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United States of America
There are 94 active United States district and territorial courts.Each of the 50 states has between one and four district courts, and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico each have a district court.
The insular areas of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands each have one territorial court; these courts are called "district courts" and exercise the same jurisdiction as district courts,but differ from district courts in that territorial courts are Article IV courts, with judges who serve ten-year terms rather than the lifetime tenure of judges of Article III courts, such as the district court judges. American Samoa does not have a district court or a federal territorial court, and so federal matters there are sent to either the District of Columbia or Hawaii.
The district courts were established by Congress under Article III of the United States Constitution. The courts hear civil and criminal cases, and each is paired with a bankruptcy court.Appeals from the district courts are made to one of the 13 courts of appeals, organized geographically. The number of district courts in a court of appeals' circuit varies between one and thirteen, depending on the number of states in the region and the number of districts in each state. The formal naming convention for the district courts is "United States District Court for" followed by the district name. Each district court has one or more meeting places at which it holds hearings and conducts business. Many federal courthouses are named after notable judges, such as the Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse in New York City or the Hugo L. Black Courthouse in Birmingham. The largest courthouse is the Thomas F. Eagleton United States Courthouse, which serves the Eastern District of Missouri.
The largest courts by number of judges are the Central District of California and the Southern District of New York, each with 28 judgeships. The smallest are the District for the Northern Mariana Islands and the District of Guam, with one judgeship each.
|Citation||The abbreviation used to refer to court decisions.|
|Established||The date the district court was established as a court or the date it was subdivided from a larger district.|
|Judges||The number of judgeships authorized for the district.|
|Meeting places||The number of locations at which the court hears cases.|
|Northern District of Alabama||N.D. Ala.||11th||1824||8||8||Karon O. Bowdre|
|Middle District of Alabama||M.D. Ala.||11th||1839||3||3||Emily Coody Marks|
|Southern District of Alabama||S.D. Ala.||11th||1824||3||2||Kristi DuBose|
|District of Alaska||D. Alaska||9th||1958||3||5||Timothy Mark Burgess|
|District of Arizona||D. Ariz.||9th||1910||13||6||G. Murray Snow|
|Eastern District of Arkansas||E.D. Ark.||8th||1851||5||3||D. Price Marshall Jr.|
|Western District of Arkansas||W.D. Ark.||8th||1851||3||6||Susan Owens Hickey|
|Central District of California||C.D. Cal.||9th||1966||28||4||Virginia A. Phillips|
|Eastern District of California||E.D. Cal.||9th||1966||6||3||Lawrence Joseph O'Neill|
|Northern District of California||N.D. Cal.||9th||1886||14||4||Phyllis Jean Hamilton|
|Southern District of California||S.D. Cal.||9th||1850||13||1||Larry Alan Burns|
|District of Colorado||D. Col. or D. Colo.||10th||1876||7||8||Philip A. Brimmer|
|District of Connecticut||D. Conn.||2nd||1789||8||5||Stefan R. Underhill|
|District of Delaware||D. Del.||3rd||1789||4||1||Leonard P. Stark|
|District of Columbia||D.D.C.||D.C.||1863||15||1||Beryl A. Howell|
|Northern District of Florida||N.D. Fla. or N.D. Fl.||11th||1847||4||6||Mark E. Walker|
|Middle District of Florida||M.D. Fla. or M.D. Fl.||11th||1962||15||8||Steven Douglas Merryday|
|Southern District of Florida||S.D. Fla. or S.D. Fl.||11th||1847||18||5||Kevin Michael Moore|
|Northern District of Georgia||N.D. Ga.||11th||1848||11||4||Thomas W. Thrash Jr.|
|Middle District of Georgia||M.D. Ga.||11th||1926||4||7||Clay D. Land|
|Southern District of Georgia||S.D. Ga.||11th||1848||3||6||James Randal Hall|
|District of Guam||D. Guam||9th||1951||1||1||Frances Tydingco-Gatewood|
|District of Hawaii||D. Haw.||9th||1959||4||1||John Michael Seabright|
|District of Idaho||D. Idaho||9th||1890||2||4||David Nye|
|Northern District of Illinois||N.D. Ill.||7th||1855||22||4||Rebecca R. Pallmeyer|
|Central District of Illinois||C.D. Ill.||7th||1978||4||6||Sara Lynn Darrow|
|Southern District of Illinois||S.D. Ill.||7th||1855||4||4||Nancy J. Rosenstengel|
|Northern District of Indiana||N.D. Ind.||7th||1928||5||4||Theresa Lazar Springmann|
|Southern District of Indiana||S.D. Ind.||7th||1928||5||5||Jane Magnus-Stinson|
|Northern District of Iowa||N.D. Iowa||8th||1882||2||6||Leonard Terry Strand|
|Southern District of Iowa||S.D. Iowa||8th||1882||3||6||John Alfred Jarvey|
|District of Kansas||D. Kan.||10th||1861||6||9||Julie A. Robinson|
|Eastern District of Kentucky||E.D. Ky.||6th||1901||6||9||Danny C. Reeves|
|Western District of Kentucky||W.D. Ky.||6th||1901||5||4||Gregory N. Stivers|
|Eastern District of Louisiana||E.D. La.||5th||1849||12||2||Nannette Jolivette Brown|
|Middle District of Louisiana||M.D. La.||5th||1971||3||1||Shelly Deckert Dick|
|Western District of Louisiana||W.D. La.||5th||1881||7||6||S. Maurice Hicks Jr.|
|District of Maine||D. Me.||1st||1789||3||2||Jon D. Levy|
|District of Maryland||D. Md.||4th||1789||10||4||James K. Bredar|
|District of Massachusetts||D. Mass.||1st||1789||13||4||F. Dennis Saylor IV|
|Eastern District of Michigan||E.D. Mich.||6th||1863||15||5||Denise Page Hood|
|Western District of Michigan||W.D. Mich.||6th||1863||4||6||Robert James Jonker|
|District of Minnesota||D. Minn.||8th||1858||7||6||John R. Tunheim|
|Northern District of Mississippi||N.D. Miss.||5th||1838||3||7||Sharion Aycock|
|Southern District of Mississippi||S.D. Miss.||5th||1838||6||7||Daniel Porter Jordan III|
|Eastern District of Missouri||E.D. Mo.||8th||1857||9||3||Rodney W. Sippel|
|Western District of Missouri||W.D. Mo.||8th||1857||7||5||Mary Elizabeth Phillips|
|District of Montana||D. Mont.||9th||1889||3||11||Dana L. Christensen|
|District of Nebraska||D. Neb.||8th||1867||3||3||John M. Gerrard|
|District of Nevada||D. Nev.||9th||1865||7||6||Miranda Du|
|District of New Hampshire||D.N.H.||1st||1789||3||2||Landya B. McCafferty|
|District of New Jersey||D.N.J.||3rd||1789||17||6||Freda L. Wolfson|
|District of New Mexico||D.N.M.||10th||1910||7||3||William Paul Johnson|
|Eastern District of New York||E.D.N.Y.||2nd||1865||15||4||Dora Irizarry|
|Northern District of New York||N.D.N.Y.||2nd||1814||5||8||Glenn T. Suddaby|
|Southern District of New York||S.D.N.Y.||2nd||1814||28||3||Colleen McMahon|
|Western District of New York||W.D.N.Y.||2nd||1900||4||5||Frank Paul Geraci Jr.|
|Eastern District of North Carolina||E.D.N.C.||4th||1872||4||7||Terrence Boyle|
|Middle District of North Carolina||M.D.N.C.||4th||1927||4||3||Thomas D. Schroeder|
|Western District of North Carolina||W.D.N.C.||4th||1872||5||5||Frank DeArmon Whitney|
|District of North Dakota||D.N.D.||8th||1890||2||4||Daniel L. Hovland|
|District of the Northern Mariana Islands||D.N. Mar. I.||9th||1977||1||1||Ramona Villagomez Manglona|
|Northern District of Ohio||N.D. Ohio||6th||1855||11||5||Patricia Anne Gaughan|
|Southern District of Ohio||S.D. Ohio||6th||1855||8||5||Algenon L. Marbley|
|Eastern District of Oklahoma||E.D. Ok. or E.D. Okla.||10th||1906||2||8||Ronald A. White|
|Northern District of Oklahoma||N.D. Ok. or N.D. Okla.||10th||1925||4||5||John E. Dowdell|
|Western District of Oklahoma||W.D. Ok. or W.D. Okla.||10th||1906||7||10||Timothy D. DeGiusti|
|District of Oregon||D. Or. or D. Ore.||9th||1859||6||7||Marco A. Hernandez|
|Eastern District of Pennsylvania||E.D. Pa.||3rd||1818||22||5||Juan Ramon Sanchez|
|Middle District of Pennsylvania||M.D. Pa.||3rd||1901||6||5||Christopher C. Conner|
|Western District of Pennsylvania||W.D. Pa.||3rd||1818||10||3||Mark R. Hornak|
|District of Puerto Rico||D.P.R.||1st||1966||7||3||Gustavo Gelpí|
|District of Rhode Island||D.R.I.||1st||1790||3||1||John J. McConnell Jr.|
|District of South Carolina||D.S.C.||4th||1789||10||11||Robert Bryan Harwell|
|District of South Dakota||D.S.D.||8th||1889||3||5||Roberto Lange|
|Eastern District of Tennessee||E.D. Tenn.||6th||1802||5||4||Pamela L. Reeves|
|Middle District of Tennessee||M.D. Tenn.||6th||1839||4||3||Waverly D. Crenshaw Jr.|
|Western District of Tennessee||W.D. Tenn.||6th||1802||5||3||Stanley Thomas Anderson|
|Eastern District of Texas||E.D. Tex.||5th||1857||8||7||James Rodney Gilstrap|
|Northern District of Texas||N.D. Tex.||5th||1879||12||7||Barbara M. Lynn|
|Southern District of Texas||S.D. Tex.||5th||1902||19||7||Lee H. Rosenthal|
|Western District of Texas||W.D. Tex.||5th||1857||13||8||Orlando Luis Garcia|
|District of Utah||D. Utah||10th||1894||5||4||Robert J. Shelby|
