renaming of the position but a change in its status that made it the same as the Chief Judge of other inferior courts.
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
The court has eleven seats for active judges after the elimination of seat seven under the Court Security Improvement Act of 2007. The seat that was originally the Chief Justiceship is numbered as Seat 1; the other seats are numbered in order of their creation. If seats were established simultaneously, they are numbered in the order in which they were filled. Judges who retire into senior status remain on the bench but leave their seat vacant. That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the President.
The United States Courts of Appeals or Circuit Courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal judiciary. The courts are divided into 13 circuits, and each hears appeals from the district courts within its borders, or in some instances from other designated federal courts and administrative agencies. Appeals from the circuit courts are taken to the Supreme Court of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court of appeals that has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit is a United States federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia, with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge nominated by the president of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.
Speculation abounded over potential nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States by President George W. Bush since before his presidency.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D.C. The court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges. The Federal Circuit is particularly known for its decisions on patent law, as it is the only appellate-level court other than the Supreme Court with the jurisdiction to hear patent case appeals.
The appointment of federal judges for United States federal courts has come to be viewed as a political process in the last several decades. The tables below provide the composition of all Article III courts which include the Supreme Court and the Courts of Appeals at the end of each four year presidential term, as well as the current compositions of the District Courts and the Court of International Trade, categorizing the judges by the presidential term during which they were first appointed to their seats.
During President Ronald Reagan's presidency, he nominated at least twelve people for various federal appellate judgeship who were not confirmed. In some cases, the nominations were not processed by the Democratic-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee before Reagan's presidency ended, while in other cases, nominees were rejected by the Senate Judiciary Committee or even blocked by unfriendly members of the Republican Party. Three of the nominees were renominated by Reagan's successor, President George H. W. Bush. Two of the nominees, Ferdinand Francis Fernandez and Guy G. Hurlbutt, were nominated after July 1, 1988, the traditional start date of the unofficial Thurmond Rule during a presidential election year. Eight of the twelve seats eventually were filled by appointees of President George H. W. Bush.
During President Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency, federal judicial appointments played a central role. Johnson appointed two individuals to the Supreme Court of the United States in just over five years as president.
Speculation abounded over potential nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States by George H. W. Bush even before his presidency officially began, given the advanced ages of several justices.
Gerard Edmund Lynch is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. He was confirmed to that seat on September 17, 2009 after previously having been appointed in 2000 by President Bill Clinton to serve on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Judge Lynch was the first appeals-court judge nominated by President Barack Obama to win confirmation from the United States Senate.
Padmanabhan Srikanth "Sri" Srinivasan is an American attorney and jurist serving as the Chief United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The United States Senate confirmed Srinivasan by a vote of 97–0 on May 23, 2013. Before his confirmation, Srinivasan served as Principal Deputy Solicitor General of the United States and has argued 25 cases before the United States Supreme Court. He has also lectured at Harvard Law School.
Eric David Miller is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
Justin Reed Walker is a United States District Judge of the Western District of Kentucky and a United States Circuit Judge–Designate of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
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