Shanghai

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Shanghai
上海
Municipality of Shanghai
Etymology: 上海浦 (Shànghăi pǔ) "The original name of the Huangpu River
Shanghai
Shanghai in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Location of Shanghai Municipality in China
Coordinates(People's Square): 31°13′43″N121°28′29″E / 31.22861°N 121.47472°E / 31.22861; 121.47472
Country China
Region East China
Settledc.4000 BCE [1] [ dubious ]
Establishment of
 - Qinglong Town

746 [2]
 - Huating County  [ zh ]751 [3]
 - Shanghai County 1292 [4]
 - Municipality7 July 1927
Municipal seat Huangpu District
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-
level
Government
  Type Municipality
  Body Shanghai Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Chen Jining
   Congress Chairwoman Huang Lixin
   Mayor Gong Zheng
  Municipal CPPCC Chairman Hu Wenrong
   National People's Congress Representation57 deputies
Area
  Municipality6,341 km2 (2,448 sq mi)
  Water697 km2 (269 sq mi)
  Metro
14,922.7 km2 (5,761.7 sq mi)
Elevation
[8]
4 m (13 ft)
Highest elevation118 m (387 ft)
Population
 (2022) [9]
  Municipality26,875,500
  Rank 1st in China
  Density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
   Metro 40,000,000
  Metro density2,700/km2 (6,900/sq mi)
Demonym Shanghainese
GDP [11]
  Municipality
  • ¥4.722 trillion (13th)
    ($666.200 billion; nominal)
  Per capita
  • ¥199,905 (2nd)
    ($27,500; nominal)
Time zone UTC+08:00 (CST)
Postal code
200000–202100
Area code 21
ISO 3166 code CN-SH
 – GrowthDecrease2.svg −0.2%
HDI (2021)0.880 [12] (2nd) – very high
License plate prefixes
  • 沪A, B, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N
  • 沪C (outer suburbs only)
AbbreviationSH / ()
City flower Yulan magnolia
Languages
Website

Shanghai [lower-alpha 1] is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of China. The city is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze River, with the Huangpu River flowing through it. The population of the city proper is the third largest in the world, with around 29.2 million inhabitants in 2023, while the urban area is the most populous in China, with 39.3 million residents. As of 2018, the Greater Shanghai metropolitan area was estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (nominal) of nearly 9.1 trillion RMB ($1.33 trillion). Shanghai is one of the world's major centers for finance, business and economics, research, science and technology, manufacturing, transportation, tourism, and culture. The Port of Shanghai is the world's busiest container port.

Contents

Originally a fishing village and market town, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to both domestic and foreign trade and its favorable port location. The city was one of five treaty ports forced to open to European trade after the First Opium War which ceded Hong Kong to the United Kingdom, following the Second Battle of Chuenpi in 1841, more than 60 km (37 mi) east of the Portuguese colony of Macau that was also controlled by Portugal following the Luso-Chinese agreement of 1554. The Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession were subsequently established. The city then flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of Asia in the 1930s. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, the Chinese Civil War soon resumed between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), with the latter eventually taking over the city and most of the mainland. From the 1950s to the 1970s, trade was mostly limited to other socialist countries in the Eastern Bloc, causing the city's global influence to decline during the Cold War.

Major changes of fortune for the city would occur when economic reforms initiated by paramount leader Deng Xiaoping during the 1980s resulted in an intense redevelopment and revitalization of the city by the 1990s, especially the Pudong New Area, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment. The city has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance. It is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization and the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone, the first free-trade zone in mainland China. Shanghai has been classified as an Alpha+ (global first-tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. As of 2022, it is home to 12 companies of the Fortune Global 500 and is ranked 4th on the Global Financial Centres Index. The city is also a global major center for research and development and home to numerous Double First-Class Universities. The Shanghai Metro, first opened in 1993, is the largest metro network in the world by route length.

Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the economy of China. Featuring several architectural styles such as Art Deco and shikumen, the city is renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, museums and historic buildings including the City God Temple, Yu Garden, the China Pavilion and buildings along the Bund, which includes Oriental Pearl Tower. Shanghai is also known for its cuisine, local language, and international flair.[ peacock prose ] Shanghai ranks sixth in the list of cities with the most skyscrapers and it is one of the biggest economic hubs in the world.

Etymology

  Chinese folk religion, or atheist (87.46%)
   Buddhism (10.30%)
   Christianity (1.88%)
   Islam (0.36%)

Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai since the Three Kingdoms period, during which the Longhua Temple—the largest temple in Shanghai—and the Jing'an Temple were founded. [175] Another significant temple is the Jade Buddha Temple, which was named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in the temple. [176] As of 2014, Buddhism in Shanghai had 114 temples, 1,182 clergical staff, and 453,300 registered followers. [175] The religion also has its own college, the Shanghai Buddhist College  [ zh ], and its own press, Shanghai Buddhological Press  [ zh ]. [177]

The St. Ignatius Cathedral St. Ignatius Cathedral, Shanghai 20140309 101720.jpg
The St. Ignatius Cathedral

Catholicism was brought into Shanghai in 1608 by Italian missionary Lazzaro Cattaneo. [178] The Apostolic Vicariate of Shanghai was erected in 1933, and was further elevated to the Diocese of Shanghai in 1946. [179] Notable Catholic sites include the St. Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui—the largest Catholic church in the city, [180] the St. Francis Xavier Church, and the She Shan Basilica. [181] Other forms of Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches. The Protestant All Saints Church in Huangpu was built in 1925 and features a Neo-Romanesque tower.

Although currently making up a fraction of the religious population in Shanghai, Jewish people have played an influential role in the city's history. After the Treaty of Nanking ended the First Opium War in 1842, the city was opened up to western populations and merchants traveled to Shanghai for its rich business potential, including many prominent Jewish families. The Sassoons amassed great wealth in the opium and textile trades, cementing their status by funding many of the buildings that have become iconic in Shanghai's skyline, such as the Cathay Hotel in 1929. [182] The Hardoons were another prominent Baghdadi Jewish family that used their business success to define Shanghai in the 20th century. The head of the family, Silas Hardoon, one of the richest people in the world during the 1800s, financed Nanjing Road, which then housed departmental stores in the International Settlement, that is now one of the busiest shopping centers in the world. [182]

During World War II, thousands of Jews emigrated to Shanghai in an effort to flee Nazi Germany. They lived in a designated area called the Shanghai Ghetto and formed a community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is now the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum. [183] In 1939, Horace Kadoorie, the head of the powerful philanthropic Sephardic Jewish family in Shanghai, founded the Shanghai Jewish Youth Association to support Jewish refugees through English education so they would be prepared to emigrate from Shanghai when the time came. [184]

Islam came into Shanghai during the Yuan dynasty. The city's first mosque, Songjiang Mosque, was built during the Zhizheng (至正) era under Emperor Huizong (reigned 1333 – 1368). Shanghai's Muslim population increased in the 19th and early 20th centuries (when the city was a treaty port), during which time many mosques—including the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque, the Huxi Mosque, and the Pudong Mosque—were built. The Shanghai Islamic Association is located in the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque in Huangpu. [185]

Shanghai has several folk religious temples, including the City God Temple at the heart of the Old City, the Dajing Ge Pavilion dedicated to the Three Kingdoms general Guan Yu, the Confucian Temple of Shanghai, and a major Taoist center Shanghai White Cloud Temple  [ zh ] where the Shanghai Taoist Association locates. [186]

Language

Shanghai
Shanghai (Chinese characters).svg
"Shanghai" in regular Chinese characters
Ability to speak the following dialects/languages in Shanghai (2013) [187]
Languages%Can Speak
Mandarin
97.0%
Shanghainese
81.4%
English
47.5%
Other Chinese
29.7%
Other foreign languages
7.8%
Sampled among residents ≥ 13 years old.

The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, part of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese language family. This is different from the national language, Mandarin, which is mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. [188] Modern Shanghainese derives from the indigenous Wu spoken in the former Songjiang prefecture but has been influenced by other dialects of Taihu Wu, most notably Suzhounese, and Ningbonese [189]

Prior to its expansion, the language spoken in Shanghai was not as prominent as those spoken around Jiaxing and later Suzhou, [189] and was known as "the local tongue" (本地閑話), a name which is now used in suburbs only. [190] In the late 19th century, downtown Shanghainese (市區閑話 or simply 上海閑話) appeared, undergoing rapid changes and quickly replacing Suzhounese as the prestige dialect of the Yangtze River Delta region. At the time, most of the immigration into the city came from the two adjacent provinces, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, the local dialects of which had the greatest influence on Shanghainese. After 1949, Putonghua (Standard Mandarin) has also had a great impact on Shanghainese as a result of being rigorously promoted by the government. [189] Since the 1990s, many migrants outside of the Wu-speaking region have come to Shanghai for education and jobs. They often cannot speak the local language and therefore use Putonghua (Mandarin) as a lingua franca. Because Putonghua and English were more favored, Shanghainese began to decline, and fluency among young speakers weakened. In recent years, there have been movements within the city to promote the local language and protect it from fading out. [191] [192]

Education and research

Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library Xuhui Liberary Scene 01.jpg
Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library

Shanghai is an international center of research and development and as of 2022, it was ranked third globally and second in the whole Asia & Oceania region (after Beijing) by scientific research outputs, as tracked by the Nature Index. [193] It is also a major center of higher education in China. As of 2023, Shanghai had 68 universities and colleges, ranking first in East China region as a city with most higher education institutions. [194]

Shanghai has many highly ranked educational institutions, [195] [196] with 15 universities listed in 147 Double First-Class Universities ranking second nationwide among all cities in China (after Beijing). A number of China's most prestigious universities appearing in the global university rankings are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University, Shanghai University, East China University of Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai International Studies University, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai Maritime University, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai Conservatory of Music, and Shanghai University of Sport. [196] [197] [198] Some of these universities were selected as "985 universities" or "211 universities" since the 90s by the Chinese government in order to build world-class universities. [199] [200]

Fudan University Fudan-guanghualou2.jpg
Fudan University

Shanghai is a seat of two members (Fudan University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University) of the C9 League, an alliance of elite Chinese universities offering comprehensive and leading education, [201] and these two universities are ranked consistently in the Asia top 10, [202] [203] and in the global top 100 research comprehensive universities according to the most influential university rankings in the world such as QS Rankings, Shanghai Rankings, Times Higher Education Rankings and U.S. News & World Report Best Global Universities Ranking. [204] [205] [206] [196] Fudan University established a joint EMBA program with Washington University in St. Louis in 2002 which has since consistently been ranked as one of the best in the world. [207] [208]

The other two members of the "Project 985," Tongji University and East China Normal University, are also based in Shanghai and internationally; they are regarded as one of the most reputable Chinese universities by the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings where they ranked 150–175th globally. [209] The city is also home to the Shanghai University of Sport, which consistently ranks the best in China among universities specialized in sports. [210] As of 2023, Shanghai University of Sport ranks #1 in Asia and #36 globally according to the "Global Ranking of Sport Science Schools and Departments 2023" released by Shanghai Ranking. [211]

The city has many Chinese–foreign joint education institutes  [ zh ], such as the Shanghai UniversityUniversity of Technology Sydney Business School since 1994, the University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute since 2006, and New York University Shanghai—the first China–U.S. joint venture university—since 2012. [212] [213] In 2013, the Shanghai Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the ShanghaiTech University in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. [214] Shanghai is also home to the cadre school China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong and the China Europe International Business School. The city government's education agency is the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission.

The city is also a seat of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, China's oldest think tank for the humanities and social sciences. It is the largest one outside the capital of Beijing after the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). [215]

By the end of 2019, the city also had 929 secondary schools, 698 primary schools, and 31 special schools. [140] In Shanghai, the nine years of compulsory education—including five years of primary education and four years of junior secondary education—are free, with a gross enrollment ratio of over 99.9%. [140] The city's compulsory education system is among the best in the world: in 2009 and 2012, 15-year-old students from Shanghai ranked first in every subject (math, reading, and science) in the Program for International Student Assessment, a worldwide study of academic performance conducted by the OECD. [216] [217] The consecutive three-year senior secondary education is priced and uses the Senior High School Entrance Examination (Zhongkao) as a selection process, with a gross enrollment ratio of 98%. [218] Among all senior high schools, the four with the best teaching quality—Shanghai High School, No. 2 High School Attached to East China Normal University, High School Affiliated to Fudan University, and High School Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University—are termed "The Four Schools" (“四校”) of Shanghai. [219] As of October 2019, the city's National College Entrance Examination (Gaokao) is structured under the "3+3" system, in which all general senior high school students study three compulsory subjects (Chinese, English, and math) and three subjects chosen from six options (physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, and politics). [220]

Transport

Public

A Line 9 train on the Shanghai Metro, the longest metro system in the world. Shanghai Metro 09A04.jpg
A Line 9 train on the Shanghai Metro, the longest metro system in the world.
Shanghai Metro Network Shanghai Metro Network en.png
Shanghai Metro Network

Shanghai has an extensive public transportation system comprising metros, buses, ferries, and taxis, all of which can be accessed using a Shanghai Public Transport Card. [221]

Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro, incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts. As of 2021, there are 19 metro lines (excluding the Shanghai maglev train and Jinshan railway), 515 stations, and 803 km (499 mi) of lines in operation, making it the longest network in the world. [140] On 8 March 2019, it set the city's daily metro ridership record with 13.3 million. [222] The average fare ranges from CN¥3 (US$0.48) to CN¥9 (US$1.28), depending on the travel distance. [223]

A maglev train leaving Pudong International Airport A maglev train coming out, Pudong International Airport, Shanghai.jpg
A maglev train leaving Pudong International Airport

Opened in 2004, the Shanghai maglev train is the first and the fastest commercial high-speed maglev in the world, with a maximum operation speed of 430 km/h (267 mph). [224] The train can complete the 30-kilometer (19 mi) journey between Longyang Road station and Pudong International Airport in 7 minutes 20 seconds, [225] comparing to 32 minutes by Metro Line 2 [226] and 30 minutes by car. [227] A one-way ticket costs CN¥50 (US$8), or CN¥40 (US$6.40) for those with airline tickets or public transportation cards. A round-trip ticket costs CN¥80 (US$12.80), and VIP tickets cost double the standard fare. [228]

With the first tram line been in service in 1908, trams were once popular in Shanghai in the early 20th century. By 1925, there were 328 tramcars and 14 routes operated by Chinese, French, and British companies collaboratively, [229] all of which were nationalized after the PRC's victory in 1949. Since the 1960s, many tram lines were either dismantled or replaced by trolleybus or motorbus lines; [230] the last tram line was demolished in 1975. [231] Shanghai reintroduced trams in 2010, as a modern rubber-tire Translohr system in Zhangjiang area of East Shanghai as Zhangjiang Tram. [232] In 2018, the steel wheeled Songjiang Tram started operating in Songjiang District. [233] Additional tram lines are under planning in Hongqiao Subdistrict and Jiading District as of 2019. [234]

The Shanghai Trolleybus network is currently the oldest in the world. Hu A57050D 20.jpg
The Shanghai Trolleybus network is currently the oldest in the world.

Shanghai also has the world's most extensive bus network, including the world's oldest continuously operating trolleybus system, with 1,575 lines covering a total length of 8,997 km (5,590 mi) by 2019. [140] The system is operated by multiple companies. [235] Bus fares generally cost CN¥2 (US$0.32). [236] Shanghai also has three bus rapid transit systems, namely the Yan'an Road Medium Capacity Bus Transit System, Fengpu Express and Nantuan Express.

As of 2019, a total of 40,000 taxis were in operation in Shanghai. [140] The base fare for taxis is CN¥14 (US$2.24), which covers the first 3 km (2 mi) and includes a CN¥1 (US$0.14) fuel surcharge. The base fare is CN¥18 (US$2.55) between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am. Each additional kilometer costs CN¥2.7 (US$0.45), or CN¥4.05 (US$0.67) between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am. [237] Taxicabs and DiDi play major roles in urban transportation and DiDi is often cheaper than taxis. [238]

As of January 2021, Shanghai Metro has 459 stations and 772 km. The scale of operation is the first in the world. in 2017, the average daily passenger traffic of the Shanghai metro was 9.693 million, and the total passenger traffic reached 3.538 billion. It is one of the busiest metro cities in the world. The metro lines cover the central city densely and connect most districts and counties. [239]

Roads and expressways

Interchange between Yan'an Elevated Road and North-South Elevated Road Yan'an East Road Interchange, Shanghai, China (Unsplash).jpg
Interchange between Yan'an Elevated Road and North–South Elevated Road

Shanghai is a major hub of China's expressway network. Many national expressways (prefixed with the letter G) pass through or end in Shanghai, including Jinghu Expressway (overlaps with Hurong Expressway), Shenhai Expressway, Hushaan Expressway, Huyu Expressway, Hukun Expressway (overlaps with Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway), and Shanghai Ring Expressway. [240] There are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with the letter S. [240] As of 2019, Shanghai has a total of 12 bridges and 14 tunnels crossing the Huangpu River. [241] [242] The Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge is the city's only bridge–tunnel complex across Yangtze River.

The expressway network within the city center consists of North–South Elevated Road, Yan'an Elevated Road, and Inner Ring Road. Other ring roads in Shanghai include Middle Ring Road, Outer Ring Expressway, and Shanghai Ring Expressway.

Bicycle-sharing systems, such as ofo (yellow) and Mobike (orange), are common in Shanghai. Various bike-share bikes in china.jpg
Bicycle-sharing systems, such as ofo (yellow) and Mobike (orange), are common in Shanghai.

Bicycle lanes are common in Shanghai, separating non-motorized traffic from car traffic on most surface streets. However, on some main roads, including all expressways, bicycles and motorcycles are banned. In recent years, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity due to the emergence of a large number of dockless app-based bicycle-sharing systems, such as Mobike, Bluegogo, and ofo. [243] As of December 2018, bicycle-sharing systems had an average of 1.15 million daily riders within the city. [244]

Private car ownership in Shanghai is rapidly increasing: in 2019, there were 3.40 million private cars in the city, a 12.5% increase from 2018. [140] New private cars cannot be driven without a license plate, which are sold in monthly license plate auctions. Around 9,500 license plates are auctioned each month, and the average price is about CN¥89,600 (US$12,739) in 2019. [245] According to the city's vehicle regulations introduced in June 2016, only locally registered residents and those who have paid social insurance or individual income taxes for over three years are eligible to be in the auction. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and alleviate congestion. [246]

License plates for fully electric cars or plug-in hybrid vehicles are free. [247] :168

Railways

Shanghai railway station Shanghai Railway Station 4.jpg
Shanghai railway station

Shanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai railway station, Shanghai South railway station, Shanghai West railway station, and Shanghai Hongqiao railway station. [248] All are connected to the metro network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China. And now Shanghai has around twenty railway lines running under this city, which largely facilitate people's life in Shanghai.

Built in 1876, the Woosung railway was the first railway in Shanghai and the first railway in operation in China [249] By 1909, Shanghai–Nanjing railway and Shanghai–Hangzhou railway were in service. [250] [251] As of October 2019, the two railways have been integrated into two main railways in China: Beijing–Shanghai railway and Shanghai–Kunming railway, respectively. [252]

Shanghai has four high-speed railways (HSRs): Beijing–Shanghai HSR (overlaps with Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway), Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway, Shanghai–Kunming HSR, and Shanghai–Nantong railway. One HSR is under construction: Shanghai–Suzhou–Huzhou HSR. [253] [254]

Shanghai also has four commuter railways: Pudong railway (passenger service is currently suspended) and Jinshan railway operated by China Railway, and Line 16 and Line 17 operated by Shanghai Metro. [255] [256] As of January 2022, four additional lines—Chongming line, Jiamin line, Airport link line and Lianggang Express line—are under construction. [256] [257]

Air and sea

Inside Shanghai Pudong International Airport Terminal 1 Shanghai Pudong International Airport Interior.jpg
Inside Shanghai Pudong International Airport Terminal 1
Due to Yangshan Port, Shanghai has become the world's busiest container port. Yangshan-Port-Balanced.jpg
Due to Yangshan Port, Shanghai has become the world's busiest container port.

Shanghai is one of the largest air transportation hubs in Asia. [258] The city has two commercial airports: Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. [259] Pudong International Airport is the primary international airport, while Hongqiao International Airport mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international flights. In 2018, Pudong International Airport served 74.0 million passengers and handled 3.8 million tons of cargo, making it the ninth-busiest airport by passenger volume and third-busiest airport by cargo volume. [260] [261] The same year, Hongqiao International Airport served 43.6 million passengers, making it the 19th-busiest airport by passenger volume. [260]

Since its opening, the Port of Shanghai has rapidly grown to become the largest port in China. [262] Yangshan Port was built in 2005 because the river was unsuitable for docking large container ships. The port is connected with the mainland through the 32-kilometer (20 mi) long Donghai Bridge. Although the port is run by the Shanghai International Port Group under the government of Shanghai, it administratively belongs to Shengsi County, Zhejiang. [263]

Overtaking the Port of Singapore in 2010, [264] the Port of Shanghai has become world's busiest container port with an annual TEU transportation of 42 million in 2018. [265] Besides cargo, the Port of Shanghai handled 259 cruises and 1.89 million passengers in 2019. [140]

Shanghai is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the south via the southern tip of India to Mombasa, from there to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and the Eastern Europe. [266] [267] [268] [269] [270]

Culture

Shanghai Citi Bank Building operates a light show, shining the phrase "I love Shanghai." Shanghai Nights.jpg
Shanghai Citi Bank Building operates a light show, shining the phrase "I love Shanghai."

The culture of Shanghai was formed by a combination of the nearby Wuyue culture and the "East Meets West" Haipai culture. Wuyue culture's influence is manifested in Shanghainese language—which comprises dialectal elements from nearby Jiaxing, Suzhou, and Ningbo—and Shanghai cuisine, which was influenced by Jiangsu cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine. [271] Haipai culture emerged after Shanghai became a prosperous port in the early 20th century, with numerous foreigners from Europe, America, Japan, and India moving into the city. [272] The culture fuses elements of Western cultures with the local Wuyue culture, and its influence extends to the city's literature, fashion, architecture, music, and cuisine. [273] The term Haipai—originally referring to a painting school in Shanghai—was coined by a group of Beijing writers in 1920 to criticize some Shanghai scholars for admiring capitalism and Western culture. [273] [274] In the early 21st century, Shanghai has been recognized as a new influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture. [275]

Museums

The China Art Museum, located in Pudong China Art Museum 1.jpg
The China Art Museum, located in Pudong

Cultural curation in Shanghai has seen significant growth since 2013, with several new museums having been opened in the city. [276] This is in part due to the city's 2018 development plans, which aim to make Shanghai "an excellent global city." [277] As such, Shanghai has several museums of regional and national importance. [278] [279] The Shanghai Museum has one of the largest collections of Chinese artifacts in the world, including a large collection of ancient Chinese bronzes and ceramics. [280] The China Art Museum, located in the former China pavilion at Expo 2010, is one of the largest museums in Asia and displays an animated replica of the 12th century painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival. [281] The Shanghai Natural History Museum and the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum are notable natural history and science museums. In addition, there are numerous smaller, specialist museums housed in important archeological and historical sites, such as the Songze Museum, [282] the Site of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the site of the former Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, [283] the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum, and the Shanghai Post Office Museum (located in the General Post Office Building). [284]

Cuisine

Xiaolongbao in Shanghai Xiao Long Bao at Nanxiang Mantou Dian 1.jpg
Xiaolongbao in Shanghai

Benbang cuisine (本帮菜) [285] is cooking style that originated in the 1600s, with influences from surrounding provinces. It emphasizes the use of condiments while retaining the original flavors of the raw ingredients. Sugar is an important ingredient in Benbang cuisine, especially when used in combination with soy sauce. Signature dishes of Benbang cuisine include Xiaolongbao, Red braised pork belly, and Shanghai hairy crab. [286] Haipai cuisine, on the other hand, is a Western-influenced cooking style that originated in Shanghai. It absorbed elements from French, British, Russian, German, and Italian cuisines and adapted them to suit the local taste according to the features of local ingredients. [287] Famous dishes of Haipai cuisine include Shanghai-style borscht (罗宋汤, "Russian soup"), crispy pork cutlets, and Shanghai salad derived from Olivier salad. [288] Both Benbang and Haipai cuisine make use of a variety of seafood, including freshwater fish, shrimps, and crabs. [289]

Arts

Shi Mo Tu Zhi Si 
(No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren Xiong, a pioneer of the Shanghai School of Chinese art, c. 1850 Renxiong wan04s.jpg
十万图之四 (No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren Xiong, a pioneer of the Shanghai School of Chinese art, c.1850

The Songjiang School (淞江派), containing the Huating School (华亭派) founded by Gu Zhengyi, [290] was a small painting school in Shanghai during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. [291] It was represented by Dong Qichang. [292] The school was considered an expansion of the Wu School in Suzhou, the cultural center of the Jiangnan region at the time. [293] In the mid 19th century, the Shanghai School movement commenced, focusing less on the symbolism emphasized by the Literati style but more on the visual content of painting through the use of bright colors. Secular objects like flowers and birds were often selected as themes. [294] Western art was introduced to Shanghai in 1847 by Spanish missionary Joannes Ferrer (范廷佐), and the city's first Western atelier was established in 1864 inside the Tushanwan orphanage  [ zh; fr ]. [295] During the Republic of China, many famous artists including Zhang Daqian, Liu Haisu, Xu Beihong, Feng Zikai, and Yan Wenliang settled in Shanghai, allowing it to gradually become the art center of China. Various art forms—including photography, wood carving, sculpture, comics (Manhua), and Lianhuanhua—thrived. Sanmao was created to dramatize the chaos created by the Second Sino-Japanese War. [296] Today, the most comprehensive art and cultural facility in Shanghai is the China Art Museum. In addition, the Chinese Painting Academy features traditional Chinese painting, [297] while the Power Station of Art displays contemporary art. [298] The city also has many art galleries, many of which are located in the M50 Art District and Tianzifang. First held in 1996, the Shanghai Biennale has become an important place for Chinese and foreign arts to interact. [299]

Mei Lanfang performing the Peking opera "Resisting the Jin Army" at Tianchan Theatre Mei Lanfang performing at Tianchan Theatre.jpg
Mei Lanfang performing the Peking opera "Resisting the Jin Army" at Tianchan Theatre

Traditional Chinese opera (Xiqu) became a popular source of public entertainment in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, monologue and burlesque in Shanghainese appeared, absorbing elements from traditional dramas. The Great World opened in 1912 and was a significant stage at the time. [300] In the 1920s, Pingtan expanded from Suzhou to Shanghai. [301] Pingtan art developed rapidly to 103 programs every day by the 1930s because of the abundant commercial radio stations in the city. Around the same time, a Shanghai-style Beijing Opera was formed. Led by Zhou Xinfang and Gai Jiaotian  [ zh ], it attracted many Xiqu masters, like Mei Lanfang, to the city. [302] A small troupe from Shengxian (now Shengzhou) also began to promote Yue opera on the Shanghainese stage. [303] A unique style of opera, Shanghai opera, was formed when local folksongs were fused with modern operas. [304] As of 2012, prominent troupes in Shanghai include Shanghai Jingju Theatre Company, Shanghai Kunqu Opera Troupe  [ zh ], Shanghai Yue Opera House, and Shanghai Huju Opera House. [305]

Drama appeared in missionary schools in Shanghai in the late 19th century. At the time, it was mainly performed in English. Scandals in Officialdom (官场丑史), staged in 1899, was one of the earliest-recorded plays. [306] In 1907, Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly (黑奴吁天录) was performed at the Lyceum Theatre  [ zh ]. [307] After the New Culture Movement, drama became a popular way for students and intellectuals to express their views. The city has several major institutes of theater training, including the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, the Shanghai Dramatic Arts Centre, the Shanghai Opera House, and the Shanghai Theatre Academy. Notable theaters in Shanghai include the Shanghai Grand Theatre, the Oriental Art Center, and the People's Theatre.

In this Shanghainese soap advertisement from the 1930s, two women are wearing Shanghai-styled qipao while playing golf. Qipao1.jpg
In this Shanghainese soap advertisement from the 1930s, two women are wearing Shanghai-styled qipao while playing golf.

Shanghai is considered to be the birthplace of Chinese cinema. [308] China's first short film, The Difficult Couple (1913), and the country's first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His Grandfather (孤儿救祖记, 1923) [309] were both produced in Shanghai. Shanghai's film industry grew during the early 1930s, generating stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong. The exile of Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Communist revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry. [310] The movie In the Mood for Love directed by Wong Kar-wai, a Shanghai native, depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese community in Hong Kong and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan. [311]

Shanghai's cultural festivals include Shanghai International Television Festival, Shanghai International Film Festival, Shanghai International Art Festival, Shanghai International Tourism Festival, Shanghai Spring International Music Festival, etc. Shanghai TV Festival is the earliest international TV festival founded in China. It was founded in 1986. The Shanghai International Film Festival was founded in 1993 and is one of the nine major international film festivals in the A category. The highest award is the "Golden Goblet Award" [312]

Fashion

Since 2001, Shanghai has held its own fashion week called Shanghai Fashion Week twice every year in April and October. The main venue is in Fuxing Park, and the opening and closing ceremonies are held in the Shanghai Fashion Center. The April session is also part of the one-month Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival. [313] Shanghai Fashion Week is considered to be an event of national significance featuring both international and Chinese designers. The international presence has included many promising young British fashion designers. [314] The event is hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government and supported by the People's Republic Ministry of Commerce. [315]

Sports

F1 Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai Shanghai F1 Circui 01.jpg
F1 Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai

Shanghai is home to several football teams, including two in the Chinese Super League: Shanghai Shenhua [316] and Shanghai Port. [317] China's top-tier basketball team, the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association, developed Yao Ming before he entered the NBA. [318] [319] Shanghai's baseball team, the Shanghai Golden Eagles, plays in the China Baseball League. [320]

The Shanghai Cricket Club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai 11. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the PRC in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members. The Shanghai cricket team played various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in the rest of China almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto China national cricket team. [321]

Yao Ming was born in Shanghai. He started his career with the Shanghai Sharks. YaoMingoffense.jpg
Yao Ming was born in Shanghai. He started his career with the Shanghai Sharks.

Shanghai is home to many prominent Chinese professional athletes, such as basketball player Yao Ming, [319] 110 metres hurdles Liu Xiang, [322] table tennis player Wang Liqin, [323] and badminton player Wang Yihan. [324]

Shanghai Masters in Qizhong Forest Sports City Arena Tsonga Potro 2008 Tennis Masters.jpg
Shanghai Masters in Qizhong Forest Sports City Arena

Shanghai is the host of several international sports events. Since 2004, it has hosted the Chinese Grand Prix, a round of the Formula One World Championship. The race is staged annually at the Shanghai International Circuit. [325] It hosted the 1000th Formula One race on 14 April 2019. In 2010, Shanghai became the host city of Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, which raced in a street circuit in Pudong. In 2012, Shanghai began hosting 4 Hours of Shanghai as one round from the inaugural season of the FIA World Endurance Championship. The city also hosts the Shanghai Masters tennis tournament, which is part of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, as well as golf tournaments including the BMW Masters and WGC-HSBC Champions. [326]

On 21 September 2017, Shanghai hosted a National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey exhibition game in an effort to increase fan interest for the 2017–18 NHL season. [327]

Environment

Parks and resorts

Shanghai has an extensive public park system; by 2018, the city had 300 parks, of which 281 had free admission, and the per capita park area was 8.2 m2 (88 sq ft). [328] Some of the parks also have become popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history, or architecture.

People's Park Shanghai - People's Park - 0005.jpg
People's Park

The People's Square park, located in the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located in the former French Concession, features formal French-style gardens and is surrounded by high-end bars and cafes. [329]

Zhongshan Park, in western central Shanghai, is famous for its monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in the world. [330] Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international college; today, the park features sakura and peony gardens and a 150-year-old platanus, [331] and it also serves as an interchange hub in the metro system. [332]

One of Shanghai's newer parks is the Xujiahui Park, which was built in 1999, on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has an artificial lake with a sky bridge running across the park. [333] Shanghai Botanical Garden is located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city center and was established in 1978. In 2011, the largest botanical garden in Shanghai—Shanghai Chen Shan Botanical Garden—opened in Songjiang District. [334]

Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai Disneyland Shanghai disneyland castle.jpg
Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai Disneyland

Other notable parks in Shanghai include Lu Xun Park, Century Park, Gucun Park, Gongqing Forest Park, and Jing'an Park.

The Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009 [335] and opened in 2016. [336] The $4.4 billion theme park and resort in Pudong features a castle that is the biggest among Disney's resorts. [337] More than 11 million people visited the resort in its first year of operation. [338]

Air pollution

Huangpu District during the 2013 Eastern China smog Shanghai haze in Huangpu Distract 20131206.jpg
Huangpu District during the 2013 Eastern China smog

Air pollution in Shanghai is not as severe as in many other Chinese cities, but is still considered substantial by world standards. [339] During the December 2013 Eastern China smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31 times the international standard. [340] [341] On 6 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter in Shanghai rose above 600 micrograms per cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per cubic meter. [341] Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726 micrograms per cubic meter. [342] [343] As a result, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students' outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government vehicles from the roads, while much construction work was halted. Most inbound flights were canceled, and more than 50 flights at Pudong International Airport were diverted. [344]

On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai, announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. [345] The measures involved implementing the 2013 air-cleaning program, establishing a linkage mechanism with the three surrounding provinces, and improving the city's early-warning systems. [345] On 12 February 2014, China's cabinet announced that a CN¥10 billion (US$1.7 billion) fund will be set up to help companies meet the new environmental standards. [346] The effect of the policy was significant. From 2013 to 2018, more than 3,000 treatment facilities for industrial waste gases were installed, and the city's annual smoke, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide emission decreased by 65%, 54%, and 95%, respectively. [347] [348]

Environmental protection

A residual waste truck and a kitchen waste truck on Zhonghua Road A residual waste truck and a household food waste truck on Zhonghua Road, Shanghai.jpg
A residual waste truck and a kitchen waste truck on Zhonghua Road

Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 16-year rehabilitation of Suzhou Creek, which runs through the city, was finished in 2012, clearing the creek of barges and factories and removing 1.3 million cubic meters of sludge. [349] [350] Additionally, the government has moved almost all the factories within the city center to either the outskirts or other provinces, [351] and provided incentives for transportation companies to invest in LPG buses and taxis.

On 1 July 2019, Shanghai adopted a new garbage-classification system that sorts out waste into residual waste, kitchen waste, recyclable waste, and hazardous waste. [352] The wastes are collected by separate vehicles and sent to incineration plants, landfills, recycling centers, and hazardous-waste-disposal facilities, respectively. [353]

Media

Media in Shanghai  [ zh ] covers newspapers, publisher, broadcast, television, and Internet, with some media having influence over the country. In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled Shanghai in the 1940s "it was very difficult to publish good papers – one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate like the Chronicle ." [354]

As of March 2020, newspapers publishing in Shanghai include:

Newspapers formerly published in Shanghai include:

The city's main broadcaster is Shanghai Media Group.

International relations

The city is the seat of the New Development Bank, a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states.

Twin towns – sister cities

Shanghai is twinned with: [359]

Consulates and consulates general

As of September 2020, Shanghai hosts 71 consulates general and 5 consulates, excluding Hong Kong and Macao trade office. [361]

The Russian Consulate General in Shanghai, located on the banks of the Suzhou River Russian Consulate General in Shanghai.jpg
The Russian Consulate General in Shanghai, located on the banks of the Suzhou River

See also

Notes

  1. /ʃæŋˈh/ ; [13] Chinese :上海; pinyin :Shànghǎi, Shanghainese : zaon6 he5 [zɑ̃˩hɛ˦] , Standard Chinese pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xàɪ]
  2. Traditional Chinese: [15]
  3. Traditional Chinese: 滬瀆 [16]
  4. Chinese :華亭
  5. Chinese :青龍鎮
  6. Chinese :江海關
  7. Shanghainese romanization: longdhang; Wu Chinese pronunciation: [lòŋdɑ̃́] [84]
  8. historically "Avenue Joffre" [115]
  9. Shanghainese romanization: Xhigawhe, Zikawei, or Siccawei; Wu Chinese pronunciation: [ʑìkᴀ̋ɦuᴇ᷆]
  10. Chuansha County until 1992; [58] merged with Nanhui District in 2009 with oversight of the Jiuduansha shoals [116]
  11. Baoshan County and Wusong District until 1988 [58]
  12. Original Minhang District and Shanghai County until 1992 [58]
  13. Jiading County until 1992 [58]
  14. Jinshan County until 1997
  15. Songjiang County until 1998
  16. Qingpu County until 1999
  17. Fengxian County until 2001
  18. The absorption of the separate island of Yonglongsha by Chongming in the 1970s has produced a narrow pene-enclave of Jiangsu along about 20 kilometers (12 mi) of the northern shore of the island, separately administered as Nantong's Haiyong and Qilong townships. [117]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pudong</span> District in Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China

Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu, the river which flows through central Shanghai. The name Pudong was originally applied to the Huangpu's east bank, directly across from the west bank or Puxi, the historic city center. It now refers to the broader Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Huangpu, Shanghai</span> District in Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China

Huangpu District, makes up the eastern part of Shanghai's traditional urban core and is today the most central of Shanghai's 16 districts. Huangpu district is the seat of municipal government, includes key attractions such as The Bund and the Old City God Temple, as well as popular shopping districts such as Nanjing Road, Huaihai Road, and Xintiandi. The Huangpu District is one of the most densely populated urban districts in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yangpu, Shanghai</span> District in Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China

Yangpu (杨浦区) is one of the 16 districts of Shanghai. It is located in the northeastern part of downtown Shanghai, bordering the Huangpu River on the east and south, Hongkou on the west, and Baoshan on the north. The southern part of Yangpu District is 4 km (2.5 mi) away from The Bund, a major tourist attraction. It is predominantly composed of residential communities, with a total area of 60.61 km2 (23.40 sq mi) and a population of 1,242,548 as of 2020. The district administers 12 subdistricts.

The Shanghainese language, also known as the Shanghai dialect, or Hu language, is a variety of Wu Chinese spoken in the central districts of the city of Shanghai and its surrounding areas. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Shanghainese, like the rest of the Wu language group, is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Minhang, Shanghai</span> District in Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China

Minhang District is a suburban district of Shanghai with a land area of 371.57 km2 (143.46 sq mi) and population of 2,653,489 residents as of 2020. The original Minhang consist of present-day Jiangchuan Road Subdistrict and the eastern strip of Wujing along the Huangpu River in 1992, the surrounding Shanghai County merged with Minhang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Puxi</span> Historic center of Shanghai, China

Puxi is the historic center of Shanghai, China, and remains the home of approximately 48% of Shanghai's residents in an area of 288 km2. Puxi is distinguished from Pudong to its east, which is separated from it by the Huangpu River. Despite the growing importance of Pudong's Lujiazui area, Puxi remains Shanghai's cultural, residential and commercial center.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Line 2 (Shanghai Metro)</span> Metro line of the Shanghai Metro

