Foreign relations of the United States

Last updated

Diplomatic relations of the United States

United States
Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States
Countries that do not have diplomatic relations with the United States
Disputed territories
Antarctica Diplomatic relations of the United States.svg
Diplomatic relations of the United States
  United States
  Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Countries that do not have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Disputed territories
  Antarctica

The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all UN member states and UN observer states other than (i) UN member states Bhutan, Iran, North Korea and Syria and (ii) the UN observer State of Palestine. Additionally, the U.S. has diplomatic relations with the European Union and Kosovo. The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Bhutan Landlocked kingdom in Eastern Himalayas

Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Sikkim state of India and the Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the west, the Arunachal Pradesh state of India in the east, and the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal in the south. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is its capital and largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center.

Iran A country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the political and economic center of Iran, and the largest and most populous city in Western Asia with more than 8.8 million residents in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area.

Contents

North and South America

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1823 [1] See Argentina–United States relations

Argentina was integrated into the British international economy in the late 19th century; there was minimal trade with the United States. When the United States began promoting the Pan American Union, some Argentines were suspicious that it was indeed a device to lure the country into the US economic orbit, but most businessmen responded favorably and bilateral trade grew briskly. The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counter-terrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the U.S.), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1981 [2] See Belize–United States relations
Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia 1849 [3] See Bolivia–United States relations

Although President Evo Morales has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Bolivia had a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the U.S. remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. Government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1824 [4] See Brazil–United States relations

The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil, doing so in 1808. Brazil-United States relations have a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues. [5] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America. [6] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States. [7]

Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1926 [8] See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties. The current bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of notable importance to both countries. About 75–85% of Canadian trade is with the United States, and Canada is the United States' largest trading partner and chief supplier of oil. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries share the "world's longest undefended border." [9] The border was demilitarized after the War of 1812 and, apart from minor raids[ clarification needed ], has remained peaceful. A high volume of trade and migration between the United States and Canada since the 1850s has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being culturally overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is nine times larger in terms of population and eleven times larger in terms of economy. [10] [11] The two economies have increasingly merged since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, which also includes Mexico. This economic merger of these two countries will be shifted when the Trump era United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement USMCA is ratified.

Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 1824 [12] See Chile–United States relations

Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics. Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement.

Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 1822 [13] See Colombia–United States relations

Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries[ citation needed ] to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current U.S. policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that U.S. influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia. [14] Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the U.S. has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism. [15]

Flag of Costa Rica (state).svg  Costa Rica 1851 [16] See Costa Rica–United States relations
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 1832 [17] See Ecuador–United States relations
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 1824; 1849 [18] See El Salvador–United States relations
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 1824; 1844 [19] See Guatemala–United States relations
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 1966 [20] See Guyana–United States relations
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 1824; 1853 [21] See Honduras–United States relations
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1822 [22] See Mexico–United States relations

The United States of America shares a unique and often complex relationship with the United Mexican States. A history of armed conflict goes back to the Texas Revolution in the 1830s, the Mexican–American War in the 1840s, and an American invasion in the 1910s. Important treaties include the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally with Canada, the North American Free Trade Agreement which was changed in the Trump era to the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. The two countries have close economic ties, being each other's first and third largest trading partners. They are also closely connected demographically, with over one million U.S. citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and firearms have been causes of differences but also of cooperation. [23] [24]

Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 1824; 1849 [25] See Nicaragua–United States relations

Nicaragua and the United States have had diplomatic relations since 1824. Between 1912-1933, the United States occupied Nicaragua (see United States occupation of Nicaragua). Following the United States occupation of Nicaragua, in 1933 the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster on July 19, 1979 during the Nicaraguan Revolution. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by rising inequality and political corruption, strong US support for the government and its military, as well as a reliance on US-based multinational corporations. This led to international condemnation of the regime and in 1977 the Carter Administration in the U.S. cut off aid to the Somoza regime due to its human rights violations.

Then during the Reagan Administration the diplomatic relations escalated during the Iran-Contra affair and the United States embargo against Nicaragua. Then in 1990 after Violeta Chamorro won the 1990 Nicaraguan general election the diplomatic relations began to improve greatly. The United States has promoted national reconciliation, encouraging Nicaraguans to resolve their problems through dialogue and compromise. In the Summer 2003 Nicaragua sent around 370 soldiers to the Iraq War as part of the U.S. coalition of countries that were engaging in war in this country. Immediately after April 2004 these troops were withdrawn by President Enrique Bolanos. Although President Daniel Ortega has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Nicaragua have normal diplomatic relations.

Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 1903 [26] See Panama–United States relations

Panama gained its independence in 1901 due in part to American interest in building the Panama Canal. Relations have been generally strong, with 25,000 U.S. citizens present in Panama and a mutual healthcare program. The U.S. invaded Panama in 1989 to remove then Panamanian leader Manual Noriega.

Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 1852 [27] See Paraguay–United States relations
Flag of Peru (state).svg  Peru 1826 [28] See Peru–United States relations
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 1975 [29] See Suriname–United States relations
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1836 [30] See Uruguay - United States relations

In 2002, Uruguay and the U.S. created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the U.S. signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 U.S.-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market U.S. goods and services.

Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 1835 [31] See Venezuela - United States relations

Both countries maintained mutual diplomatic relationships since the early-19th century traditionally been characterized by an important trade and investment relationship and cooperation in controlling the production and transit of illegal drugs. After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States and particularly after the Venezuelan failed coup attempt in 2002 against Chavez, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the U.S. Relations showed signs of improvement in 2009 with the election of the new U.S. President Barack Obama, including the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in June 2009. In January 2019, after U.S. President Donald Trump recognized Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of Venezuela, President Nicolás Maduro cut all diplomatic ties to the United States (2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis) and ordered all U.S. diplomats to leave the country. [32] On the 26th of January the Maduro government suspended its deadline to U.S. diplomats to leave the country. [33]

Caribbean

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 1981 [34] See Antigua and Barbuda–United States relations
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba See Aruba–United States relations
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 1973 [35] See Bahamas–United States relations
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 1966 [36] See Barbados–United States relations
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda See Bermuda–United States relations
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands See Cayman Islands–United States relations
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 1902; 2015 [37] See Cuba–United States relations

Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations had deteriorated substantially, and until recently have been marked by tension and confrontation. The United States has initiated an embargo due to the Cuban regime refusal to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights, [38] hoping to see democratization that took place in Eastern Europe. Diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba were formally re-established on July 20, 2015 with the opening of embassies in both Havana and Washington, D.C. [39]

Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 1866 [40] See Dominican Republic–United States relations
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 1978 [41] See Dominica–United States relations
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 1974 [42] See Grenada–United States relations
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 1862 [43] See Haiti–United States relations
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 1962 [44] See Jamaica–United States relations
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 [45] See Saint Kitts and Nevis–United States relations
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 1979 [46] See Saint Lucia–United States relations
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981 [47] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–United States relations
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 1962 [48] See Trinidad and Tobago–United States relations

Europe

American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have gradually transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have also joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty.

Cold War Geopolitical tension after World War II between the Eastern and Western Bloc

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. The historiography of the conflict began between 1946 and 1947. The Cold War began to de-escalate after the Revolutions of 1989. The collapse of the USSR in 1991 was the end of the Cold War. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. Its territory included much of Eastern Europe, as well as part of Northern Europe and all of Northern and Central Asia. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

European Union Economic and political union of European states

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union See United States–European Union relations
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 1922 [49] See Albania–United States relations
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 1995 [50] See Andorra–United States relations
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 1920; 1991 [51] See Armenia–United States relations
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 1921 [52] See Austria–United States relations
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 1918-1928, 1991 [53] See Azerbaijan–United States relations
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 1991 [54] See Belarus–United States relations
The United States has tense relations with Belarus relating to Belarus' human rights record and election irregularities.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1832 [55] See Belgium–United States relations
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 [56] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–United States relations
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 1903 [57] See Bulgaria–United States relations
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 1992 [58] See Croatia–United States relations
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 1960 [59] See Cyprus–United States relations
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 1993 [60] See Czech Republic–United States relations
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1801 [61] See Denmark–United States relations
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 1922; 1991 [62] See Estonia–United States relations
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1919 [63] See Finland–United States relations
Flag of France.svg  France 1778 [64] See France–United States relations
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 1992 [65] See Georgia–United States relations
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1797 [66] See Germany–United States relations
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 1868 [67] See Greece–United States relations
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Holy See 1984 [68] See Holy See–United States relations
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1921 [69] See Hungary–United States relations
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 1944 [70] See Iceland–United States relations
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 1924 [71] See Ireland–United States relations
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1861 [72] See Italy–United States relations
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 2008 [73] See Kosovo–United States relations
The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Kosovo. The UN Security Council divided on the question of Kosovo's declaration of independence. Kosovo declared its independence on February 17, 2008, whilst Serbia objected that Kosovo is part of its territory. Of the five members with veto power in the UN Security Council, the US, UK, and France recognized the declaration of independence, and China has expressed concern, while Russia considers it illegal. "In its declaration of independence, Kosovo committed itself to the highest standards of democracy, including freedom and tolerance and justice for citizens of all ethnic backgrounds", President George W. Bush said on February 19, 2008. [74] [75]
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 1922; 1991 [76] See Latvia–United States relations
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 1997 [77] See Liechtenstein–United States relations
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 1922; 1991 [78] See Lithuania–United States relations
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 1903 [79] See Luxembourg–United States relations
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 1964 [80] See Malta–United States relations
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 1992 [81] See Moldova–United States relations
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 2006 [82] See Monaco–United States relations
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 1905; 2006 [83] See Montenegro–United States relations
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1781 [84] See Netherlands–United States relations
The Dutch colony of Sint Eustatius was the first foreign state to recognize the independence of the United States, doing so in 1776. However, the Dutch Republic neither authorized the recognition nor ratified it, therefore Morocco remains the first sovereign nation to officially recognize the United States.
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 1995 [85] See North Macedonia–United States relations
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 1905 [86] See Norway–United States relations
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1919 [87] See Poland–United States relations
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1791 [88] See Portugal–United States relations
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1880 [89] See Romania–United States relations
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1809; 1991 [90] See Russia–United States relations
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 1861 [91] See San Marino–United States relations
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1882; 2000 [92] See Serbia–United States relations
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 1993 [93] See Slovakia–United States relations
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 1992 [94] See Slovenia–United States relations
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1783 [95] See Spain–United States relations
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1818 [96] See Sweden–United States relations
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1853 [97] See Switzerland–United States relations
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 1991 [98] See Ukraine–United States relations
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1783 [99] See United Kingdom–United States relations

13 U.S. States declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1776. Since World War II, the two countries have shared a Special Relationship as part of the Anglosphere. While both the United States and the United Kingdom maintain close relationships with many other nations around the world, the level of cooperation in military planning, execution of military operations, nuclear weapons technology, and intelligence sharing with each other has been described as "unparalleled" among major powers throughout the 20th and early 21st century. [100] The United States and Britain share the world's largest foreign direct investment partnership. American investment in the United Kingdom reached $255.4 billion in 2002, while British direct investment in the United States totaled $283.3 billion. [101]

Africa

North Africa

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 1962 [102] See Algeria–United States relations

The official U.S. presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the U.S. Embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.

Flag of the Arab League.svg  Arab League See Arab–American relations

The Arab League has an embassy, and several offices in the U.S.

Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 1922 [103] See Egypt–United States relations

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance U.S.-Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 1951 [104] See Libya–United States relations

In 2011, the United States cut diplomatic relations with the Gaddafi regime. The United States recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya on July 15, 2011. [105]

Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 1777 [106] See Morocco–United States relations

Morocco was the first sovereign nation to recognize the United States of America in 1776. American-Moroccan relations were formalized in a 1787 treaty, which is still in force and is the oldest unbroken bilateral treaty in American history.

Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 1956 [107] See Sudan–United States relations
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 1795 [108] See Tunisia–United States relations

Sub-Saharan Africa

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 1994 [109] See Angola–United States relations

Relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the U.S. government backed UNITA rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Marxism in 1992.

Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 1960 [110] See Benin–United States relations

The two nations have had an excellent history of relations in the years since Benin embraced democracy. The U.S. Government continues to assist Benin with the improvement of living standards that are key to the ultimate success of Benin's experiment with democratic government and economic liberalization, and are consistent with U.S. values and national interest in reducing poverty and promoting growth. The bulk of the U.S. effort in support of consolidating democracy in Benin is focused on long-term human resource development through U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programs. [111]

Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana 1966 [112] See Botswana–United States relations
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 1960 [113] See Burkina Faso–United States relations
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 1962 [114] See Burundi–United States relations
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 1960 [115] See Cameroon–United States relations
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde 1975 [116] See Cape Verde–United States relations
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 1960 [117] See Central African Republic–United States relations
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 1960 [118] See Chad–United States relations
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 1977 [119] See Comoros–United States relations
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire 1960 [120] See Côte d'Ivoire–United States relations
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960 [121] See Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 1977 [122] See Djibouti–United States relations
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 1968 [123] See Equatorial Guinea–United States relations
Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 1993 [124] See Eritrea–United States relations
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini 1968 [125] See Eswatini–United States relations
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 1903 [126] See Ethiopia–United States relations
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 1960 [127] See Gabon–United States relations
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 1957 [128] See Ghana–United States relations
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 1959 [129] See Guinea–United States relations
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 1975 [130] See Guinea-Bissau–United States relations
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 1964 [131] See Kenya–United States relations
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 1966 [132] See Lesotho–United States relations
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 1864 [133] See Liberia–United States relations
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 1874 [134] See Madagascar–United States relations
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 1964 [135] See Malawi–United States relations
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 1960 [136] See Mali–United States relations
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 1960 [137] See Mauritania–United States relations
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 1968 [138] See Mauritius–United States relations
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 1975 [139] See Mozambique–United States relations
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 1990 [140] See Namibia–United States relations
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 1960 [141] See Niger–United States relations
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 1960 [142] See Nigeria–United States relations
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 1960 [143] See Republic of the Congo–United States relations
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 1962 [144] See Rwanda–United States relations
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe 1976 [145] See São Tomé and Príncipe–United States relations
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 1960 [146] See Senegal–United States relations
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 1976 [147] See Seychelles–United States relations
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 1961 [148] See Sierra Leone–United States relations
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 1960 [149] See Somalia–United States relations
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1929 [150] See South Africa–United States relations
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan 2011 [151] See South Sudan–United States relations
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 1961 [152] See Tanzania–United States relations
Flag of The Gambia.svg  The Gambia 1965 [153] See The Gambia–United States relations
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 1960 [154] See Togo–United States relations
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 1962 [155] See Uganda–United States relations

Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Yoweri Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism.

Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 1964 [156] See United States–Zambia relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The U.S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Treasury, U.S. Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The majority of U.S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 1980 [157] See United States–Zimbabwe relations

After Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe's rival and leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe under a power-sharing agreement, the Barack Obama administration extended its congratulations to Tsvangirai, but said that the U.S. would wait for evidence of Mugabe's cooperation with the MDC before it would consider lifting its sanctions. [158] In early March 2009, Obama proclaimed that U.S. sanctions would be protracted provisionally for another year, because Zimbabwe's political crisis is as yet unresolved. [159]

Asia

West Asia & Middle East

The United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Jordan, Afghanistan, Israel, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion [160] and 1.75 billion [161] in 2010. Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies.

Greater Middle East political term, introduced in the U.S. in the early 2000s, denoting a set of countries from Morocco to western China and from central Asia to Somalia

The Greater Middle East is a political term, introduced in the early 2000s, denoting a set of contiguously connected countries stretching from Morocco in the west all the way to Pakistan in the east. Various countries of Central Asia are sometimes also included. According to Andrew Bacevich in his book America's war for the Greater Middle East (2016), the career soldier and Professor Emeritus at Boston University states that this region is the theatre for a series of conflicts dating back to 1980, which heralded the start of the Iran–Iraq War. Since then, the U.S. has been involved in balancing conflicts amongst these culturally interconnected nations in order to further its interests in the region. The Greater Middle East is sometimes referred to as the "New Middle East" or "The Great Middle East Project".

Saudi Arabia–United States relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States of America

Saudi Arabia–United States relations refers to the bilateral relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States, which began in 1933 when full diplomatic relations were established and became formalized in the 1951 Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement. Despite the differences between the two countries—an ultraconservative Islamic absolute monarchy, and a secular, constitutional republic—the two countries have been allies. Former Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama have close and strong relations with senior members of the Saudi Royal Family.

Morocco–United States relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Morocco and the United States of America

Morocco–United States relations are bilateral relations between Morocco and the United States.

The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. [162] Turkey is host to approximately 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base. [163] Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 U.S. troops are based, [164] and Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet.

Saddam Hussein Iraqi politician and President

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup that brought the party to power in Iraq.

2003 invasion of Iraq military invasion led by the United States

The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War. The invasion phase began on 19 March 2003 and lasted just over one month, including 21 days of major combat operations, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq. This early stage of the war formally ended on 1 May 2003 when U.S. President George W. Bush declared the "End of major combat operations", after which the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as the first of several successive transitional governments leading up to the first Iraqi parliamentary election in January 2005. U.S. military forces later remained in Iraq until the withdrawal in 2011.

Turkey Country spanning Western Asia and Southeastern Europe

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, the part of Turkey in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city while Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority at anywhere from 15 to 20 percent of the population.

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 1971 [165] See Bahrain–United States relations
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 1883 (ended 1980) [166] See Iran–United States relations

The United States and the Kingdom of Persia recognized each other in 1850. Diplomatic relations were established in 1883 and severed in 1980.

Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 1931; 1984; 2004 [167] See Iraq–United States relations
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 1949 [168] See Israel–United States relations
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 1949 [169] See Jordan–United States relations
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 1961 [170] See Kuwait–United States relations
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 1944 [171] See Lebanon–United States relations
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 1972 [172] See Oman–United States relations
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 1972 [173] See Qatar–United States relations
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 1940 [174] See Saudi Arabia–United States relations
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 1944 (ended 2012) [175] The Syrian Arab Republic cut off relations with United States in 2012 in response to American support of the Syrian rebels. See Syria–United States relations
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1831 [176] See Turkey–United States relations
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 1972 [177] See United Arab Emirates–United States relations

The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries have enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and U.S. had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of U.S.-UAE relations increased dramatically as a result of the U.S.-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more U.S. Navy ships than any port outside the U.S.

Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 1946 [178] See United States–Yemen relations

Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the War on Terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional U.S. support. [179]

Central Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 1991 [180] See Kazakhstan–United States relations
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 1993 [181] See Kyrgyzstan–United States relations
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 1991 [182] See Tajikistan–United States relations
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 1991 [183] See Turkmenistan–United States relations

The U.S. Embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.

Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 1991 [184] See United States–Uzbekistan relations

Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to U.S., regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.

South Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 1935 [185] See Afghanistan–United States relations
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 1972 [186] See Bangladesh–United States relations

Today the relationship between the two countries is based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.

Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan Never had formal, only informal relations [187] See Bhutan–United States relations

While the U.S. has no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan, it maintains informal contact through its embassy in New Delhi, India. The U.S. has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven U.N. refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.

Flag of India.svg  India 1947 [188] See India–United States relations

The relationships between India in the days of the British Raj and the US were thin. [189] Swami Vivekananda promoted Yoga and Vedanta in America at the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago, during the World's Fair in 1893. Mark Twain visited India in 1896 [190] and described it in his travelogue Following the Equator with both revulsion and attraction before concluding that India was the only foreign land he dreamed about or longed to see again. [191] Regarding India, Americans learned more from English writer Rudyard Kipling. [192] Mahatma Gandhi had an important influence on the philosophy of non-violence promoted by Martin Luther King, Jr. in the 1950s.

At present, India and the US share an extensive and expanding cultural, strategic, military, and economic relationship [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] which is in the phase of implementing confidence building measures (CBM) to overcome the legacy of trust deficit – brought about by adversarial US foreign policies [198] [199] [200] [201] and multiple instances of technology denial [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] – which have plagued the relationship over several decades. [207] [208] Unrealistic expectations after the conclusion of the 2008 U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement (which underestimated negative public opinion regarding the long-term viability of nuclear power generation and civil-society endorsement for contractual guarantees on safeguards and liability) has given way to pragmatic realism and refocus on areas of cooperation which enjoy favourable political and electoral consensus.

Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 1965 [209] See Maldives–United States relations
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 1947 [210] See Nepal–United States relations
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1947 [211] See Pakistan–United States relations
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 1947 [212] See Sri Lanka–United States relations

East Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China 1844 (Qing) [213]
1979 (PRC)
See China–United States relations

American relations with the People's Republic of China used to be quite strong, yet complex. A great amount of trade between the two countries necessitates positive political relations, although occasional disagreements over tariffs, currency exchange rates and the Political status of Taiwan do occur. Nevertheless, the United States and China used to have an extremely extensive partnership. The U.S. criticizes China on human rights issues and in recent years like the mass detaining of Uyghurs and Kazakhs in Xinjiang or the cultural assimilation of Mongols and Tibetans. China has criticized the United States on human rights in return also. The United States acknowledges the People's Republic's One-China policy.

The relations deteriorated sharply under Donald Trump, who launched a trade war against China, banned US companies from selling equipment to Huawei, increased visa restrictions on Chinese students and scholars and designated China as a "currency manipulator". [214] [215] [216] [217] [218]

Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China (Taiwan) 1844 (Qing) [213]
1911 (ended 1979)
1979 (Taiwan Relations Act - unofficial)

2018 (Taiwan Travel Act) - high-level working partnership

See Taiwan–United States relations

The U.S. recognized the Nationalist Government as the legitimate government of all of China throughout the Chinese Civil War. The U.S. continued to recognize the Republic of China until 1979, when it shifted its recognition to the People's Republic of China in accordance with the One China policy. The U.S. continued to provide Taiwan with military aid after 1979, and continued informal relations through the American Institute in Taiwan, and is considered to be a strong Asian ally and supporter of the United States. [219] The U.S. Congress passes the Taiwan Travel Act on February 28, 2018 and the bill was subsequently signed into federal law by President Donald Trump, formalizing high-level communications between Washington and Taipei as well as permitting intergovernmental contact at the highest level. [220]

Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau
1992 [221]
1999 [222]
See Hong Kong–United States relations and Macau–United States relations
See United States–Hong Kong Policy Act and United States–Macau Policy Act
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1854, 1952 [223]
See Japan–United States relations

The relationship began in the 1850s as the U.S. was a major factor in forcing Japan to resume contacts with the outer world beyond a very restricted role. In the late 19th century the Japanese sent many delegations to Europe, and some to the U.S., to discover and copy the latest technology and thereby modernize Japan very rapidly and allow it to build its own empire. There was some friction over control of Hawaii and the Philippines, but Japan stood aside as the U.S. annexed those lands in 1898. Likewise the U.S. did not object when Japan took control of Korea. The two nations cooperated with the European powers in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, but the U.S. was increasingly troubled about Japan's denial of the Open Door Policy that would ensure that all nations could do business with China on an equal basis. [224]

President Theodore Roosevelt admired Japan's strength as it defeated a major European power, Russia. He brokered an end to the war between Russia and Japan in 1905–6. Anti-Japanese sentiment (especially on the West Coast) soured relations in the 1907–24 era. In the 1930s the U.S. protested vehemently against Japan's seizure of Manchuria (1931), its war against China (1937–45), and its seizure of Indochina (Vietnam) 1940–41. American sympathies were with China and Japan rejected increasingly angry American demands that Japan pull out of China. The two nations fought an all-out war 1941–45; the U.S. won a total victory, with heavy bombing (including two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki) that devastated Japan's 50 largest industrial cities. The American army under Douglas MacArthur occupied and ruled Japan, 1945–51, with the successful goal of sponsoring a peaceful, prosperous and democratic nation. [225]

In 1951, the U.S. and Japan signed Treaty of San Francisco and Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, subsequently revised as Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan in 1960, relations since then have been excellent. The United States considers Japan to be one of its closest allies, and it is both a Major Non-NATO ally and NATO contact country. The United States has several military bases in Japan including Yokosuka, which harbors the U.S. 7th Fleet. The JSDF, or Japanese Self Defense Force, cross train with the U.S. Military, often providing auxiliary security and conducting war games.

Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 1987 [226] See Mongolia–United States relations
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea Only Informal Relations [227] See North Korea–United States relations
The United States and North Korea do not have diplomatic relations. [228]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1882 (Joseon); [229] 1949 (Republic) [230] See South Korea–United States relations

South Korea–United States relations have been most extensive since 1945, when the United States helped establish capitalism in South Korea and led the UN-sponsored Korean War against North Korea and China (1950–53). [231] South Korea's rapid economic growth, democratization and modernization greatly reduced its U.S. dependency. Large numbers of U.S. forces remain in Korea. On September 24, 2018 President Donald Trump signed the United States-South Korea Trade Deal with South Korean President Moon Jae-in. [232]

Southeast Asia

Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, and the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability. [233] Trade flows are robust and increasing between America and the ASEAN region.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations international organisation of Southeast Asian countries

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia.

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 1984 [234] See Brunei–United States relations

The U.S. welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the U.S. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.

Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 1950 [235] See Cambodia–United States relations
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor 2002 [236] See East Timor–United States relations
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1949 [237] See Indonesia–United States relations

As the largest ASEAN member, Indonesia has played an active and prominent role in developing the organization. [238] For United States, Indonesia is important for dealing with certain issues; such as terrorism, [239] democracy, and how United States project its relations with Islamic world, since Indonesia has the world's largest Islamic population, and one that honors and respects religious diversity. [240] The U.S. eyes Indonesia as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia. [241] During his stately visit to Indonesia, U.S. President Barack Obama has held up Indonesia as an example of how a developing nation can embrace democracy and diversity. [242] [243]

Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 1950 [244] See Laos–United States relations
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 1957 [244] See Malaysia–United States relations

Despite increasingly strained relations under the Mahathir Mohamad government, ties have been thawed under Najib Razak's administration. Economic ties are particularly robust, with the United States being Malaysia's largest trading partner and Malaysia is the tenth-largest trading partner of the U.S. Annual two-way trade amounts to $50 billion. The United States and Malaysia launched negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in June 2006.

The United States and Malaysia enjoy strong security cooperation. Malaysia hosts the Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT), where over 2000 officials from various countries have received training. The United States is among the foreign countries that has collaborated with the center in conducting capacity building programmes. The U.S. and Malaysia share a strong military-to-military relationship with numerous exchanges, training, joint exercises, and visits.

Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 1948 [245] See Myanmar–United States relations
Bilateral ties have generally been strained but are slowly improving. The United States has placed broad sanctions on Burma because of the military crackdown in 1988 and the military regime's refusal to honour the election results of the 1990 People's Assembly election. Similarly, the European Union has placed embargoes on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid. [246]

US and European government sanctions against the military government, alongside boycotts and other types direct pressure on corporations by western supporters of the Burmese democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from Burma of most U.S. and many European companies. However, several Western companies remain due to loopholes in the sanctions. [247] Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in Myanmar and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction.

Ongoing reforms have improved relations between Burma and the United States. However the Rohingya Crisis has been deteriorating ties. [248]

Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 1946 [249] See Philippines–United States relations

The Philippines and the United States have an extremely strong relationship with each other due to their long standing alliance. The Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish–American War. The Philippines was a U.S. colony from 1898-1946. The United States finally recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946 in the Treaty of Manila. [250] July 4 was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until August 4, 1964 when, upon the advice of historians and the urging of nationalists, President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day. [251]

The U.S. and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Islamic insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.

The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with 100,000+ U.S. citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 4 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The U.S. is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.

The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The U.S. military also conduct humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two major U.S. allies in South East Asia.

Since 2003 the U.S. has designated the Philippines as a Major Non-NATO Ally. However, relations between the United States and the Philippines began to deteriorate in 2016, under President Rodrigo Duterte, wanting to form an alliance with China and Russia and separating the country from all connections and ties with the United States, both economically and socially.

Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 1965 [252] See Singapore–United States relations
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1833 [253] See Thailand–United States relations
Thailand and the U.S. are both former Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) members, being close partners throughout the Cold War, and are still close allies. Since 2003, the U.S. has designated Thailand as a Major Non-NATO Ally.
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 1995 [254] See United States–Vietnam relations

After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco. Today, the U.S. eyes Vietnam as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia. [241]

Oceania

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1940 [255] See Australia–United States relations

Australia and the United States have long been close and strategic allies and have traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations. The two countries have a shared history, both have previously been British Colonies and many Americans flocked to the Australian goldfields in the 19th century. At the strategic level, the relationship really came to prominence in the Second World War, when the two nations worked extremely closely in the Pacific War against Japan, with General Douglas MacArthur undertaking his role as Supreme Allied Commander based in Australia, effectively having Australian troops and resources under his command. During this period, the cultural interaction between Australia and the U.S. were elevated to a higher level as over 1 million U.S. military personnel moved through Australia during the course of the war. The relationship continued to evolve throughout the second half of the 20th Century, and today now involves strong relationships at the executive and mid levels of government and the military, leading Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Kurt M. Campbell to declare that "in the last ten years, [Australia] has ascended to one of the closest one or two allies [of the U.S.] on the planet". [256] It was also strengthened its relationship with the United States as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement.[ citation needed ]

Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 1971 [257] See Fiji–United States relations

Relations are currently poor, due to the United States' opposition to Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup. [258]

Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 1980 [259] See Kiribati–United States relations

Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The U.S. Peace Corps maintained a program in Kiribati from 1974 to 2008.

Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 1986See Marshall Islands–United States relations

The Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation in "free association" with the United States. The Marshall Islands and the United States maintain excellent relations. After more than a decade of negotiation, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed the Compact of Free Association on June 25, 1983. The Compact gives the U.S. full authority and responsibility over defense of the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands and the United States both lay claim to Wake Island. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the Marshall Islands is the same one that binds the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia and Palau

Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia 1986 [260] See Federated States of Micronesia–United States relations

Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 U.S. federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. The United States and the FSM share very strong relations. Under the Amended Compact, the U.S. has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the FSM is the same one that binds the United States to the Marshall Islands and to Palau.

Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 1976 [261] See Nauru–United States relations

Relations between Nauru and the United States are complicated. While the new U.S. Ambassador to Fiji has promised Nauru assistance in economic development, there have been disagreements about Cuba and Foreign policy of the United States, and the United States does not have an embassy in Nauru; instead, the U.S. Embassy staff in Suva, Fiji make periodical visits

Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1942 [262] See New Zealand–United States relations

United States-New Zealand relations are strong, but complex. The United States was historically assisted New Zealand in times of turmoil; for instance, during the World War II, U.S. bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and with the September 2010 Canterbury earthquake. New Zealand has reciprocated; for example, by participating in between Korean and Vietnam War. However, the United States suspended its mutual defense obligations to New Zealand because of that state's non-nuclear policies. Despite disagreements between the two countries, the bilateral trade and cultural relationship continued to flourish. New Zealand was continued to play a supportive role in international conflicts in Somalia, Bosnia, and the Persian Gulf. Following the 9/11 attacks on the United States since 2001, New Zealand supported international counter-terrorism efforts and assisted the United States throughout the war in Afghanistan. Throughout the 2000s, the United States was remained New Zealand's fourth-largest trading partner and third-largest source of visitors.

Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 1996 [263] See Palau–United States relations

On October 1, 1994, after five decades of U.S. administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.

Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 1975 [264] See Papua New Guinea–United States relations
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 1962 [265] See Samoa–United States relations
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 1978 [266] See Solomon Islands–United States relations

After independence in 1978, the United States kept its close relations with the Solomon Islands. Both cooperate within regional organizations in the Pacific, and the United States has an embassy at Port Moresby.

Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 1886; 1972 [267] See Tonga–United States relations
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 1978 [267] See Tuvalu–United States relations

Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.

Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 1986 [268] See United States–Vanuatu relations

The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. [269] Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in U.S. aid to Vanuatu.

Countries with visa services suspended

[270]

Countries with no U.S. embassy

[270]

Andorra European microstate between France and Spain

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra, also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the Count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell. The present principality was formed by a charter in 1278. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Princes: the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia, Spain, and the President of France.

Antigua and Barbuda Country in the Caribbean

Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands. The permanent population numbers about 95,900, with 97% being resident on Antigua. The capital and largest port and city is St. John's on Antigua, with Codrington being the largest town on Barbuda. Lying near each other, Antigua and Barbuda are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 17°N of the equator.

New Delhi Capital City / District in Delhi, India

New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.

Unrecognized countries with no relations with the United States

See also

Related Research Articles

The foreign relations of Thailand are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand.

Foreign relations of Australia

Foreign relations of Australia are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid. Australia's foreign policy is guided by a commitment to multilateralism and regionalism, as well as to strong bilateral relations with its allies. Key concerns include free trade, terrorism, refugees, economic co-operation with Asia and stability in the Asia-Pacific. Australia is active in the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations. Given its history of starting and supporting important regional and global initiatives, it has been described as a regional middle power par excellence.

Ambassadors of the United States United States diplomatic position

Ambassadors of the United States are persons nominated as ambassadors by the President to serve as United States diplomats to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, and as ambassadors-at-large. Their appointment needs to be confirmed by the United States Senate. An ambassador can be appointed during a recess, but he or she can only serve as ambassador until the end of the next session of Congress unless subsequently confirmed. Ambassadors serve "at the pleasure of the President", meaning they can be dismissed at any time. Appointments change regularly for various reasons, such as reassignment or retirement.

Foreign relations of Montenegro

In a referendum on 21 May 2006, the people of Montenegro opted to leave the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. This result was confirmed with a declaration of independence by the Montenegrin parliament on 3 June 2006. It simultaneously requested international recognition and outlined foreign policy goals.

Tonga–United States relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Tonga and the United States of America

Tonga – United States relations are bilateral relations between Tonga and the United States.

Embassy of Barbados in Washington, D.C.

The Embassy of Barbados in Washington, D.C. is the primary diplomatic mission of Barbados to the United States of America, and the Organisation of American States (OAS). It is maintained by Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade Barbados. The present Ambassador is Noel Anderson Lynch, appointed on October 1, 2018, who replaced Selwin Charles Hart.

History of United States diplomatic relations by country Historical aspect of American foreign relations

This is a summary history of diplomatic relations of the United States listed by country. The history of diplomatic relations of the United States began with the appointment of Benjamin Franklin as U.S. Minister to France in 1778, even before the U.S. had won its independence from Great Britain in 1783.

Marcia Bernicat

Marcia Stephens Bloom Bernicat is a US diplomat and former United States Ambassador to Bangladesh. She was nominated by President Obama May 2014 and confirmed by the Senate on November 18, 2014.

References

  1. "Argentina - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  2. "Belize - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  3. "Bolivia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  4. "Brazil - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  5. Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. U.S. Army War College. April 3, 2004.
  6. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  7. US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  8. "Canada - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  9. John Herd Thompson, and Stephen J. Randall, Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies (4th ed. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008) is the standard scholarly survey
  10. "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. November 9, 2011. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 15,064 billions (figure for 2011) 313 million persons
  11. "Canada". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  12. "Chile - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  13. "Colombia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  14. John Barry, From Drug War to Dirty War: Plan Colombia and the U.S. Role in Human Rights Violations in Colombia, 12 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 161, 164 (Spring, 2002).
  15. Marc Grossman. Subsecretario de Estado para Asuntos Políticos. Universidad de Georgetown. Conferencia Uniendo esfuerzos por Colombia. US Embassy of Colombia (September 2, 2002). Available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 11, 2005. Retrieved 2006-03-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved on March 27, 2006. (Spanish) (English version available)
  16. "Costa Rica - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  17. "Ecuador - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  18. "El Salvador - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  19. "Guatemala - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  20. "Guyana - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  21. "Honduras - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  22. "Mexico - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  23. Tim Padgett, "Mexico's Calderón Needs to Listen, Not Just Lecture U.S." TIME May 19, 2010 online
  24. Burton Kirkwood, The History of Mexico (2010) pp 97–99, 138–52, 216
  25. "Nicaragua - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  26. "Panama - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  27. "Paraguay - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  28. "Peru - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  29. "Suriname - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  30. "Uruguay - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  31. "Venezuela - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  32. "U.S. Diplomats Are Starting to Leave Venezuela Amid Maduro's Tense Standoff With Washington". Time. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  33. Press, Associated. "Venezuela suspends deadline for U.S. diplomats". POLITICO. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  34. "Antigua and Barbuda - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  35. "The Bahamas - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  36. "Barbados - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  37. "Cuba - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  38. "Cuban Democracy Act of 1992". State Department.
  39. Scott, Eugene. "Obama announces re-establishment of U.S.-Cuba diplomatic ties". CNN. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  40. "Dominican Republic - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  41. "Dominica - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  42. "Grenada - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  43. "Haiti - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  44. "Jamaica - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  45. "Saint Kitts and Nevis - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  46. "Saint Lucia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  47. "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  48. "Trinidad and Tobago - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  49. "Albania - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  50. "Andorra - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  51. "Armenia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  52. "Austria - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  53. "Azerbaijan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  54. "Belarus - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  55. "Belgium - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  56. "Bosnia-Herzegovina - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  57. "Bulgaria - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  58. "Croatia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  59. "Cyprus - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  60. "The Czech Republic - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  61. "Denmark - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  62. "Estonia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  63. "Finland - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  64. "France - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  65. "Georgia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  66. "Germany - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  67. "Greece - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  68. "Holy See - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  69. "Hungary - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  70. "Iceland - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  71. "Ireland - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  72. "Italy - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  73. "Kosovo - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  74. Bush Hails Kosovo Independence Archived August 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs
  75. Bush insists Kosovo must be independent and receives hero's welcome in Albania, The Guardian
  76. "Latvia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  77. "Liechtenstein - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  78. "Lithuania - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  79. "Luxembourg - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  80. "Malta - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  81. "Moldova - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  82. "Monaco - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  83. "Montenegro - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  84. "The Netherlands - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  85. "Macedonia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  86. "Norway - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  87. "Poland - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  88. "Portugal - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  89. "Romania - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  90. "Russia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  91. "San Marino - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  92. "Serbia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  93. "Slovakia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  94. "Slovenia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  95. "Spain - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  96. "Sweden - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  97. "Switzerland - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  98. "Ukraine - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  99. "The United Kingdom - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  100. James, Wither (March 2006). "An Endangered Partnership: The Anglo-American Defence Relationship in the Early Twenty-first Century". European Security. 15 (1): 47–65. doi:10.1080/09662830600776694. ISSN   0966-2839.
  101. US Department of State, Background Note on the United Kingdom
  102. "Algeria - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  103. "Egypt - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  104. "Libya - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  105. "U.S. formally recognizes Libyan rebels as legitimate government". Kansas City star. July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  106. "Morocco - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  107. "Sudan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  108. "Tunisia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  109. "Angola - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  110. "Benin (Dahomey) - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  111. "Background Note: Benin". U.S. Department of State (June 2008). PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  112. "Botswana - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  113. "Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  114. "Burundi - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  115. "Cameroon - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  116. "Cape Verde - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  117. "Central African Republic - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  118. "Chad - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  119. "Comoros - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  120. "Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  121. "Democratic Republic of the Congo - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  122. "Djibouti - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  123. "Equatorial Guinea - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  124. "Eritrea - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  125. "Eswatini - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  126. "Ethiopia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  127. "Gabon - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  128. "Ghana - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  129. "Guinea - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  130. "Guinea-Bissau - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  131. "Kenya - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  132. "Lesotho - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  133. "Liberia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  134. "Madagascar - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  135. "Malawi - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  136. "Mali - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  137. "Mauritania - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  138. "Mauritius - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  139. "Mozambique - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  140. "Namibia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  141. "Niger - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  142. "Nigeria - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  143. "Republic of the Congo - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  144. "Rwanda - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  145. "Sao Tome and Principe - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  146. "Senegal - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  147. "Seychelles - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  148. "Sierra Leone - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  149. "Somalia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  150. "South Africa - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  151. "South Sudan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  152. "Tanzania - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  153. "The Gambia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  154. "Togo - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  155. "Uganda - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  156. "Zambia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  157. "Zimbabwe - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  158. "Obama congratulates Tsvangirai". NewsToday.co.za. February 13, 2009. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009.
  159. AFP 2009.
  160. "Page Not Found". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  161. Anne Davies (January 2, 2010). "US aid tied to purchase of arms". The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  162. Amy Belasco. "The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11" (PDF). Fas.org. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  163. "Report: US considers withdrawing nuclear bombs from Turkey". Todayszaman.com. April 3, 2010. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  164. Sciutto, Jim. "U.S. Troops Preparing for War in Qatar - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  165. "Bahrain - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  166. "Iran - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  167. "Iraq - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  168. "Israel - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  169. "Jordan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  170. "Kuwait - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  171. "Lebanon - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  172. "Oman - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  173. "Qatar - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  174. "Saudi Arabia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  175. "Syria - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  176. "Turkey - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  177. "The United Arab Emirates - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  178. "Yemen - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  179. Sharp, Jeremy M. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations (RL34170) (PDF). Congressional Research Service (January 22, 2009). PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  180. "Kazakhstan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  181. "Kyrgyzstan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  182. "Tajikistan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  183. "Turkmenistan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  184. "Uzbekistan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  185. "Afghanistan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  186. "Bangladesh - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  187. "Bhutan". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  188. "India - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  189. Holden Furber, "Historical and Cultural Aspects of Indo-American Relations," Journal of the University of Bombay (1965), Vol. 34 Issue 67/68, pp 95-116.
  190. Barbara Schmidt. "Chronology of Known Mark Twain Speeches, Public Readings, and Lectures". marktwainquotes.com. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  191. Gupta, Vipin; Saran, Pankaj (2007). David Leninson, Karen Christensen (eds.). Global Perspectives on the United States: A Nation by Nation Survey, Volume 1. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group. pp. 294–300. ISBN   978-1-933782-06-5.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  192. Isaacs, Scratches on Our Minds: American Views of China and India (1980) p 241
  193. Teresita C. Schaffer, India and the United States in the 21st Century: Reinventing Partnership (2010)
  194. "India-U.S. Economic and Trade Relations" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  195. "The Evolving India-U.S. Strategic Relationship: A Compendium of Articles and Analyses" . Retrieved April 2, 2016.
  196. "Indo-U.S. Relations: Moving Beyond the Plateau". Foreign Policy. July 30, 2015.
  197. "21st Century is India's Century: IBM Chief Virginia Rometty". NDTV. July 14, 2015.
  198. "Beyond the immediate present". The Hindu. January 26, 2015.
  199. "Collateral Damage". New York Times. September 27, 2013.
  200. "Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira". BBC World Service. June 29, 2005.
  201. "Clinton Imposes Full Sanctions On India". Business Standard. May 14, 1998.
  202. "India overcame US sanctions to develop cryogenic engine". Times of India. January 6, 2014.
  203. "How Kargil spurred India to design own GPS". Times of India. April 5, 2014.
  204. "India working on building fastest supercomputer". Deccan Herald. November 13, 2014.
  205. "Indian scientists thwart Western embargo on manufacture of carbon composites". Centre for Science and Environment. August 30, 1992.
  206. "The Wassenaar effect". Hindu Business Line. September 3, 2015.
  207. "The geopolitical context of India-US ties". Zee News. September 23, 2015.
  208. "The geopolitical context of India-US ties". Zee News. September 23, 2014.
  209. "Maldives - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  210. "Nepal - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  211. "Pakistan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  212. "Sri Lanka - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  213. 1 2 "China - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  214. Meredith, Sam (August 6, 2019). "China responds to US after Treasury designates Beijing a 'currency manipulator'". CNBC. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  215. "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  216. "China-US trade war: Sino-American ties being torn down brick by brick". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  217. "For the U.S. and China, it's not a trade war anymore — it's something worse". Los Angeles Times. May 31, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  218. "NDR 2019: Singapore will be 'principled' in approach to China-US trade dispute; ready to help workers". CNA. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  219. Nancy Bernkopf Tucker, ed., Dangerous Strait: The U.S.-Taiwan-China Crisis (2005)
  220. Chabot, Steve (March 16, 2018). "Text - H.R.535 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Taiwan Travel Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  221. "U.S. Relations With Hong Kong". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  222. "U.S. Relations With Macau". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  223. "Japan - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  224. Foster Rhea Dulles, Yankees and Samurai: America's Role in the Emergence of Modern Japan, 1791–1900 (1965)
  225. Walter LaFeber, The Clash: A History of US–Japan Relations (W.W. Norton, 1997)
  226. "Mongolia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  227. 2018 North Korea–United States summit
  228. "North Korea". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
  229. "Korea - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  230. "Republic of Korea (South Korea) - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  231. Jae Ho Chung, Between Ally and Partner: Korea-China Relations and the United States (2008) excerpt and text search
  232. https://www.cnn.com/2018/09/24/politics/south-korea-trade-deal-korus-trump/index.html
  233. Daniel Seah, "The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia: The Issue of Non-Intervention and its Accession by Australia and the USA," Chinese Journal of international Law and (2012) 11#4 pp. 785–822 online
  234. "Brunei - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  235. "Cambodia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  236. "Timor-Leste - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  237. "Indonesia - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  238. See "Editorial: The ASEAN cage Jakarta Post7 July 2011".
  239. U.S.-Indonesia Military Relations in The Anti-Terror War Archived October 12, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  240. "Truman Project". Trumanproject.org. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  241. 1 2 "404". Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
  242. "BBC News – Obama hails Indonesia as example for world". BBC News. November 10, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
  243. Obama delivers a speech in the University of Indonesia Archived November 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  244. 1 2 "Laos - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  245. "Burma - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  246. "The EU's relations with Burma / Myanmar". European Union. Archived from the original on July 25, 2006. Retrieved July 13, 2006.
  247. The List: Burma's Economic Lifelines. Foreign Policy . October 2007
  248. https://foreignpolicy.com/2017/10/24/u-s-pulls-military-assistance-to-myanmar-over-rohingya-abuses/
  249. "Philippines - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  250. TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946 (PDF), United Nations, archived from the original (pdf) on July 23, 2011, retrieved 2007-12-10
  251. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 4166 – AN ACT CHANGING THE DATE OF PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE DAY FROM JULY FOUR TO JUNE TWELVE, AND DECLARING JULY FOUR AS PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC DAY, FURTHER AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION TWENTY-NINE OF THE REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE, Chanrobles law library, August 4, 1964, retrieved June 11, 2008
  252. "Singapore - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  253. "Thailand - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  254. "Vietnam - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  255. "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Australia". The United States recognized Australia on January 8, 1940, when the Governments of the United States and Australia announced the establishment of bilateral diplomatic relations.
  256. "Q+A: Guyon Espiner interviews Kurt Campbell". Television New Zealand . October 11, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  257. "Fiji - Countries - Office of the Historian". state.gov.
  258. "Fiji military stages coup, U.S. suspends aid". Reuters. December 5, 2006. Archived from the original on December 17, 2006.
  259. "Kiribati - Countries - Office of the Historian". state.gov.
  260. "Micronesia - Countries - Office of the Historian". state.gov.
  261. "Nauru - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  262. "New Zealand - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  263. "Palau - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  264. "Papua New Guinea - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  265. "Samoa - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  266. "The Solomon Islands - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  267. 1 2 "Tonga - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  268. "Vanuatu - Countries - Office of the Historian" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  269. HUFFER, Elise, Grands hommes et petites îles: La politique extérieure de Fidji, de Tonga et du Vanuatu, Paris: Orstom, 1993, ISBN   2-7099-1125-6, p.278
  270. 1 2 "Countries with Limited or No U.S. Visa Services" . Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  271. "U.S. Relations With Andorra". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  272. "U.S. Relations With Comoros". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  273. "U.S. Relations With Kiribati". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  274. "U.S. Relations With Liechtenstein". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  275. "U.S. Relations With Maldives". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  276. "U.S. Relations With Monaco". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  277. "U.S. Relations With Nauru". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  278. "U.S. Relations With Samoa". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  279. "U.S. Relations With San Marino". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  280. "U.S. Relations With Sao Tome and Principe". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  281. "U.S. Relations With Seychelles". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  282. "U.S. Relations With the Solomon Islands". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  283. "U.S. Relations With Tonga". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 26, 2015.