|District of Vermont||D. Vt.||2nd||1791||2||7||Geoffrey W. Crawford|
|District of the Virgin Islands||D.V.I.||3rd||1936||2||2||Wilma A. Lewis|
|Eastern District of Virginia||E.D. Va.||4th||1819||11||4||Mark Steven Davis|
|Western District of Virginia||W.D. Va.||4th||1819||4||7||Michael F. Urbanski|
|Eastern District of Washington||E.D. Wash.||9th||1905||4||4||Thomas O. Rice|
|Western District of Washington||W.D. Wash.||9th||1905||7||3||Ricardo S. Martinez|
|Northern District of West Virginia||N.D. W. Va.||4th||1901||3||5||Gina Marie Groh|
|Southern District of West Virginia||S.D. W. Va.||4th||1901||5||6||Thomas E. Johnston|
|Eastern District of Wisconsin||E.D. Wis.||7th||1870||5||3||Pamela Pepper|
|Western District of Wisconsin||W.D. Wis.||7th||1870||2||5||James D. Peterson|
|District of Wyoming||D. Wyo.||10th||1890||3||6||Scott W. Skavdahl|
Note: Defunct courts do not include courts consisting of an entire state that were later subdivided.
|District of Edenton||—||1794||1797|
|District of New Bern||—||1794||1797|
|District of Wilmington||—||1794||1797|
|District of East Jersey||—||1801||1802|
|District of West Jersey||—||1801||1802|
|District of Potomac||—||1801||1802|
|District of Norfolk||—||1801||1802|
|District of Albemarle||—||1802||1872|
|District of Cape Fear||—||1802||1872|
|District of Pamptico||—||1802||1872|
|District of Orleans||—||1804||1812|
|Eastern District of Illinois||E.D. Ill.||1905||1978|
|District of China||—||1906||1943|
|Eastern District of South Carolina||E.D.S.C.||1911||1965|
|Western District of South Carolina||W.D.S.C.||1911||1965|
|District of the Canal Zone||D.C.Z.||1914||1982|
|District of Berlin||D.Berlin||1955||1990|
|District of Alabama||D. Ala.||April 21, 1820||March 10, 1824|
|District of Arkansas||D. Ark.||June 15, 1836||March 3, 1851|
|District of California||D. Cal.||July 27, 1866||August 5, 1886|
|District of Florida||D. Fla.||March 3, 1845||February 23, 1847|
|District of Georgia||D. Ga.||September 24, 1789||August 11, 1848|
|District of Illinois||D. Ill.||March 3, 1819||February 13, 1855|
|District of Indiana||D. Ind.||March 3, 1817||April 21, 1928|
|District of Iowa||D. Iowa||March 3, 1845||July 20, 1882|
|District of Kentucky||D. Ky.||September 24, 1789|
March 8, 1802
|February 13, 1801|
February 12, 1901
|District of Louisiana||D. La.||April 8, 1812|
February 13, 1845
July 27, 1866
|March 3, 1823|
March 3, 1849
March 3, 1881
|District of Michigan||D. Mich.||July 1, 1836||February 24, 1863|
|District of Mississippi||D. Miss.||April 3, 1818||June 18, 1838|
|District of Missouri||D. Mo.||March 16, 1822||March 3, 1857|
|District of New York||D.N.Y.||September 24, 1789||April 9, 1814|
|District of North Carolina||D.N.C.||June 4, 1790|
March 3, 1797
|June 9, 1794|
April 29, 1802
|District of Ohio||D. Ohio||February 19, 1803||February 10, 1855|
|District of Pennsylvania||D. Pa.||September 24, 1789||April 20, 1818|
|District of Tennessee||D. Tenn.||January 31, 1797|
March 8, 1802
|February 13, 1801|
April 29, 1802
|District of Texas||D. Tex.||December 29, 1845||February 21, 1857|
|District of Virginia||D. Va.||September 24, 1789|
March 8, 1802
June 11, 1864
|February 13, 1801|
February 4, 1819
February 3, 1871
|District of Washington||D. Wash.||April 5, 1890||March 2, 1905|
|District of West Virginia||D.W.Va.||June 11, 1864||January 22, 1901|
|District of Wisconsin||D. Wis.||May 29, 1848||June 30, 1870|
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system. The courts are divided into 13 circuits, and each hears appeals from the district courts within its borders, or in some instances from other designated federal courts and administrative agencies. Appeals from the courts of appeals are taken to the U.S. Supreme Court.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States district court. Each federal judicial district has at least one courthouse, and many districts have more than one. The formal name of a district court is "the United States District Court for" the name of the district—for example, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit is a United States federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts:
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia is one of two United States district courts serving the Commonwealth of Virginia. It has jurisdiction over the Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond metro areas and surrounding locations with courthouses located in Alexandria, Norfolk, Richmond and Newport News.
In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge nominated by the president of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of California is a federal court in the Ninth Circuit.
The United States District Court for the District of South Carolina is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of South Carolina. Court is held in the cities of Aiken, Anderson, Beaufort, Charleston, Columbia, Florence, Greenville, and Spartanburg.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D.C. The court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges. The Federal Circuit is particularly known for its decisions on patent law, as it is the only appellate-level court with the jurisdiction to hear patent case appeals.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio is one of two United States district courts in Ohio and includes forty-eight of the state's eighty-eight counties. Appeals from the court are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit at Cincinnati.
The United States circuit courts were the original intermediate level courts of the United States federal court system. They were established by the Judiciary Act of 1789. They had trial court jurisdiction over civil suits of diversity jurisdiction and major federal crimes. They also had appellate jurisdiction over the United States district courts. The Judiciary Act of 1891 transferred their appellate jurisdiction to the newly created United States circuit courts of appeals, which are now known as the United States courts of appeals. On January 1, 1912, the effective date of the Judicial Code of 1911, the circuit courts were abolished, with their remaining trial court jurisdiction transferred to the U.S. district courts.
The appointment of federal judges for United States federal courts has come to be viewed as a political process in the last several decades. The tables below provide the composition of the Supreme and the Courts of Appeals at the end of each four year presidential term, as well as the compositions of the District Courts and the United States Court of International Trade at the current time, categorizing the judges by the presidential term during which they were first appointed to their seats.
The United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The court is based in San Juan. The main building is the Clemente Ruiz Nazario U.S. Courthouse located in the Hato Rey district of San Juan. The magistrate judges are located in the adjacent Federico Degetau Federal Building, and several senior district judges hold court at the Jose V. Toledo Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Old San Juan. The old courthouse also houses the U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Most appeals from this court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, which is headquartered in Boston but hears appeals at the Old San Juan courthouse for two sessions each year. Patent claims as well as claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act are appealed to the Federal Circuit.
The U.S. District Court for the District of Maine is the U.S. district court for the state of Maine. The District of Maine was one of the original thirteen district courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, even though Maine was not a separate state from Massachusetts until 1820. The court is headquartered at the Edward T. Gignoux United States Courthouse in Portland, Maine and has a second courthouse in Bangor, Maine. The U.S. Attorney for the District of Maine represents the United States in criminal and civil litigation before the court. Halsey Frank was confirmed as the U.S. Attorney for the District of Maine on October 3, 2017.
The United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee is the federal trial court for most of Middle Tennessee. Based at the Estes Kefauver Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Nashville, it was created in 1839 when Congress added a third district to the state. Tennessee—along with Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan—is located within the area covered by United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, and appeals are taken to that court.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee is the federal court in the Sixth Circuit whose jurisdiction covers all of East Tennessee and a portion of Middle Tennessee. The court has jurisdiction over 41 counties with 4 divisions. Based in Knoxville, Tennessee, it maintains branch facilities in Chattanooga, Tennessee; Greeneville, Tennessee; and Winchester, Tennessee.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa has jurisdiction over forty-seven of Iowa's ninety-nine counties. It is subject to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals.
The United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky is the federal district court for the western part of the state of Kentucky.
The Government of Guam (GovGuam) is a presidential representative democratic system, whereby the President is the head of state and the Governor is head of government, and of a multi-party system. Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States with policy relations between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs.