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A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public primary and secondary schools in various nations.
A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and upper secondary school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, and sometimes within, countries.
In the U.S, public schools belong to school districts, which are governed by school boards. Each district is an independent special-purpose government, or dependent school systems, under the guidelines of each U.S. state government and local school boards. A school district is a legally separate body corporate and politic. School districts are local governments with powers similar to that of a town or a county including taxation and eminent domain, except in Virginia, whose school divisions have no taxing authority and must depend on another local government (county, city, or town) for funding. Its governing body, which is typically elected by direct popular vote but may be appointed by other governmental officials, is called a school board , board of trustees, board of education,school committee, or the like. This body appoints a superintendent , usually an experienced public school administrator, to function as the district's chief executive for carrying out day-to-day decisions and policy implementations. The school board may also exercise a quasi-judicial function in serious employee or student discipline matters.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.
A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.
School districts in the Midwest and West tend to cross municipal boundaries, while school districts in New England and the Mid-Atlantic regions tend to adhere to city, township, and/or county boundaries. As of 1951 [update] school districts were independent governmental units in 26 states, while in 17 states there were mixes of independent school districts and school districts subordinate to other local governments. In nine states there were only school districts subordinate to local governments.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States. It was officially named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south.
The Western United States is the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. As European settlement in the U.S. expanded westward through the centuries, the meaning of the term the West changed. Before about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. The frontier moved westward and eventually the lands west of the Mississippi River were considered the West.
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts. The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Providence, Rhode Island.
Not all school systems constitute school districts as distinct bodies corporate. In most Southern states, school systems operate either as an arm of county government, or at least share coextensive boundaries with the state's counties. In Maryland, most school systems are run at the county level, but the Baltimore City system operates separately, at a county-equivalent level. In New York, most school districts are separate governmental units with the power to levy taxes and incur debt, except for the five cities with population over 125,000, where the schools are operated directly by the municipalities.The Hawaii State Department of Education functions as a single statewide school district. This is unique among the states, but the District of Columbia Public Schools operates district public schools in Washington, DC and the Puerto Rico Department of Education operates all public schools in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, thus they also function as single school districts.
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 602,495 in 2018, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States. As of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.802 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles (60 km) northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2018 population of 9,797,063.
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. In order to distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes referred to as New York State.
District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) is the local, traditional public school system of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. DCPS should not be confused with the independently governed DC Public Charter Schools (DCPCS), which also operates in Washington, D.C.
From 1942 to 1951 the number of school districts declined from 108,579 to 70,452, a decrease by 38,127 or 35%.Many states had passed laws facilitating school district consolidation. In 1951 the majority of the school districts in existence were rural school districts only providing elementary education, and some school districts did not operate schools but instead provided transportation to other schools. The Midwest (North Central U.S.) had a large number of rural school districts.
Previously areas of the Unorganized Borough of Alaska were not served by school districts, but instead served by schools directly operated by the Alaska Department of Education and by Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools. The state schools were transferred to the Alaska State-Operated School System (SOS) after the Alaska Legislature created it in 1971; that agency was terminated in 1975, with its schools transferred to the newly created Alaska Unorganized Borough School District, which was broken apart into twenty-one school districts the following year.
Alaska is a U.S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast. Its most extreme western part is Attu Island, and it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. It is the largest U.S. state by area and the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the 3rd least populous and the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States; nevertheless, it is by far the most populous territory located mostly north of the 60th parallel in North America: its population—estimated at 738,432 by the United States Census Bureau in 2015— is more than quadruple the combined populations of Northern Canada and Greenland. Approximately half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, and oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km2) of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives.
The Alaska Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is a bicameral institution consisting of the 40-member Alaska House of Representatives and the 20-member Alaska Senate. There are 40 House Districts (1–40) and 20 Senate Districts (A–T). With a total of 60 lawmakers, the Alaska Legislature is the smallest bicameral state legislature in the United States and the second-smallest of all state legislatures. There are no term limits for either chamber.
In the 2002 Census of Governments, the United States Census Bureau enumerated the following numbers of school systems in the United States:
School districts in the US have reduced the number of their employees by 3.3%, or 270,000 between 2008 and 2012, owing to a decline in property tax revenues during and after the Great Recession.
This article may not provide balanced geographical coverage on school districts in states across the U.S. (December 2010)
Although these terms can vary slightly between various states and regions, these are typical definitions for school district constitution:
These terms may not appear in a district's name, even though the condition may apply.
There are various approaches can when making decisions in assigning teachers. The deciding in assigning teachers can occur with the collaboration of human resource staff or decisions from the collaboration with principals and teachers.Although the decisions for teacher assignment can vary base on school districts, there are two most popular approaches that are currently occurring in assigning teachers. The first popular approach is assigning students to teachers based on sharing the same characteristics as their students. For instance, principals assign teachers to students based on academic performance, teachers’ personalities, teachers teaching styles, and teachers’ classroom management skills. During this assignment practices, there are some collaboration with teachers and principals. The second most popular approach is that teachers can be assigned based on their ability to improve students’ standardized test scores. This is identified as “staffing to the test” in which principals observe the influence teachers have on students’ standardized test scores and then strategically move teachers to certain subjects or grades where standardized test are given.
Even though two approaches are used to assign teachers to students, there are some obstacles that principals encounter when making teacher assignment decisions. For instance, one conflict is parents demand that their child be assigned to a specific teacher.The second conflict is that principals need to take into consideration policies, such as tenure or collective bargaining, which can influence teacher assignment practices. Due to these challenges, many have suggested that principals should collaborate with teacher unions in order to address these conflicts.
Outside the United States, autonomous districts or equivalent authorities often represent various groups seeking education autonomy. In European history, as in much of the world, religious (confessional), linguistic, and ethnic divisions have been a significant factor in school organization. This paradigm is shifting.[ how? ]
In England and Wales, school boards were established in 1870, and abolished in 1902, with county council and county borough councils becoming the local education authorities.
In France, the system of the carte scolaire was dismantled by the beginning of the 2007 school year. More school choice has been given to French students; however, priority is given to those who meet the following criteria:
In Germany, schools are run and funded by the general regional entities, usually the States of Germany or municipalities. School districts in the meaning of distinct legal entities do not exist.
In Italy, school districts were established in 1974 by the "Provvedimenti Delegati sulla scuola" ("Assigned Laws [to the Government] about the school").Each district must contain a minimum of 10,000 inhabitants. The national government attempted to link the local schools with local society and culture and local governments. The school districts were dissolved in 2003 by the "legge finanziaria" (law about the government budget) in an attempt to trim the national budget.
State schools are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation.
The Fairfax County Public Schools system is a school division in the U.S. commonwealth of Virginia. It is a branch of the Fairfax County government which administers public schools in Fairfax County and the City of Fairfax. FCPS's headquarters is located in the Gatehouse Administration Center in Merrifield, an unincorporated section of the county near the city of Falls Church; the headquarters has a Falls Church address but is not within the city limits.
Alief Independent School District is a school district that is based in southwest Houston, Texas, United States.
Kannapolis City Schools is a local education agency headquartered in Kannapolis, North Carolina. It encompasses parts of Cabarrus and Rowan Counties, yet operates independently of both county-wide school systems. This is a legacy of the fact that Kannapolis was originally a company town for Cannon Mills.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) is a measurement defined by the United States federal No Child Left Behind Act that allows the U.S. Department of Education to determine how every public school and school district in the country is performing academically according to results on standardized tests. As defined by National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), AYP is "the amount of annual achievement growth to be expected by students in a particular school, district, or state in the U.S. federal accountability system, No Child Left Behind (NCLB)." AYP has been identified as one of the sources of controversy surrounding George W. Bush administration's Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Private schools are not required to make AYP.
Lovejoy Independent School District (ISD) is a public school district in central Collin County, Texas, United States. The district's administration building is located at 259 Country Club Road in Allen.
Spotsylvania County Public Schools is a public school district serving Spotsylvania County, Virginia. It consists of 17 Elementary, 7 Middle, and 5 High Schools and has a total enrollment of over 24,000 students. The Spotsylvania County School division also has a Career and Technical Center and participates with other local school systems to offer the Commonwealth Governor's School. The district partners with area businesses to develop learning opportunities for the students. Spotsylvania County Public Schools works with the area Parks and Recreation Department to help maintain the area around the Schools.
East Stroudsburg Area School District is large, rural public school district located in Monroe and Pike Counties the Poconos of northeast Pennsylvania. The District is one of the 500 public school districts of Pennsylvania. East Stroudsburg Area School District encompasses approximately 214 square miles (550 km2). The headquarters are located on North Courtland Street in the Borough of East Stroudsburg. The District is the second largest in the county in terms of territory and is split into two parts: South and North. In Monroe County the District serves: East Stroudsburg Borough, Smithfield Township, Middle Smithfield Township, and Price Township. In Pike County the District serves: Lehman Township and Porter Township. According to 2000 federal census data, East Stroudsburg Area School District served a resident population of 200,758. By 2010, the District's population had declined to 47,919 people.
Pocono Mountain School District is a large, rural public school district located in Monroe County, in northeastern Pennsylvania, United States. It encompasses approximately 304 square miles (790 km2). The district is divided into two parts: Pocono Mountain East and Pocono Mountain West. The Pocono Mountain East attendance area includes: Jackson Township, Pocono Township, Paradise Township, Barrett Township and Mount Pocono Borough. It also includes a small area east of Route 380 that is Coolbaugh Township. Pocono Mountain West attendance area includes: Tobyhanna Township, Tunkhannock Township and most of Coolbaugh Township. According to 2000 local census data, the district serves a resident population of approximately 60,000 people. District officials reported that in school year 2007-08, the Pocono Mountain School District provided basic educational services to 11,506 pupils. It employed: 984 teachers, 622 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 51 administrators. The Pocono Mountain School District received more than $42.4 million in state funding in school year 2007-08
Fleetwood Area School District is a public school district located in north central Berks County in Fleetwood, Pennsylvania. The district serves students in the community of Fleetwood as well as Richmond Township to the north and Maidencreek Township to the south. The district offers a wide variety of academic courses, music, the arts, sports programs and extra curricular activities. The district meets state requirements across their academic areas.
Education in Vermont consists of public and private schools including the University of Vermont, the Vermont State Colleges, private colleges, and secondary and primary schools in the U.S. state of Vermont.
Atherton High School is a public school in Burton, Michigan. Atherton Community School District is one of five public school districts serving Burton Genesee County in the U.S. state of Michigan and in the Genesee Intermediate School District. Atherton School District runs three schools: Atherton High School, Atherton Middle School and Vern Van Y. School. The total school district has about 1,025 Students. There are approximately 61 teachers that are employed there.
An intermediate school district, in the United States, is a term used by some states to classify a special agency that operates outside the traditional charter of a school district. The specific role of these agencies varies by state.
North Forest High School (NFHS) is a secondary school located in Houston, Texas, United States. The school is a part of the Houston Independent School District (HISD); it was a part of the North Forest Independent School District (NFISD) until the district closed on July 1, 2013.
The Muhlenberg Area School District is a mid-sized, suburban, public school district serving parts of Berks County, Pennsylvania, United States. It encompasses the borough of Laureldale and the Muhlenberg Township. The district encompasses approximately 13 square miles (34 km2). Per the 2000 federal census data it served a resident population of 20,064. By 2010, the district's population declined to 23,562 people. In 2009, the district residents’ per capita income was $21,417, while the median family income was $51,356. In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.
The Kennett Consolidated School District is a large, suburban, public school district serving portions of Chester County, Pennsylvania. It is centered on the borough of Kennett Square and also incorporates Kennett Township, New Garden Township, and the southern portion of East Marlborough Twp. The district encompasses approximately 35 square miles (91 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, it serves a resident population of 27,124. According to District officials, in school year 2007-08 the KCSD provided basic educational services to 4,128 pupils. It employed: 320 teachers, 207 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 16 administrators. Kennett Consolidated School District received more than $10.1 million in state funding in school year 2007-08.
The Northeastern School District is a midsized, suburban public school district in York County in the South Central region of Pennsylvania. Municipalities served by the district include: Mount Wolf, Manchester, East Manchester Township, York Haven, Goldsboro, Newberry Township, and Conewago Township. Northeastern School District encompasses approximately 50 square miles (130 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, it served a resident population of 18,282 people. In 2010, the district's population had grown to 23,399 people. In 2009, the district residents’ per capita income was $18,799, while the median family income was $48,744. In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.
The Cobb County School District (CCSD) is the county government agency which operates public schools in Cobb County, Georgia, United States. The school district includes all of Cobb County except for the Marietta City Schools. It is the second-largest school system in Georgia and among the largest in the United States, with a 2014 enrollment of 111,751. It has 13,371 employees, 7,103 of whom are teachers. The district is the county’s largest employer and one of the largest in the US. All Cobb County schools are accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), and the district is among the first to have earned district-wide accreditation.
Alden Central School District is a school district in Alden, New York, United States. The superintendent is Adam Stoltman. The district operates four schools: Alden High School, Alden Middle School, Alden Intermediate School, and Alden Primary School.