N

Last updated

N
N n
(See below)
N cursiva.gif
Usage
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabetic and Logographic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage[ n ]
[ ŋ ]
[ ɲ ]
[ ɳ ]
[nˠ]
[ ]
[ ◌̃ ]
/ɛn/
Unicode valueU+004E, U+006E
Alphabetical position14
History
Development
N
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants 
  Ƞ
  Ŋ
  ɧ
  ʩ
Sisters Н
Ң
Ӊ
Ӈ
Ԋ
נ
ן
ن
ܢ

ނ
Ն ն
Մ մ





Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with n(x), nh, ng, ny

N or n is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is en (pronounced /ˈɛn/ ), plural ens. [1]

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
Phoenician
Nun
Etruscan
N
Greek
Nu
N
PhoenicianN-01.svg EtruscanN-01.svg Nu uc lc.svg

One of the most common hieroglyphs, snake, was used in Egyptian writing to stand for a sound like the English J , because the Egyptian word for "snake" was djet. It is speculated by many[ who? ] that Semitic people working in Egypt adapted hieroglyphics to create the first alphabet, and that they used the same snake symbol to represent N, because their word for "snake" may have begun with that sound. However, the name for the letter in the Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic alphabets is nun , which means "fish" in some of these languages. The sound value of the letter was /n/—as in Greek, Etruscan, Latin and modern languages.

Use in writing systems

n represents a dental or alveolar nasal in virtually all languages that use the Latin alphabet, and in the International Phonetic Alphabet. A common digraph with n is ng, which represents a velar nasal in a variety of languages, usually positioned word-finally in English. [2] [3] Often, before a velar plosive (as in ink or jungle), n alone represents a velar nasal. In Italian and French, gn represents a palatal nasal /ɲ/. The Portuguese and Vietnamese spelling for this sound is nh, while Spanish, Breton, and a few other languages use the letter ñ .

In English, n is generally silent when it is preceded by an m at the end of words, as in hymn; however, it is pronounced in this combination when occurring word medially, as in hymnal.

On the other hand, other consonants are often silent when they precede an n at the beginning of an English word. Examples include gnome, knife, mnemonic, and pneumonia.

n is the sixth most common letter and the second-most commonly used consonant in the English language (after t). [4]

Other uses

In mathematics, the italic form n is a particularly common symbol for a variable quantity which represents a natural number. The set of natural numbers is referred to as .

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations

Computing codes

CharacterNn
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER N   LATIN SMALL LETTER N
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 78U+004E110U+006E
UTF-8 784E1106E
Numeric character reference NNnn
EBCDIC family213D514995
ASCII 1784E1106E
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
November –·
ICS November.svg Semaphore November.svg Sign language N.svg Braille N.svg
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille
dots-1345

Related Research Articles

A First letter of the Latin alphabet

A or a is the first letter and the first vowel letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is a, plural aes. It is similar in shape to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.

D Letter of the Latin alphabet

D or d is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is dee, plural dees.

E letter of the Latin alphabet

E or e is the fifth letter and the second vowel letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is e, plural ees. It is the most commonly used letter in many languages, including Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Latin, Latvian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish.

F letter of the Latin alphabet

F or f is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ef, plural efs.

G letter of the Latin alphabet

G or g is the seventh letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is gee, plural gees.

K Eleventh letter of the Latin alphabet

K is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is kay, plural kays. The letter K usually represents the voiceless velar plosive.

M Letter in the Latin alphabet

M or m is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is em, plural ems.

O letter of the Latin alphabet

O or o is the 15th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet and the fourth vowel letter in the modern English alphabet. Its name in English is o, plural oes.

P letter of the Latin alphabet

P or p is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is pee, plural pees.

R letter of the Latin alphabet

R or r is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ar, plural ars, or in Ireland or.

T Letter of the Latin alphabet

T or t is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is tee, plural tees. It is derived from the Semitic letters taw via the Greek letter τ (tau). In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most common letter in English-language texts.

U Letter in the Latin alphabet

U or u is the 21st and sixth-to-last letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and the fifth vowel letter of the modern English alphabet. Its name in English is u, plural ues.

Eng (letter) letter of the Latin alphabet

Eng or engma is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Esh (letter) letter of the Latin alphabet, an IPA symbol

Esh is a character used in conjunction with the Latin script. Its lowercase form ʃ is similar to a long s ſ or an integral sign ∫; in 1928 the Africa Alphabet borrowed the Greek letter Sigma for the uppercase form Ʃ, but more recently the African reference alphabet discontinued it, using the lowercase esh only. The lowercase form was introduced by Isaac Pitman in his 1847 Phonotypic Alphabet to represent the voiceless postalveolar fricative. It is today used in the International Phonetic Alphabet, as well as in the alphabets of some African languages.

The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages. It was first published in 1901 by Eemil Nestor Setälä, a Finnish linguist.

Latin alpha letter of the Latin alphabet

Latin alpha or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).

L letter of the Latin alphabet

L is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is el, plural els.

Heng is a letter of the Latin alphabet, originating as a typographic ligature of h and j. It is used for a voiceless y-like sound in for example Dania transcription.

J letter of the Latin alphabet

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its usual name in English is jay, with a now-uncommon variant jy. When used in the International Phonetic Alphabet for the y sound, it may be called yod.

References

  1. "N" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "en," op. cit.
  2. 1 2 Cook, Richard; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). "L2/01-347: Proposal to add six phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  3. 1 2 Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). "L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode "Teuthonista" phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).
  4. English Letter Frequency
  5. Constable, Peter (2003-09-30). "L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS" (PDF).
  6. 1 2 3 Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  7. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  8. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
  9. Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF).