|• Chinese||黑龙江省 (Hēilóngjiāng Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||HL / 黑 (pinyin :Hēi)|
Landscape of Jingpo Lake
Map showing the location of Heilongjiang Province
|Named for|| 黑 hēi—black |
(and largest city)
|Divisions||13 prefectures, 130 counties, 1274 townships|
|• Secretary||Zhang Qingwei|
|• Governor||Wang Wentao|
|• Total||454,800 km2 (175,600 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,690 m (5,540 ft)|
|• Density||84/km2 (220/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||28th|
|• Ethnic composition|| Han: 95%|
|• Languages and dialects||Northeastern Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HL|
|GDP (2017 )|| CNY 1.62 trillion|
USD 239.93 billion (21st)
|• per capita|| CNY 42,699 |
USD 6,324 (25th)
|HDI (2017)||0.741 (high) (12th)|
"Heilongjiang" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"Black Dragon River"|
The province takes its name from the Heilong River (Chinese name of the Amur), which marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe City along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri rivers).
Heilongjiang has significant agricultural production,and raw materials, such as timber, oil and coal.
"Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the more well known western name, Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑 (pinyin :Hēi). The Manchu name of the region is Sahaliyan ula (literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin is derived, and the Mongolian name with the same meaning is Qaramörin. It is sometimes spelt "Heilungkiang", especially in older English texts.
|History of the Priamurye region|
|also including Heilongjiang, Amur Oblast and southern part of Khabarovsk Krai|
Ancient Chinese records and other sources state that Heilongjiang was inhabited by people such as the Sushen, Buyeo, the Mohe, Balhae, and the Khitan. Mongolic Donghu people lived in Inner Mongolia and the western part of Heilongjiang.Some names are Manchu or Mongolian. The eastern portion of Heilongjiang was ruled by the kingdom of Balhae between the 7th and 10th centuries. The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) that subsequently ruled much of north China arose within the borders of modern Heilongjiang.
Heilongjiang as an administrative entity was created in 1683, during the Kangxi era of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, from the northwestern part of the Jilin province. 將軍jiāngjūn; "military leader, general" and is cognate with Japanese shōgun ), whose power extended, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk, as far north as the Stanovoy Mountains. The eastern part of what's today Heilongjiang remained under the supervision of the General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), whose power reached the East Sea of Korea. These areas deep in Manchuria were closed off to Han Chinese migration.This Heilongjiang Province only included the western part of today's Heilongjiang Province, and was under the supervision of the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiyūn) (the title is also translated as the Military Governor of Heilongjiang; jiyanggiyūn is the Manchu reading of the Chinese word
The original seat of the Military Governor of Heilongjiang, as established in 1683, was in Heilongjiang City (also known as Aigun or Heihe, or, in Manchu, Saghalien Ula), located on the Amur River. However, already in 1690 the seat of the governor was transferred to Nenjiang (Mergen) on the Nen River, and, in 1699, further south to Qiqihar. According to modern historians, the moves may have been driven by supply considerations: Nenjiang and Qiqihar are connected by a convenient waterway (Nen River) with southern Manchuria, whereas accessing Aigun (Heihe) would require either sailing all the way down the Sungari River until its confluence with the Amur and then up the Amur to Heihe, or using a portage over the Lesser Xing'an Mountains between the Nen River valley and the Amur valley. An additional advantage of Qiqihar may have been its location at the junction of a northbound road (to Nenjiang) and a westbound one (to Mongolia), enabling its garrison to defend both against the Russians and the Ölöt Mongols.
Little Qing Military presence existed north of Aigun. According to the 18th- and early-20th-century European sources, and the reports of the Russians in the 1850s, the farthest Qing "advance guard" post was at Ulusu-Modon (Ulussu-Mudan) (Chinese :乌鲁苏穆丹), near the Amur River's famous S-shaped meander. (The post was actually on the left bank of the river, lost to the Russians in 1860.)
In 1858 and 1860, the Qing government was forced to give up all land beyond the Amur and Ussuri Rivers to the Russian Empire, cutting off the Qing Empire from the Sea of Japan and giving Heilongjiang its present northern and eastern borders. At the same time, Manchuria was opened to Han Chinese migration by the Qing government. By the early twentieth century, due to the Chuang Guandong , the Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group in the region.
In 1931, Japanese forces invaded Heilongjiang. In 1932, the Japanese completed their conquest of the province, which became part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
In 1945, Japanese forces in Manchuria were defeated by the Soviet Army. During the Chinese Civil War, Soviet forces aided the Chinese communists. Heilongjiang became the first province to be completely controlled by the communists and Harbin the first major city to be controlled by them.
At the beginning of communist rule, Heilongjiang included only the western portion of the present-day province, and had its capital at Qiqihar. The remaining area was the province of Songjiang; its capital was Harbin. In 1954, these two provinces were merged into present-day Heilongjiang. During the Cultural Revolution, Heilongjiang was also expanded to include Hulunbuir League and some other areas previously in Inner Mongolia; this has since mostly been reversed.
Heilongjiang is a land of varied topography. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the Greater Khingan Range and Lesser Khingan Range, Zhangguangcai Mountains, Laoye Mountains, and Wanda Mountains. The highest peak is Mount Datudingzi at 1,690 metres (5,540 ft), located on the border with Jilin province. The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.
The east and southwest of the province, which are relatively flat and low in altitude, contain the Muling River, the Naoli River, the Songhua River, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amur, while the northern border forms part of the Amur valley. Xingkai Lake (or Khanka Lake) is found on the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai.
A humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa or Dwb) predominates in the province, though areas in the far north are subarctic (Köppen Dwc). −31 to −15 °C (−24 to 5 °F) in January, and summers are short and warm to very warm with an average of 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F) in July. The annual average rainfall is 400 to 700 millimetres (16 to 28 in), concentrated heavily in summer. Clear weather is prevalent throughout the year, and in the spring, the Songnen Plain and the Sanjiang Plain provide abundant sources of wind energy.Winters are long and bitter, with an average of
The province's largest cities include Harbin, Qiqihar, Mudanjiang, Jiamusi, Daqing, Jixi, Shuangyashan, Hegang, Qitaihe, Yichun, and Heihe.
|City||July (°C)||July (°F)||January (°C)||January (°F)|
A road and highway proposal was accepted in 2006; the project plans to develop 38,000 kilometres (24,000 miles) of new roads and expand Heilongjiang's total road network to 2,300,000 kilometres (1,400,000 miles).
There are 60 rail lines of around 5,300 kilometres (3,300 miles) including a section of the Asia-Europe Continental Bridge. The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway, completed in 2012, stretches from Harbin, Heilongjiang's capital, to Dalian in Liaoning province via Changchun and Shenyang comprising 23 stops. It is expected to transport 37 million passengers per year by 2020 and 51 million by 2030.
Major airports include Harbin Taiping International Airport, Qiqihar Airport, Mudanjiang Airport, Jiamusi Airport and Heihe Airport. Harbin International Airport is capable of handling six million passengers every year and connects to over 70 domestic and international cities.
The Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge was proposed in 2007 by Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, the vice-chairman of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia. The railway bridge over the Amur River will connect Tongjiang with Nizhneleninskoye, a village in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.
The Chinese portion of the bridge was finished in July 2016.In December 2016, work began on the Russian portion of the bridge. The bridge is expected to open in October 2019.
Heilongjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one prefecture:
|Administrative divisions of Heilongjiang|
|Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|Districts*||Counties||Aut. counties||CL cities|
|230000||Heilongjiang Province||454,800.00||38,312,224||Harbin city||54||45||1||21|
|230100||Harbin city||53,523.50||10,635,971||Songbei District||9||7||2|
|230200||Qiqihar city||42,205.81||5,367,003||Jianhua District||7||8||1|
|230300||Jixi city||22,488.46||1,862,161||Jiguan District||6||1||2|
|230400||Hegang city||14,679.98||1,058,665||Xiangyang District||6||2|
|230500||Shuangyashan city||22,036.19||1,462,626||Jianshan District||4||4|
|230600||Daqing city||21,222.03||2,904,532||Sartu District||5||3||1|
|230700||Yichun city||32,759.66||1,148,126||Yimei District||4||5||1|
|230800||Jiamusi city||32,704.00||2,552,097||Qianjin District||4||3||3|
|230900||Qitaihe city||6,221.42||920,419||Taoshan District||3||1|
|231000||Mudanjiang city||38,679.80||2,798,723||Dong'an District||4||1||5|
|231100||Heihe city||66,802.65||1,673,898||Aihui District||1||2||3|
|231200||Suihua city||34,964.17||5,416,439||Beilin District||1||6||3|
|232700||Daxing'anling Prefecture||46,755.00≈||511,564||Jiagedaqi District** (de facto); Mohe city (de jure)||4**||2||1|
* – including Ethnic districts
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Heilongjiang Province||黑龙江省||Hēilóngjiāng Shěng|
|Harbin city||哈尔滨市||Hā'ěrbīn Shì|
|Qiqihar city||齐齐哈尔市||Qíqíhā'ěr Shì|
|Jixi city||鸡西市||Jīxī Shì|
|Hegang city||鹤岗市||Hègǎng Shì|
|Shuangyashan city||双鸭山市||Shuāngyāshān Shì|
|Daqing city||大庆市||Dàqìng Shì|
|Yichun city||伊春市||Yīchūn Shì|
|Jiamusi city||佳木斯市||Jiāmùsī Shì|
|Qitaihe city||七台河市||Qītáihé Shì|
|Mudanjiang city||牡丹江市||Mǔdānjiāng Shì|
|Heihe city||黑河市||Hēihé Shì|
|Suihua city||绥化市||Suíhuà Shì|
|Daxing'anling Prefecture||大兴安岭地区||Dàxīng'ānlǐng Dìqū|
(Additional information regarding the last prefecture can be found at Greater Khingan.)
These 13 prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 128 county-level divisions (65 districts, 20 county-level cities, 42 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1,284 township-level divisions (473 towns, 400 townships, 58 ethnic townships, and 353 subdistricts).
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(1)||Harbin (new district)||244,898||825,634||see Harbin||2010-11-01|
|26||Jiagedaqi||142,465||154,359||part of Daxing'anling Prefecture||2010-11-01|
|(33)||Mohe||71,307||83,414||part of Daxing'anling Prefecture||2010-11-01|
List of Secretaries of the CPC Heilongjiang Committee:
List of Governors:
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The agriculture of Heilongjiang, heavily defined by its cold climate, is based upon crops such as soybeans, maize, wheat and potatoes.Commercial crops grown include beets, flax, sunflowers and even rice.
Heilongjiang is also an important source of lumber for China. Pine, especially the Korean pine and larch are the most important forms of lumber produced in Heilongjiang. Forests are mostly to be found in the Greater Khingan Mountains and Lesser Khingan Mountains, which are also home to protected animal species such as the Siberian tiger, the red-crowned crane, and the lynx.
Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon horses and cattle; the province has the largest number of milk cows and the highest production of milk among all the province-level divisions of China.
Petroleum is of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfields are an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphite are other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang. Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power, with potential capacity for 134 Gigawatts of power production.
Heilongjiang is part of northeast China, the country's traditional industrial base. Industry is focused upon coal, petroleum, lumber, machinery, and food. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for trade with Russia. Since a wave of privatization led to the closure of uncompetitive factories in the 1990s, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast China campaign to deal with this problem, promoting the private sectors as the preferred method of economic reform.
At least five miners were killed after a coal mine fire in Heilongjiang it was reported on 21 September 2008.
Its GDP has been rising steadily since 2003, growing 37% from 2003 to 2007. The value of the private economy reached RMB234 billion in 2006 and accounted for 37.6 percent of the GDP. In that year, the tax revenue from private enterprises hit RMB20.5 billion.
Private enterprises in Heilongjiang led the overall economic growth of the province. Many leading private enterprises have begun to emerge. The province's three major private enterprises, namely the Heilongjiang Sunflower Medicine Ltd, Qitaihe Yidaxin Coal Co., and Heilongjiang Yiyang Group, each contributed more than RMB100 million in tax revenue in 2007.[ citation needed ]
During the first decade of this century, many private investors were involved in large construction projects in Heilongjiang. In 2006, 928 large projects absorbed private capital of RMB5 million each, and 101 projects attracted RMB100 million each within the province. In line with the central government's policy to revitalize the Northeast, Heilongjiang also restructured its six pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemicals, food processing, energy, pharmaceuticals, and forest and timber processing.[ citation needed ]
In 2017, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 1.62 trillion yuan (ca. US$240 billion), with an annual growth rate of 12.2%. Its per capita GDP was 42,699 yuan (US$6,324). In 2006 the per capita disposable income of urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 11,581 yuan (US$1,667), a rise of 13% from the previous year. The per capita net income of rural residents in the province reached 4,856 yuan (US$700), a rise of 17.5% from 2007.
|Established in 1923; dissolved in 1932 and incorporated into Manchukuo / Heilongjiang Province (present).|
Harbin part of Heilongjiang Province until 1947–1949 and 1953–1954.
Dongsheng SAR dissolved in 1932 and incorporated into Manchukuo / Heilongjiang Province (present).
Songjiang Province dissolved in 1955 and incorporated into Heilongjiang Province.
Hejiang Province dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Songjiang Province / Heilongjiang Province (present).
Nenjiang Province dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Heilongjiang Province.
The majority of Heilongjiang's population is Han Chinese, while other ethnic minorities include the Manchus, Koreans, Mongols, Hui, Xibe, and Hezhen
|Ethnic groups in Heilongjiang (2000 census)|
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Most of Heilongjiang's residents are either non-religious or practice Chinese folk religions, including Taoism. Manchu shamanism is practiced by many Manchu people. Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism have an important presence in the province.
Heilongjiang's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is relatively homogeneous across this region, known in Mandarin Chinese as "Dongbei" (the northeast).
Heilongjiang Television and Harbin Economy Radio serve as broadcasters.
Harbin, the provincial capital, is a city of contrasts, with Chinese, Russian, and eclectic worldwide influences clearly apparent. Bukui Mosque, a national heritage site, is the largest glazed-tile building in the province.Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant churches as well as synagogues dot the city.
The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed ice sculpture exhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2,000 ice sculptures were on display at the annual event.
Wudalianchi Lakes are a series of five lakes formed between 1719 and 1721 when volcanic eruption shaped one section of a tributary of the Amur into five interconnected lakes. The second lake in particular is renowned for its irregular geological sights. Lake Jingbo, in Ning'an County, is a section of the Mudan River that has been narrowed and shaped by volcanic eruption into a series of sights, including the Diaoshuilou Falls.
The province has a zoological park called "Harbin Siberian Tiger Park".
Heilongjiang is in the forefront of promoting winter sports and winter-featured sports industry in China.For example, it is promoting bandy as an Olympic sport.
Liaoning is a coastal province in Northeast China, and is the smallest, southernmost, but the most populous province in the region. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, it is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Shaanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).
Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. The name "Jilin" translates to "Auspicious Forest" in Chinese, and originates from ᡤᡳᡵᡳᠨ a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river".
Jiangxi is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.
East China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.
Shuangyashan is a coal mining prefecture-level city located in the eastern part Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, bordering Russia's Khabarovsk and Primorsky krais to the east. The city's name means a pair-of-ducks mountains and refers to two peaks northeast of the city. In 2007 it had a GDP of RMB 20.6 billion with a 14.2% growth rate.
Qiqihar is the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province of China, located in the west central part of the province. The built-up area made up of Longsha, Tiefeng and Jianhua districts had 979,517 inhabitants, while the total population of the prefecture-level city was 5,367,003 at the 2010 census. These are mainly Han Chinese, though the city is also home to thirty-four minorities including Manchus, Daur, and Mongols. Close to Qiqihar are numerous wetlands and the Zhalong Nature Reserve, famous in China for being home to numerous red-crowned cranes.
An autonomous region is a first-level administrative division of China. Like Chinese provinces, an autonomous region has its own local government, but an autonomous region has more legislative rights. An autonomous region is the highest level of minority autonomous entity in China, which has a comparably higher population of a particular minority ethnic group.
Heihe is a prefecture-level city of northern Heilongjiang province, China, located on the Russian border, on the south bank of the Heilong Jiang, across the river from Blagoveshchensk. Heihe has an urban population of about 211,313, while the total population of the prefecture-level city is 1,673,893. In 2015, Heihe had a GDP of RMB 44.78 billion.
Mudanjiang, alternately romanized as Mutankiang, is a prefecture-level city in the southeast part of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. It was called Botankou under Japanese occupation. It serves as a regional transport hub with a railway junction and an international airport connecting with several major Chinese cities as well as Incheon International Airport serving Seoul. Mudanjiang is located 248 km (154 mi) from Vladivostok, Russia. In 2011 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 93.48 billion with a 15.1% growth rate. In 2015 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 118.63 billion.
Yichun is a prefecture-level city on the Songhua river in Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. The city is separated from Russia by the Amur River and has an international border of 246 kilometres (153 mi). At the 2010 census, Yichun has a total population of 1,148,126 while 729,202 people live in 15 districts separated by forests. The greening rate of Yichun is up to 83%. The nickname of Yichun is Lindu.
Suihua is a prefecture-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, adjacent to Yichun to the east, Harbin, the provincial capital, to the south, Daqing to the west and Heihe to the north. It has 5,418,453 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 877,114 lived in the built-up area made of Beilin District.
Acheng District, formerly Acheng City, is one of nine districts of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, covering part of the southeastern suburbs. The district was approved to establish from the former Acheng City (阿城市) by the Chinese State Council on August 15, 2006. As of 2010, it had a population of 596,856 residing in an area of 2,680 square kilometres (1,030 sq mi), and is 29 km (18 mi) southeast of downtown Harbin, 190 km (120 mi) north of Jilin City, and around 50 km (31 mi) south of the Songhua River. It lies within the basin of and until 1909 was considered synonymous with the Ashi River which gave its name to the Jurchen Jin Dynasty. The district administers nine subdistricts, eight towns, one township, and one ethnic township. It borders Daowai District to the north, Bin County to the northeast, Shangzhi to the southeast, and Wuchang to the south, Shuangcheng District to the west, and Pingfang and Xiangfang Districts to the northwest.
South Central China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the provinces of Guangdong, Hainan, Henan, Hubei and Hunan and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, however the two provincial-level special administrative regions (SAR) are also often included under South Central China: Hong Kong and Macau. This part is often divided into South China (华南) and Central China (华中) regions due to difference between civilian customs.
Daoli District is one of nine districts of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, forming part of the city's urban core. It is located on the Songhua River. It borders the districts of Songbei to the north, Daowai to the northeast, Nangang to the east, and Shuangcheng to the south, as well as the prefecture-level city of Suihua to the northwest.
Daowai District is one of nine districts of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, forming part of the city's urban core. It borders the districts of Hulan to the north, Acheng to the southeast, Xiangfang to the south, Nangang to the southwest, Songbei to the west, as well as Bin County to the east.
Bin County, or Binxian, is a county of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang. Its seat is about 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of central Harbin. It borders Bayan County and Mulan County to the north, Fangzheng County to the east, Yanshou County to the southeast, Shangzhi to the south, Acheng District to the southwest, Daowai District to the west, and Hulan District to the northwest.
Yanshou County is a county of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang. It borders Fangzheng County to the north, Shangzhi to the south, and Bin County to the northwest.
South China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context.
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