Heilongjiang

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Heilongjiang
黑龙江
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese黑龙江省 (Hēilóngjiāng Shěng)
  AbbreviationHL / (pinyin :Hēi)
Snow scenery of Hailin City, Heilongjiang.jpg
Hailin City
Heilongjiang in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Heilongjiang Province
Coordinates: 48°N129°E / 48°N 129°E / 48; 129 Coordinates: 48°N129°E / 48°N 129°E / 48; 129
Country China
Named for hēi—black
lóng—dragon
jiāng—river
Amur River
Capital
(and largest city)
Harbin
Divisions13 prefectures, 130 counties, 1274 townships
Government
  Type Province
  BodyHeilongjiang Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Xu Qin
  Congress chairmanXu Qin
   Governor Hu Changsheng
   CPPCC chairmanHuang Jiansheng
Area
[1]
  Total454,800 km2 (175,600 sq mi)
  Rank 6th
Highest elevation1,690 m (5,540 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total31,850,088
  Rank 15th
  Density70/km2 (180/sq mi)
   Rank 28th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han: 95%
Manchu: 3%
Korean: 1%
Mongol: 0.4%
Hui: 0.3%
  Languages and dialects Northeastern Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Mongolian, Manchu, Russian
ISO 3166 code CN-HL
GDP (2020) CNY 1.370 trillion
USD 198 billion (25th) [3]
 - per capita CNY 43,009
USD 6,233 (32nd)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 1.0%
HDI (2019)0.737 [4] (high) (22nd)
Website www.hlj.gov.cn
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦ᠌ᠷᠡᠨ
Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang (Chinese characters).svg
"Heilongjiang" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters

Heilongjiang ( UK: /ˌhlɒŋˈæŋ/ , [5] US: /ˈhˈlʊŋˈjɑːŋ/ [6] ), formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia (Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai and Zabaykalsky Krai) to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area, the 15th-most populous, and the second-poorest by GDP per capita.

Contents

The province takes its name (which in Chinese means "Black Dragon River") from the Heilong River (Chinese name of the Amur), which marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe City along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri rivers).

Heilongjiang has significant agricultural production, [7] and raw materials, such as timber, oil and coal.

Etymology

Heilongjiang literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Mandarin name for the river better known by its Western name, the Amur River. Linguists suggested Hei ultimately comes from Qara/Hara/Har, a common Altaic language cognate meaning "black". [8]

Among the Altaic languages, the Manchu name of the region is Sahaliyan ula (literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin is derived, while the Mongolian name with the same meaning is Qaramörin.[ citation needed ]

The standard one-character abbreviation for the province is (pinyin :Hēi). It is formerly romanized as "Heilungkiang".

History

Saint Sofia Church, Harbin Saint Sofia Church.jpg
Saint Sofia Church, Harbin

Ancient Chinese records and other sources state that Heilongjiang was inhabited by people such as the Sushen, Buyeo, the Mohe, and the Khitan. Mongolic Donghu people lived in Inner Mongolia and the western part of Heilongjiang. [9] Some names are Manchu or Mongolian. [10] The eastern portion of Heilongjiang was ruled by the Bohai Kingdom between the 7th and 10th centuries, followed by the Khitan Liao dynasty. The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) that subsequently ruled much of north China arose within the borders of modern Heilongjiang.

Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces on a 1734 French map CEM-44-La-Chine-la-Tartarie-Chinoise-et-le-Thibet-1734-Amur-2572.jpg
Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces on a 1734 French map

Heilongjiang as an administrative entity was created in 1683, during the Kangxi era of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, from the northwestern part of the Jilin province. [11] This Heilongjiang Province only included the western part of today's Heilongjiang Province, and was under the supervision of the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiyūn) (the title is also translated as the Military Governor of Heilongjiang; jiyanggiyūn is the Manchu reading of the Chinese word 將軍jiāngjūn; "military leader, general" and is cognate with Japanese shōgun ), whose power extended, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk, as far north as the Stanovoy Mountains. The eastern part of what's today Heilongjiang remained under the supervision of the General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), whose power reached the Sea of Japan. These areas deep in Manchuria were closed off to Han Chinese migration.

Seal of the Guard General of Heilongjiang at the Heilongjiang General Mansion Zhen Shou Hei Long Jiang Deng Chu Di Fang Jiang Jun Yin ,Hei Long Jiang Jiang Jun Fu .jpg
Seal of the Guard General of Heilongjiang at the Heilongjiang General Mansion

The original seat of the Military Governor of Heilongjiang, as established in 1683, was in Heilongjiang City (also known as Aigun or Heihe, or, in Manchu, Saghalien Ula), located on the Amur River. However, already in 1690 the seat of the governor was transferred to Nenjiang (Mergen) on the Nen River, and, in 1699, further south to Qiqihar. According to modern historians, the moves may have been driven by supply considerations: Nenjiang and Qiqihar are connected by a convenient waterway (Nen River) with southern Manchuria, whereas accessing Aigun (Heihe) would require either sailing all the way down the Sungari River until its confluence with the Amur and then up the Amur to Heihe, or using a portage over the Lesser Xing'an Mountains between the Nen River valley and the Amur valley. An additional advantage of Qiqihar may have been its location at the junction of a northbound road (to Nenjiang) and a westbound one (to Mongolia), enabling its garrison to defend both against the Russians and the Ölöt Mongols. [12]

Little Qing Military presence existed north of Aigun. According to the 18th- and early-20th-century European sources and the reports of the Russians in the 1850s, the farthest Qing "advance guard" post was at Ulusu-Modon (Ulussu-Mudan) (Chinese :乌鲁苏穆丹Wūlǔsūmùdān), near the Amur River's famous S-shaped meander. (The post was on the left (north) bank of the river, lost to the Russians in 1860.)

In 1858 and 1860, the Qing government was forced to give up all land beyond the Amur and Ussuri Rivers to the Russian Empire, cutting off the Qing Empire from the Sea of Japan and giving Heilongjiang its present northern and eastern borders. At the same time, Manchuria was opened to Han Chinese migration by the Qing government. By the early twentieth century, due to the Chuang Guandong , the Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group in the region. [13]

In 1931, Japanese forces invaded Heilongjiang. In 1932, the Japanese completed their conquest of the province, which became part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

In 1945, Japanese forces in Manchuria were defeated by the Soviet Army. During the Chinese Civil War, Soviet forces aided the Chinese communists. Heilongjiang became the first province to be completely controlled by the communists and Harbin the first major city to be controlled by them.

At the beginning of communist rule, Heilongjiang included only the western portion of the present-day province, and had its capital at Qiqihar. The remaining area was the province of Songjiang; its capital was Harbin. In 1954, these two provinces were merged into present-day Heilongjiang. During the Cultural Revolution, Heilongjiang was also expanded to include Hulunbuir League and some other areas previously in Inner Mongolia; this has since mostly been reversed.

Jixi Jixi Xingguo Middle Road.jpg
Jixi

Geography

Heilongjiang is a land of varied topographies. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the Greater Khingan Range and Lesser Khingan Range, Zhangguangcai Mountains, Laoye Mountains, and Wanda Mountains. The highest peak is Datudingzi Mountain at 1,690 metres (5,540 ft), located on the border with Jilin province. The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.

The east and southwest of the province, which are relatively flat and low in altitude, feature the Muling River, the Naoli River, the Songhua River, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amur, while the northern border forms part of the Amur valley. Xingkai Lake (or Khanka Lake) is found on the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai.

Climate

Winter in Heilongjiang Wu Song QQ696847 - panoramio.jpg
Winter in Heilongjiang

A humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa or Dwb) predominates in the province, though areas in the far north are subarctic (Köppen Dwc). [14] Winters are long and bitter, with an average of −31 to −15 °C (−24 to 5 °F) in January, and summers are short and warm to very warm with an average of 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F) in July. The annual average rainfall is 400 to 700 millimetres (16 to 28 in), concentrated heavily in summer. Clear weather is prevalent throughout the year, and in the spring, the Songnen Plain and the Sanjiang Plain provide abundant sources of wind energy.

The province's largest cities include Harbin, Qiqihar, Mudanjiang, Jiamusi, Daqing, Jixi, Shuangyashan, Hegang, Qitaihe, Yichun, and Heihe.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for some locations in Heilongjiang province of China
CityJuly (°C)July (°F)January (°C)January (°F)
Harbin 27.9/18.382.2/64.9–12.5/–24.19.5/–11.4
Jiamusi 27.6/17.781.7/63.9–12.7/–249.1/–11.2
Hegang 26.5/17.480/63.3–12.7/–20.89.1/–5.4
Yichun 27.1/15.580.8/59.9–14.5/–29.15.9/–20.4

Transport

Roads

Heilongjiang boasts an extensive road network. As of October 2020, it has 165,989 km of expressways, [15] highways and other roads. The Beijing - Harbin Expressway is the most significant expressway corridor to the province, which begins at the Heilongjiang - Jilin border and ends within the Harbin Ring Expressway. The Harbin - Tongjiang Expressway runs northeast and it links far-flung counties within the jurisdiction of Harbin, Jiamusi and other major counties in Northeast Heilongjiang. Near the end of Harbin - Tongjiang Expressway, Jiansanjiang–Heixiazi Island Expressway branches off the main expressway at Jiansanjiang and connects many state-owned farms at the far east of the province before ending near the Sino-Russian border. The Suifenhe - Manzhouli Expressway is another major corridor, it runs southeast to northwest and connects some of the most significant population centers of the province, including Mudanjiang, Harbin, Daqing and Qiqihar, before ending at the Heilongjiang - Inner Mongolia border. The Hegang - Dalian Expressway runs between Hegang and the Heilongjiang - Jilin border in East Heilongjiang, is another major expressway that facilitates the transportation of lumber and coal.

Railways

There are 60 railway lines of around 5,300 kilometres (3,300 miles) including a section of the Asia-Europe Continental Bridge. The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway, completed in 2012, stretches from Harbin, Heilongjiang's capital, to Dalian in Liaoning province via Changchun and Shenyang comprising 23 stops. It is expected to transport 37 million passengers per year by 2020 and 51 million by 2030.

Airports

Major airports include Harbin Taiping International Airport, Qiqihar Airport, Mudanjiang Airport, Jiamusi Airport and Heihe Airport. Harbin International Airport is capable of handling six million passengers every year and connects to over 70 domestic and international cities.

Waterways

Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge

The Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge was proposed in 2007 by Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, the vice-chairman of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia. The railway bridge over the Amur River will connect Tongjiang with Nizhneleninskoye, a village in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. [16]

The Chinese portion of the bridge was finished in July 2016. [17] In December 2016, work began on the Russian portion of the bridge. Completion of structural link between the two sides of the bridge was completed in March 2019. [18] [19] Opening to rail traffic has been repeatedly delayed, with the December 2019 estimate being "the end of 2020", [20] and then 3rd quarter of 2021. [21]

Administrative divisions

Heilongjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one prefecture:

Administrative divisions of Heilongjiang
Division code [22] DivisionArea in km2 [23] Population 2010 [24] SeatDivisions [25]
Districts* Counties Aut. counties CL cities
230000Heilongjiang Province454,800.0038,312,224 Harbin city5445121
230100 Harbin city53,523.5010,635,971 Songbei District 972
230200 Qiqihar city42,205.815,367,003 Jianhua District 781
230300 Jixi city22,488.461,862,161 Jiguan District 612
230400 Hegang city14,679.981,058,665 Xiangyang District 62
230500 Shuangyashan city26,483.001,462,626 Jianshan District 44
230600 Daqing city22,161.002,904,532 Sartu District 531
230700 Yichun city39,017.001,148,126 Yimei District 451
230800 Jiamusi city31,528.002,552,097 Qianjin District 433
230900 Qitaihe city6,221.42920,419 Taoshan District 31
231000 Mudanjiang city40,233.002,798,723 Dong'an District 415
231100 Heihe city66,802.651,673,898 Aihui District 123
231200 Suihua city34,964.175,416,439 Beilin District 163
232700 Daxing'anling Prefecture 46,755.00511,564 Jiagedaqi District** (de facto); Mohe city (de jure)4**21

* – including Ethnic districts
** – administrative districts not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
– not including territories within Inner Mongolia (if included: 82,928.80 km2 or 32,018.99 sq mi)

Qi Qi Ha Er Cheng Shi Feng Guang .JPG
Night of mudanjiang, china.jpg
Daqing Skyline cropped 01.jpg
The Tengfei Overpass in Jixi City.jpg
From left to right: Qiqihar, Mudanjiang, Daqing, Jixi

(Additional information regarding the last prefecture can be found at Greater Khingan.)

These 13 prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 128 county-level divisions (65 districts, 20 county-level cities, 42 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1,284 township-level divisions (473 towns, 400 townships, 58 ethnic townships, and 353 subdistricts).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [26] District area [26] City proper [26] Census date
1 Harbin [lower-alpha 1] 4,933,0545,878,93910,635,9712010-11-01
(1)Harbin (new district) [lower-alpha 1] 244,898825,634see Harbin2010-11-01
2 Daqing 1,433,6981,649,8252,904,5322010-11-01
3 Qiqihar 1,314,7201,553,7885,367,0032010-11-01
4 Mudanjiang 790,623965,1542,798,7232010-11-01
5 Jixi 746,889862,9591,862,1652010-11-01
6 Yichun [lower-alpha 2] 694,019428,3061,148,1262010-11-01
7 Jiamusi 631,357881,7112,552,0972010-11-01
8 Hegang 600,941664,4711,058,6652010-11-01
9 Qitaihe 503,678620,987920,4712010-11-01
10 Shuangyashan 481,110501,8271,462,6262010-11-01
11 Suihua 364,225877,1145,418,1532010-11-01
12 Zhaodong 358,606903,067see Suihua2010-11-01
13 Shangzhi 269,699585,386see Harbin2010-11-01
14 Wuchang 259,836881,224see Harbin2010-11-01
15 Bei'an 248,471436,444see Heihe2010-11-01
16 Tieli [lower-alpha 2] 235,148349,369see Yichun2010-11-01
17 Nehe 233,724625,892see Qiqihar2010-11-01
18 Anda 223,486472,826see Suihua2010-11-01
19 Hailin 216,633400,859see Mudanjiang2010-11-01
20 Fujin 215,237437,165see Jiamusi2010-11-01
21 Hulin 193,028317,884see Jixi2010-11-01
22 Hailun 188,461769,437see Suihua2010-11-01
23 Mishan 176,612407,451see Jixi2010-11-01
24 Wudalianchi 148,465326,391see Heihe2010-11-01
25 Heihe 147,042211,3131,673,8992010-11-01
26 Jiagedaqi [lower-alpha 3] 142,465154,359part of Daxing'anling Prefecture 2010-11-01
27 Ning'an 128,469437,452see Mudanjiang2010-11-01
28 Suifenhe 128,363132,315see Mudanjiang2010-11-01
29 Muling 112,882293,271see Mudanjiang2010-11-01
(30) Dongning [lower-alpha 4] 112,425200,716see Mudanjiang2010-11-01
31 Tongjiang 99,829179,791see Jiamusi2010-11-01
(32) Fuyuan [lower-alpha 5] 74,435126,694see Jiamusi2010-11-01
(33) Mohe [lower-alpha 6] 71,30783,414part of Daxing'anling Prefecture 2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Shuangcheng (Shuangcheng CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 The stats are reorganized after Yichun reorganization in July 2019.
  3. Jiagedaqi Administrative Zone is a special urban area jurisdiction that is de jure part of Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia but, currently de facto under Daxing'anling Prefecture control.
  4. Dongning County is currently known as Dongning CLC after census.
  5. Fuyuan County is currently known as Fuyuan CLC after census.
  6. Mohe County is currently known as Mohe CLC after census.
 
 
Most populous cities in Heilongjiang
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [27]
RankPop.RankPop.
Nangang, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China - panoramio (3).jpg
Harbin
San Yong Hu Deng Ta 2017Xia .jpg
Daqing
1 Harbin 4,860,00011 Suihua 375,100 Guo Mai Da Sha 28Ceng Fu Kan Yi Ma Lu QQ696847 - panoramio.jpg
Qiqihar
Sight of the city from the top of Xing'an Tower, Yichun, Heilongjiang, China.jpg
Yichun
2 Daqing 1,425,00012 Zhaodong 243,000
3 Qiqihar 1,094,00013 Anda 232,900
4 Yichun 765,20014 Wuchang 190,300
5 Jixi 674,50015 Shangzhi 156,600
6 Mudanjiang 672,00016 Heihe 148,000
7 Jiamusi 590,00017 Hailun 138,000
8 Hegang 526,00018 Bei'an 130,700
9 Shuangyashan 457,00019 Fujin 125,500
10 Qitaihe 418,70020 Tieli 116,300

Politics

Heilongjiang Province People's Government Hei Long Jiang Sheng Ren Min Zheng Fu Da Lou 2017Xia .jpg
Heilongjiang Province People's Government

List of Secretaries of the Chinese Communist Party Heilongjiang Committee:

  1. Zhang Qilong (张启龙; 1949–1950)
  2. Zhao Dezun (赵德尊; 1950–1953)
  3. Feng Jixin (冯纪新; 1953–1954)
  4. Ouyang Qin (欧阳钦; 1954–1965)
  5. Pan Fusheng (潘复生; 1965–1971)
  6. Wang Jiadao (汪家道; 1971–1974)
  7. Liu Guangtao (刘光涛; 1977)
  8. Yang Yichen (杨易辰; 1977–1983)
  9. Li Li'an (李力安; 1983–1985)
  10. Sun Weiben (孙维本; 1985–1994)
  11. Yue Qifeng (岳岐峰; 1994–1997)
  12. Xu Youfang (徐有芳; 1997–2003)
  13. Song Fatang (宋法棠; 2003–2005)
  14. Qian Yunlu (钱运录; 2005–2008)
  15. Ji Bingxuan (吉炳轩; 2008–2013)
  16. Wang Xiankui (王宪魁; March 2013 – April 2017)
  17. Zhang Qingwei (张庆伟; April 2017 – incumbent)

List of Governors:

  1. Yu Yifu (于毅夫; 1949–1952)
  2. Zhao Dezun (赵德尊; 1952–1953)
  3. Chen Lei (陈雷; 1953–1954)
  4. Han Guang (韩光; 1954–1956)
  5. Ouyang Qin (欧阳钦; 1956–1958)
  6. Li Fanwu (李范五; 1958–1966)
  7. Pan Fusheng (潘复生; 1967–1971)
  8. Wang Jiadao (汪家道; 1971–1974)
  9. Liu Guangtao (刘光涛; February 1977 – December 1977)
  10. Yang Yichen (杨易辰; December 1977 – 1979)
  11. Chen Lei (陈雷; 1979–1985)
  12. Hou Jie (侯捷; 1985–1989)
  13. Shao Qihui (邵奇惠; 1989–1994)
  14. Tian Fengshan (田凤山; 1994–2000)
  15. Song Fatang (宋法棠; 2000–2003)
  16. Zhang Zuoji (张左己; 2003 – December 2007)
  17. Li Zhanshu (栗战书; December 2007 – August 2010)
  18. Wang Xiankui (王宪魁; August 2010 – March 2013)
  19. Lu Hao (陆昊; March 2013 – March 2018)
  20. Wang Wentao (王文涛; March 2018 – December 2020)
  21. Hu Changsheng (胡昌升; February 2021 – present)

Economy

Heilongjiang's GDP has been rising steadily since 2003, growing 37% from 2003 to 2007. The value of the private economy reached RMB234 billion in 2006 and accounted for 37.6 percent of the GDP. In that year, the tax revenue from private enterprises hit RMB20.5 billion.

Private enterprises in Heilongjiang led the overall economic growth of the province. Many leading private enterprises have begun to emerge. The province's three major private enterprises, namely the Heilongjiang Sunflower Medicine Ltd, Qitaihe Yidaxin Coal Co., and Heilongjiang Yiyang Group, each contributed more than RMB100 million in tax revenue in 2007.[ citation needed ]

During the first decade of this century, many private investors were involved in large construction projects in Heilongjiang. In 2006, 928 large projects absorbed private capital of RMB5 million each, and 101 projects attracted RMB100 million each within the province. In line with the central government's policy to revitalize the Northeast, Heilongjiang also restructured its six pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemicals, food processing, energy, pharmaceuticals, and forest and timber processing.[ citation needed ]

In 2017, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 1.62 trillion yuan (ca. US$240 billion), with an annual growth rate of 12.2%. Its per capita GDP was 42,699 yuan (US$6,324). In 2006 the per capita disposable income of urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 11,581 yuan (US$1,667), a rise of 13% from the previous year. The per capita net income of rural residents in the province reached 4,856 yuan (US$700), a rise of 17.5% from 2007. [28]

Agriculture

Heilongjiang is home to China's largest plantations of rice, corn and soybeans, with a total of 14.37 million ha (35.5 million acres) of grain plantation area, including 4 million ha (9.9 million acres) of rice plantation and 5.5 million ha (14 million acres) of corn. [29] [30] Heilongjiang has vast tracts of black soil (chernozem), one of the most fertile soil types. [31] [32] Since the early 20th century, cultivation in the black soil belt has expanded by almost 100-fold, and after the 1960s agriculture in the region transformed to modern agriculture with heavy mechanization and an increase of fertilizer use. [31] Heilongjiang is one of the Asia's leading production areas for japonica rice, known for high quality brand rice varieties. [33] [34] The introduction of cold-resistant varieties, favorable policies and climate change have all contributed to a significant increase in rice production in recent years. [35] Commercial crops grown include beets, flax, sunflowers. [34]

Heilongjiang is also an important source of lumber for China. Pine, especially the Korean pine and larch are the most important forms of lumber produced in Heilongjiang. Forests are mostly found in the Greater Khingan Mountains and Lesser Khingan Mountains, which are also home to protected animal species such as the Siberian tiger, the red-crowned crane, and the lynx.

Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon horses and cattle; the province has the largest number of milk cows and the highest production of milk among all the province-level divisions of China.

Industry

Heilongjiang is part of northeast China, the country's traditional industrial base. Industry is focused upon coal, petroleum, lumber, machinery, and food. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for trade with Russia. Since a wave of privatization led to the closure of uncompetitive factories in the 1990s, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast China campaign to deal with this problem, promoting the private sectors as the preferred method of economic reform.

Petroleum is of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfields are an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphite are other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang. Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power, with potential capacity for 134 gigawatts of power production. [36]

Development zones

Daqing New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was constructed in April 1992 and was then approved as a national high-tech zone by the State Council later that year. Its initial zone area is 208.54 km2 (80.52 sq mi), and it recently expanded the area by 32.45 km2 (12.53 sq mi). [37]
Harbin High-tech Zone was set up in 1988 and was approved by the State Council as a national development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 34 km2 (13 sq mi) in the centralized parks, subdivided into Nangang, Haping Road and Yingbin Road Centralized Parks. The Nangang Centralized Park is designated for the incubation of high-tech projects and research and development base of enterprises as well as tertiary industries such as finance, insurance, services, catering, tourism, culture, recreation and entertainment, where the headquarters of major well-known companies and their branches in Harbin are located; the Haping Road Centralized Park is a comprehensive industrial basis for the investment projects of automobile and automobile parts manufacturing, medicines, foodstuffs, electronics, textile; the Yingbin Road Centralized Park is mainly for high-tech incubation projects, high-tech industrial development. [38]
Sino-Russia Dongning-Piurtaphca Trade Zone was approved by the State Council in 2000 and was completed in 2005. The zone has a planned area of 275.4 hectares. The Chinese part of the zone has a 22-hectare trade center with four subsidiary areas, A, B, C, and D, in which more than 6,000 stalls are already set up, mainly dealing with clothes, household appliances, food, construction materials, etc. [39]
Suifenhe Border Economic Cooperation District (Suifenhe BECD) is located in the north of Suifenhe City, and borders Russia to the east. Suifenhe BECD is the largest among the three state-level border-trade zones of Heilongjiang, in terms of investor numbers. Suifenhe BECD has a convenient transport network. The Binzhou-Suifenhe Railway, which connects the Russian Far East Railway, is an important port for export. The railway distance between Suifenhe and Harbin is 548 km (341 mi). Buguranikinai, the corresponding Russian port city, is 21 km (13 mi) away. [40]

Demographics

Heilongjiang population pyramid in 2019 China Heilongjiang pop SbA5y pyramid2019.png
Heilongjiang population pyramid in 2019
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [41] 2,029,000    
1928 [42] 3,725,000+83.6%
1936–37 [43] 3,751,000+0.7%
1947 [44] 2,844,000−24.2%
1954 [45] 11,897,309+318.3%
1964 [46] 20,118,271+69.1%
1982 [47] 32,665,546+62.4%
1990 [48] 35,214,873+7.8%
2000 [49] 36,237,576+2.9%
2010 [50] 38,312,224+5.7%
2020 31,850,088−16.9%
Established in 1923; dissolved in 1932 and incorporated into Manchukuo / Heilongjiang Province (present).
Harbin part of Heilongjiang Province until 1947–1949 and 1953–1954.
Dongsheng SAR dissolved in 1932 and incorporated into Manchukuo / Heilongjiang Province (present).
Songjiang Province dissolved in 1955 and incorporated into Heilongjiang Province.
Hejiang Province dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Songjiang Province / Heilongjiang Province (present).
Nenjiang Province dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Heilongjiang Province.

The majority of Heilongjiang's population is Han Chinese, while other ethnic minorities include the Manchus, Koreans, Mongols, Hui, Xibe, and Hezhen.

Ethnic groups in Heilongjiang (2000 census)
Nationality PopulationPercentage
Han Chinese 34,465,03995.20%
Manchu 1,037,0802.86%
Koreans 388,4581.07%
Mongol 141,4950.39%
Hui 124,0030.34%
Xibe 43,6080.12%
Hezhe 8,8860.03%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: [51]

Religion

Ji Le Temple (Temple of Bliss), a Buddhist temple in Harbin harubinJi Le Si Xuan Guan .jpg
Ji Le Temple (Temple of Bliss), a Buddhist temple in Harbin

Most of Heilongjiang's residents are either non-religious or practice Chinese folk religions, including Taoism. Manchu shamanism is practiced by many Manchu people. Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism have an important presence in the province.

Culture

Heilongjiang's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is relatively homogeneous across this region, known in Mandarin Chinese as "Dongbei" (the northeast).

Media

Heilongjiag Daily Press Group Hei Long Jiang Ri Bao Bao Ye Ji Tuan 2017.jpg
Heilongjiag Daily Press Group

Heilongjiang Television and Harbin Economy Radio serve as broadcasters.

Tourism

A Siberian tiger at Harbin Siberian Tiger Park Harbin Siberian Tiger Park 2.JPG
A Siberian tiger at Harbin Siberian Tiger Park

Harbin, the provincial capital, is a city of contrasts, with Chinese, Russian, and eclectic worldwide influences clearly apparent. Bukui Mosque, a national heritage site, is the largest glazed-tile building in the province. [52] Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant churches as well as synagogues dot the city. [53]

The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed ice sculpture exhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2,000 ice sculptures were on display at the annual event. [54]

Wudalianchi Lakes are a series of five lakes formed between 1719 and 1721 when volcanic eruption shaped one section of a tributary of the Amur into five interconnected lakes. The second lake in particular is renowned for its irregular geological sights. Lake Jingbo, in Ning'an County, is a section of the Mudan River that has been narrowed and shaped by volcanic eruption into a series of sights, including the Diaoshuilou Falls.

The province has a zoological park called "Harbin Siberian Tiger Park". [55]

Colleges and universities

Sports

Heilongjiang is in the forefront of promoting winter sports and winter-featured sports industry in China. [56] For example, it is promoting bandy as an Olympic sport. [57]

Events and leagues

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jilin</span> Province in Northeast China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Daqing</span> Prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shuangyashan</span> Prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fangzheng County</span> County in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bin County, Heilongjiang</span> County in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mulan County</span> County in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yanshou County</span> County in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tonghe County</span> County in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

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