Line 2 is an east–west line in the Shanghai Metro network. With a length of nearly 64 km (40 mi), it is the second longest line in the metro system after line 11. Line 2 runs from East Xujing in the west to Pudong International Airport in the east, passing Hongqiao Airport, the Huangpu river, and the Lujiazui Financial District in Pudong. With a daily ridership of over 1.9 million, it is the busiest line on the Shanghai Metro. The eastern portion of the line, from Guanglan Road to Pudong International Airport, was operated almost independently from the main segment until April 19, 2019, when through service began. The line is colored light green on system maps.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Nanjing Road station</span> Shanghai Metro interchange station

East Nanjing Road is an interchange station between Lines 2 and 10 on the Shanghai Metro. It is located in Huangpu District, under the intersection of Nanjing Road (E.) and Henan Road (M.) in the city center of Shanghai.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jing'an Temple station</span> Shanghai Metro interchange station

Jing'an Temple is the name of an interchange station between Lines 2, 7 and 14 of the Shanghai Metro. This station is located in Jing'an District, below the historic Jing'an Temple and the Jiu Guang shopping mall. It is part of the initial section of Line 2 that opened from Zhongshan Park to Longyang Road that opened on 20 September 1999; the interchange with line 7 opened on 5 December 2009 as part of that line's initial section between Shanghai University and Huamu Road and the interchange with line 14 opened on 30 December 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lujiazui station</span> Shanghai Metro station

Lujiazui is a station on Line 2 and 14 of the Shanghai Metro rapid transit system, situated in the middle of the financial district of Lujiazui. This station is the first stop in Pudong going east towards Pudong International Airport, and is part of the initial section of Line 2 that opened from Zhongshan Park to Longyang Road that opened on 20 September 1999. The station later became an interchange on 30 December 2021 after the opening of Line 14. Being at the centre of Lujiazui, the station is of significance to the area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pudong Avenue station</span> Shanghai Metro station

Pudong Avenue is the name of a station on Line 4 and Line 14 of the Shanghai Metro. It is the first station on Line 4 in Pudong travelling clockwise after crossing the Huangpu River from Puxi. Service began at this station on 31 December 2005. It later became an interchange station on 30 December 2021 after the opening of Line 14.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yangshupu Road station</span> Shanghai Metro station

Yangshupu Road is a station on Shanghai Metro Line 4. It is located along Dalian Road (大连路) at its intersection with Yangshupu Road, in the Yangpu District of Shanghai, and is the first station on Line 4 in Puxi travelling counter-clockwise after crossing the Huangpu River from Pudong. Service began at this station on 31 December 2005.

Transport in Shanghai is provided by an extensive network of modes including metro, cycling, bus and taxis, as well as an expansive network of roadways, and airports. Shanghai has invested heavily in public transportation before and after the 2010 World Expo, including the construction of the Hongqiao transportation hub of high-speed rail, air, metro and bus routes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shanghai County</span> Historical county of China

Shanghai County was a Chinese county in modern-day Shanghai Municipality. Shanghai County was first established in 1292 and finally abolished in 1992. Shanghai County was for most of its existence a part of Songjiang Prefecture, in Jiangsu Province, but later became a county under Shanghai Municipality. Shanghai County was historically the governing authority of the Shanghai's urban area and neighbouring areas. Its extent reduced with the establishment of the Shanghai Special Municipality and, later, Shanghai Municipality. Immediately before abolition, the county extended over a crescent-shaped area adjacent to, and surrounding, the southwest of Shanghai's city centre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of Shanghai</span>

The 2010 census put Shanghai's total population at 23,019,148, a growth of 37.53% from 16,737,734 in 2000. 20.6 million of the total population, or 89.3%, are urban, and 2.5 million (10.7%) are rural. Based on population of total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest Chinese city because Chongqing's urban population is much smaller.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shanghai Ferry</span> Overview of transport in Shanghai

The Shanghai Ferry is a system of ferry routes across the Huangpu River in Shanghai. The ferry service started on January 5, 1911 by the municipal authorities in Pudong. Before the 1970s, the ferry service was the only way to cross the Huangpu River. In the 1980s, the Shanghai Ferry became one of the busiest ferry services in the world. In the 1990s, as bridges and tunnels across the Huangpu river were built, the ferry service saw a sharp drop in ridership. The Shanghai Ferry currently consists of 18 ferry lines and is operated by the state-owned Shanghai Ferry Company.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Songpu Bridge</span> Bridge in Shanghai, China

Songpu Bridge, first known as Huangpu River Bridge, Cheting Bridge, is the first bridge built across the Huangpu River in Shanghai, China. It is a double-layer steel truss bridge for highway and railway across the Huangpu River in Songjiang District. The Songpu Bridge Railway Bridge and Highway Bridge were opened to traffic on September 11, 1975 and June 29, 1976, respectively. For a long time after its completion, it was also the only bridge on the upper reaches of the Huangpu River until the opening of the Huangpu River Bridge on the G15 Shenhai Expressway in 2006.

The culture of Shanghai or Shanghainese culture is based on the Wuyue culture from the nearby Jiangsu and Zhejiang province, with a unique "East Meets West" Haipai culture generated through the influx of Western influences since the mid-19th century. Mass migration from all across China and the rest of the world has made Shanghai a melting pot of different cultures. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car was driven and (technically) the first train tracks and modern sewers were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism, which was pioneered by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Nien Cheng and the famous French novel by André Malraux, Man's Fate, and the more "bourgeois", more romantic and aesthetically inclined writers, such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye Lingfeng and Eileen Chang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shanghai Rail Transit</span> Rail transit lines operating in Shanghai

Shanghai Rail Transit includes all rail transit lines operating in Shanghai, mainly composed of High-volume railway system, Low-to-medium-volume railway system and Maglev system. The system was established on May 28, 1993, when Shanghai Metro Line 1 opened.

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