List of diplomatic missions of the United States

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The United States of America (green) and its diplomatic missions, including embassies (blue), interests sections, and other representations (light blue) US embassies 2007.png
The United States of America (green) and its diplomatic missions, including embassies (blue), interests sections, and other representations (light blue)

The United States has the most diplomatic missions of any country in the world, [1] including 169 of the 193 member countries of the United Nations, as well as observer state Vatican City (but not Palestine) and non-member countries of Kosovo and Taiwan. It maintains 'interest sections' (in other states' embassies) in member states Iran and Syria.

Diplomatic mission group of people from one state present in another state to represent the sending state

A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state. In practice, the phrase diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the embassy, which is the main office of a country's diplomatic representatives to another country; this is usually, but not necessarily, in the receiving state's capital city. Consulates, on the other hand, are smaller diplomatic missions which are normally located in major cities of the receiving state. As well as being a diplomatic mission to the country in which it is situated, it may also be a non-resident permanent mission to one or more other countries. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies.

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague.

Kosovo Partially-recognised state in Southeast Europe

Kosovo, officially the Republic of Kosovo, is a partially recognized state with a disputed territory in Southeastern Europe.

Contents

History

Morocco, in December 1777, became the first nation to seek diplomatic relations with the United States and together they maintain the United States' longest unbroken treaty. [2] However the claim also goes to the Netherlands, as they were the first to recognize the United States as an independent government.[ citation needed ]

Morocco Country in North Africa

Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. The capital is Rabat and the largest city Casablanca. Morocco spans an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) and has a population of over 36 million.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or simply America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship

In December 1777, the Moroccan Sultan Muhammad III included the United States in a list of countries to which Morocco’s ports were open. Morocco thus became the first country whose head of state publicly recognized the newly independent United States. Relations were formalized with the Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship(also known as the Treaty of Marrakesh) negotiated by Thomas Barclay in Marrakesh, and signed by American diplomats in Europe, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams with Sultan Muhammad III in 1786.

Benjamin Franklin established the first overseas mission of the United States in Paris in 1779. On April 19, 1782, John Adams was received by the States-General and the Dutch Republic as they were the first country, together with Morocco and France, to recognize the United States as an independent government. John Adams then became the first U.S. ambassador to the Netherlands [3] [4] [5] [6] and the house that he had purchased at Fluwelen Burgwal 18 in The Hague, became the first U.S. embassy anywhere in the world. [7]

Benjamin Franklin American polymath and a Founding Father of the United States

Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading writer, printer, political philosopher, politician, Freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zürich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018.

John Adams 2nd president of the United States

John Adams was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States, from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency, he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain and served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and regularly corresponded with many important figures in early American history, including his wife and adviser, Abigail. His letters and other papers serve as an important source of historical information about the era.

In the period following the American Revolution, George Washington sent a number of close advisers to the courts of European potentates in order to garner recognition of U.S. independence with mixed results, including Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Francis Dana, and John Jay. [8] Much of the first fifty years of the Department of State concerned negotiating with imperial European powers over the territorial integrity of the borders of the United States as known today.

American Revolution Revolt in which the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the assistance of France, winning independence from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America.

George Washington American politician and military leader

George Washington was an American political leader, military general, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Previously, he led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War for Independence. He presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the U.S. Constitution and a federal government. Washington has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation.

Thomas Jefferson Third President of the United States

Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

The first overseas consulate of the fledgling United States was founded in 1790 at Liverpool, Great Britain, by James Maury Jr., who was appointed by Washington. Maury held the post from 1790 to 1829. Liverpool was at the time Britain's leading port for transatlantic commerce and therefore of great economic importance to the United States. President George Washington, on November 19, 1792, nominated Benjamin Joy of Newbury Port as the first U.S. Consul to Kolkata (then Calcutta), India. Joy was not recognized as consul by the British East India Company but was permitted to “reside here as a Commercial Agent subject to the Civil and Criminal Jurisdiction of this Country…”. [9] The first overseas property owned, and the longest continuously owned, by the United States is the American Legation in Tangier, which was a gift of the Sultan of Morocco in 1821. In general during the nineteenth century, the United States' diplomatic activities were done on a minimal budget. The U.S. owned no property abroad and provided no official residences for its foreign envoys, paid them a minimal salary, and gave them the rank of ministers rather than ambassadors who represented the great powers—a position which the U.S. only achieved towards the end of the nineteenth century. [10]

Consulate of the United States, Liverpool First American consulate overseas

The United States Consulate in Liverpool, England, was established in 1790, and was the first overseas consulate founded by the then fledgling United States of America. Liverpool was at the time an important center for transatlantic commerce and a vital trading partner for the former Thirteen Colonies. Among those who served the United States as consul in Liverpool were the writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, the spy Thomas Haines Dudley, and John S. Service, who was driven out of the United States Foreign Service by McCarthyite persecution. After World War II, as Liverpool declined in importance as an international port, the consulate was eventually closed down.

James Maury was one of the first United States diplomats and one of the first American consuls appointed overseas. In 1790 he was appointed to the Consulate of the United States in Liverpool, one of the first overseas consulates founded by the then fledgling United States of America. Maury held the position of consul for 39 years until he was removed from office by President Andrew Jackson in 1829.

Consulate General of the United States, Kolkata American consulate in West Bengal, India

The Consulate General of the United States in Kolkata represents the interests of the United States government in Kolkata, India, and nearby surrounding areas. The Consulate General serves the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the State Department was concerned with expanding commercial ties in Asia, establishing Liberia, foiling diplomatic recognition of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, and securing its presence in North America. The Confederacy had diplomatic missions in the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Papal States, Russia, Mexico, and Spain, and consular missions in Ireland, Canada, Cuba, Italy, Bermuda, and Nassau and New Providence. [11]

Liberia republic in West Africa

Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest. It covers an area of 111,369 square kilometers and has a population of around 4,900,000. English is the official language, but over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, representing the numerous ethnic groups who make up more than 95% of the population. The country's capital and largest city is Monrovia.

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state. Recognition can be reaccorded either de facto or de jure. Recognition can be a declaration to that effect by the recognizing government, or an act of recognition such as entering into a treaty with the other state. A vote by a country in the United Nations in favour of the membership of another country is an implicit recognition of that country by the country so voting, as only states may be members of the UN.

Confederate States of America De facto federal republic in North America from 1861 to 1865

The Confederate States of America —commonly referred to as the Confederacy—was an unrecognized republic in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves. Convinced that the institution of slavery was threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession in rebellion to the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War. Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens described its ideology as being centrally based "upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition".

The United States' global prominence became evident in the twentieth century, and the State Department was required to invest in a large network of diplomatic missions to manage its bilateral and multilateral relations. [12] The wave of overseas construction began with the creation of the State Department's Foreign Service Buildings Commission in 1926. [10]

Africa

The U.S. has embassies in all states it recognizes with the exceptions of the Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, Libya, Sao Tome and the Seychelles.

Americas

The U.S. has embassies (or, in the case of Antigua & Barbuda, a consul) in all states it recognizes with the exceptions of Dominica, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia and St Vincent.

Asia

The U.S. has embassies in all countries it recognizes apart from Bhutan, Iran, Maldives, North Korea, Syria and Yemen. It has 'interest sections' in other nation's embassies in Iran and Syria. It also has a de facto embassy in Taiwan.

Europe

The U.S. has embassies in (or, in the case of Vatican City, near) all countries it recognizes apart from Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino.

Oceania

The U.S. has embassies (or, in the case of the Solomons, a consul) in all countries it recognizes apart from Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.

International organizations

U.S. Mission to the United Nations in Geneva U.S. Mission to the United Nations in Geneva.jpg
U.S. Mission to the United Nations in Geneva

See also

Notes

  1. Effective February 6, 2012, the embassy suspended operations and closed for normal consular services. Since March 1, 2013, a U.S. Interests Section operates via the Government of the Czech Republic through its embassy in Damascus. Only emergency services for U.S. citizens are available. Neither U.S. passports nor visas to the United States can be issued in Damascus.
  2. The United States does not formally recognize the Republic of China on Taiwan. Unofficial relations are conducted through the AIT, a de facto embassy.
  3. The U.S. embassy to the Holy See is located outside Vatican territory in Rome.

References

  1. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/global-diplomacy-index/country_rank.html,
  2. Morocco Country Study Guide. Washington, DC: International Business Publications, USA. April 1, 2006. p. 94. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  3. Speeches and editorials 2007 – U.S. Embassy The Hague, Netherlands Archived June 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  4. "Atlantic World – Collections – Memory of the Netherlands – Online ima…". 5 July 2015. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018.
  5. "The Adams Timeline". The Massachusetts Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2011-08-06. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
  6. The John Adams Institute, American culture and literature, Lectures(archive)
  7. US embassy report on Dutch-American Friendship Day. (archive)
  8. United States Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History, 1775–1783 Diplomacy and the American Revolution. Accessed 29 August 2008.
  9. "U.S. Consulate General Kolkata | U.S. Embassy & Consulates in India". U.S. Embassy & Consulates in India. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
  10. 1 2 Loeffler, Jane C. (1998). Architecture of Diplomacy: Building America . Princeton Architectural Press. p.  13.
  11. "Confederate States of America records, 1854–1889". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
  12. United States Department of State, Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomatic Missions. Accessed 29 August 2008.
  13. "US Embassy in Haiti closed due to anti-Trump protests".
  14. The United States doesn't recognize Northern Cyprus, but has an embassy Archived 2016-04-29 at the Wayback Machine in North Nicosia.
  15. "Policy & History | U.S. Mission to The African Union". U.S. Mission to The African Union. Retrieved 2017-06-28.

Source: "Official list of embassies". U.S. Department of State . Retrieved April 19, 2019.