Hubei

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Hubei Province

湖北省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese湖北省 (Húběi Shěng)
  AbbreviationHB / (pinyin: È)
Hubei in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Hubei Province
Coordinates: 31°12′N112°18′E / 31.2°N 112.3°E / 31.2; 112.3 Coordinates: 31°12′N112°18′E / 31.2°N 112.3°E / 31.2; 112.3
Capital
(and largest city)
Wuhan
Divisions13 prefectures, 102 counties, 1235 townships
Government
   Secretary Jiang Chaoliang
  Governor Wang Xiaodong (acting)
Area
  Total185,900 km2 (71,800 sq mi)
Area rank 13th
Highest elevation
3,105 m (10,187 ft)
Population
(2015) [3]
  Total58,500,000
  Rank 9th
  Density310/km2 (820/sq mi)
  Density rank 12th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han: 95.6%
Tujia: 3.7%
Miao: 0.4%
  Languages and dialects Southwestern Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, Gan
ISO 3166 code CN-HB
GDP (2017) CNY 3.65 trillion
USD 540.94 billion [4] (7th)
 • per capita CNY 61,971
USD 9,179 (11th)
HDI (2014)0.754 [5] (high) (13th)
Website www.hubei.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Hubei
Hubei (Chinese characters).svg
"Hubei" in Chinese characters
Chinese 湖北
Postal Hupeh
Literal meaning"North of the (Dongting) Lake"

Hubei (湖北; formerly romanized as Hupeh), is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. [6] The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China.

Provinces of China Peoples Republic of China province-level subdivision

Provincial-level administrative divisions, or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. All but Taiwan Province and a small fraction of Fujian Province are controlled by the People's Republic of China.

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Central China Geographic and cultural region

Central China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the central area of China. This region includes the provinces of Henan, Hubei and Hunan, as Jiangxi is sometimes also regarded to be part of this region. Central China is now officially part of South Central China governed by the People's Republic of China. In the context of the Rise of Central China Plan by the State Council of the People's Republic of China in 2004, surrounding provinces including Shanxi, Anhui, are also defined as regions of Central China development zones.

Contents

Hubei is officially abbreviated to " " (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei is " " (Chǔ), after the powerful State of Chu that existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty. It borders Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, and Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located at Yichang, in the west of the province.

E (state) vassal state

The State of E, whose Middle and Old Chinese name has been reconstructed as Ngak, was an ancient Chinese state in the area of present-day Henan and Hubei in China from around the 12th century BCE until its overthrow in 863 BCE. It was a vassal of the Shang state and its ruler was one of the Three Ducal Ministers appointed by Dixin of Shang, who is known pejoratively as King Zhou of Shang.

Chu (state) ancient chinese state

Chu was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state. From King Wu of Chu in the early 8th century BCE, the rulers of Chu declared themselves kings on an equal footing with the Zhou kings. Though initially inconsequential, removed to the south of the Zhou heartland and practising differing customs, Chu began a series of administrative reforms, becoming a successful expansionist state during the Spring and Autumn period. With its continued expansion Chu became a great Warring States period power, until it was overthrown by the Qin in 223 BCE.

Henan Province

Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州) which literally means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained China's cultural, economical, and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago.

History

The Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures. [7] [8] By the Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BC), the territory of today's Hubei was part of the powerful State of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou dynasty, and it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north; but it was also a culturally unique blend of northern and southern culture, and was a powerful state that held onto much of the middle and lower Yangtze River, with power extending northwards into the North China Plain. [9]

Spring and Autumn period period of ancient Chinese history

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius.

Zhou dynasty Chinese dynasty

The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. The military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted initially from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years.

North China Plain plain

The North China Plain is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in late Paleogene and Neogene and then modified by the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China. The plain is bordered to the north by the Yanshan Mountains, to the west by the Taihang Mountains, to the south by the Dabie and Tianmu Mountains, and to the east by the Yellow Sea. The Yellow River flows through the middle of the plain into the Bohai Sea.

Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th-century BC, Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Jiangling County, Hubei Chinese silk, 4th Century BC.JPG
Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th-century BC, Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Jiangling County, Hubei

During the Warring States period (475–221 BC) Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest (in what is now Shaanxi province), which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin, then (in 278 BC) its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as part of Qin's bid for the conquest of all China.[ citation needed ]

Warring States period Era in ancient Chinese history

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.

Qin (state) Chinese feudal state

Qin was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. Traditionally dated to 897 B.C., it took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the Rong; its position at the western edge of Chinese civilization permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in the North China Plain. Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified China in 221 BC under Shi Huangdi. The empire it established was short-lived but greatly influential on later Chinese history.

Shaanxi Province

Shaanxi, is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.

Qin founded the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the first unified state in the region. Qin was succeeded by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, which established the province ( zhou ) of Jingzhou in what is now Hubei and Hunan. The Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods. [10] Towards the end of the Han dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China; but in the Battle of Red Cliffs, warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan drove Cao Cao out of Jingzhou. Liu Bei then took control of Jingzhou; he went on to conquer Yizhou (the Sichuan Basin), but lost Jingzhou to Sun Quan; for the next few decades Jingzhou was controlled by the Wu Kingdom, ruled by Sun Quan and his successors.[ citation needed ]

Qin dynasty Dynasty that ruled in China from 221 to 206 BC

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. Named for its heartland in Qin state, the dynasty was founded by Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of Qin. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the Legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the fourth century BC, during the Warring States period. In the mid and late third century BC, the Qin state carried out a series of swift conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou dynasty, and eventually conquering the other six of the Seven Warring States. Its 15 years was the shortest major dynasty in Chinese history, consisting of only two emperors, but inaugurated an imperial system that lasted from 221 BC, with interruption and adaptation, until 1912 CE.

Han dynasty 3rd-century BC to 3rd-century AD Chinese dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).

Hunan Province

Hunan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China; it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west, and Chongqing to the northwest. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area.

A family's ancestral hall, Yangxin County LonggangZhen-NanyangShidi-0025.jpg
A family's ancestral hall, Yangxin County

The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled (but increasingly Sinicized) north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the Sui dynasty in 589. In 617 the Tang dynasty replaced Sui, and later on the Tang dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuit in the south; Shannandong Circuit in the west, and Huainan Circuit in the east. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan in the center, Wu (later Southern Tang) to the east, and the Five Dynasties to the north.[ citation needed ]

Han Chinese ethnic group

The Han Chinese, Hanzu, Han people, are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China. They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese people are mostly concentrated in mainland China and in Taiwan. Han Chinese people also make up three quarters of the total population of Singapore.

Sui dynasty dynasty that ruled over China from 581 to 618

The Sui dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Chinese in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities within its territory. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which largely inherited its foundation.

Tang dynasty State in Chinese history

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China spanning the 7th to 10th centuries. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day.

The Song dynasty reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered the region in 1279, and under their rule the province of Huguang was established, covering Hubei, Hunan, and parts of Guangdong and Guangxi. During the Mongol rule, in 1334, Hubei was devastated by an outbreak of the Black Death, striking England, Belgium, and Italy by June 1348, which according to Chinese sources spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia. [11]

The Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng. The Manchu Qing dynasty which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, however, continued to maintain a Viceroy of Huguang, one of the most well-known being Zhang Zhidong, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei (especially Wuhan) into a prosperous center of commerce and industry. The Huangshi/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining and metallurgy.[ citation needed ]

In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei; this government was later merged into Chiang Kai-shek's government in Nanjing. During World War II the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan while the western parts remained under Chinese control.[ citation needed ]

During the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival Red Guard factions. In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident ("July 20th Incident"), an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution. [12]

As the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1960s, the Xianning prefecture of Hubei was chosen as the site of Project 131, an underground military command headquarters.[ citation needed ]

The province—and Wuhan in particular—suffered severely from the 1954 Yangtze River Floods. Large-scale dam construction followed, with the Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River near Yichang started in 1970 and completed in 1988; the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, further upstream, began in 1993. In the following years, authorities resettled millions of people from western Hubei to make way for the construction of the dam. A number of smaller dams have been constructed on the Yangtze's tributaries as well.[ citation needed ]

Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng Wuhanbells.jpg
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng
Yellow Crane Tower Yellow Crane Tower in 20060430.jpg
Yellow Crane Tower

Geography

Hubei in 1936 Ya Xin Di Xue She 1936Nian <<Xiu Zhen Zhong Hua Quan Tu >> --10Hu Bei Sheng .jpg
Hubei in 1936
Boats on the Yangtze River, upstream from the Three Gorges Hubei-Yichang.JPG
Boats on the Yangtze River, upstream from the Three Gorges
Qichun countryside Qichun countryside.JPG
Qichun countryside

The Jianghan Plain takes up most of central and southern Hubei, while the west and the peripheries are more mountainous, with ranges such as the Wudang Mountains, the Jing Mountains, the Daba Mountains, and the Wu Mountains (in rough north-to-south order). The Dabie Mountains lie to the northeast of the Janghan Plain, on the border with Henan and Anhui; the Tongbai Mountains lie to the north on the border with Henan; to the southeast, the Mufu Mountains form the border with Jiangxi. The highest peak in Hubei is Shennong Peak, found in the Daba Mountains of the forestry area of Shennongjia; it has an altitude of 3105 m.[ citation needed ]

Fishermen on the Fushui River, Yangxin County Yangxin-Fushui-River-fishermen-0044.jpg
Fishermen on the Fushui River, Yangxin County

The two major rivers of Hubei are the Yangtze River and its left tributary, the Han River; they lend their names to the Jianghan Plain- Jiang representing the Yangtze and han representing the Han River. The Yangtze River enters Hubei from the west via the Three Gorges; the eastern half of the Three Gorges (Xiling Gorge and part of Wu Gorge) lie in western Hubei, while the western half is in neighbouring Chongqing. The Han River enters the province from the northwest. After crossing most of the province, the two great rivers meet at the center of Wuhan, the provincial capital.

Among the notable tributaries of the Yangtze within the province are the Shen Nong Stream (a small northern tributary, severely affected by the Three Gorges Dam project); the Qing, a major waterway of southwestern Hubei; the Huangbo near Yichang; and the Fushui River in the southeast.[ citation needed ]

Snow is comparatively rare in Wuhan Huazhong University of Science and Technology - snow - P1050012.JPG
Snow is comparatively rare in Wuhan

Thousands of lakes dot the landscape of Hubei's Jianghan Plain, giving Hubei the name of "Province of Lakes"; the largest of these lakes are Liangzi Lake and Hong Lake. The numerous hydrodams have created a number of large reservoirs, the largest of which is the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han River, on the border between Hubei and Henan.[ citation needed ]

Hubei has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa or Cwa under the Köppen climate classification), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold, with average temperatures of 1 to 6 °C (34 to 43 °F) in January, while summers are hot and humid, with average temperatures of 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 °F) in July; punishing temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or above are widely associated with Wuhan, the provincial capital. The mountainous districts of western Hubei, in particular Shennongjia, with their cooler summers, attract numerous visitors from Wuhan and other lowland cities.[ citation needed ]

Besides the capital Wuhan, other important cities are Jingmen; Shiyan, a center of automotive industry and the gateway to the Wudang Mountains; Yichang, the main base for the gigantic hydroelectric projects of southwestern Hubei; and Shashi.[ citation needed ]

Administrative divisions

Hubei is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions (of which there are twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one autonomous prefecture), as well as three directly administered county-level cities (all sub-prefecture-level cities) and one directly administered county-level forestry area. At the end of 2017, the total population is 59.02 million.

Administrative divisions of Hubei
Hubei prfc map.png

    Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities

Division code [13] DivisionArea in km2 [14] Population 2010 [15] SeatDivisions [16]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities*
 420000Hubei Province185900.0057,237,740 Wuhan city3936226
1420100 Wuhan city8549.099,785,392 Jiang'an District 13
4420200 Huangshi city4582.852,429,318 Xialu District 411
7420300 Shiyan city23674.413,340,843 Maojian District 341
12420500 Yichang city21227.004,059,686 Xiling District 5323
9420600 Xiangyang city19724.415,500,307 Xiangcheng District 333
2420700 Ezhou city1593.541,048,672 Echeng District 3
5420800 Jingmen city12192.572,873,687 Dongbao District 212
11420900 Xiaogan city8922.724,814,542 Xiaonan District 133
6421000 Jingzhou city14068.685,691,707 Shashi District 233
3421100 Huanggang city17446.636,162,072 Huangzhou District 172
10421200 Xianning city9749.842,462,583 Xian'an District 141
8421300 Suizhou city9614.942,162,222 Zengdu District 111
13422800 Enshi Autonomous Prefecture 24061.253,290,294 Enshi city62
16429004 Xiantao city**2538.001,175,085 Jingling Subdistrict 1
15429005 Qianjiang city**2004.00946,277 Yuanlin Subdistrict 1
14429006 Tianmen city**2,622.001,418,913 Shazui Subdistrict 1
17429021 Shennongjia Forestry District **3253.0076,140 Songbai town1

* - including Forestry district
** - Directly administered county-level divisions

Farmers ploughing a field in Xian'an District, Xianning Xianning-fields-9731.jpg
Farmers ploughing a field in Xian'an District, Xianning

The thirteen prefecture-level divisions and four directly administered county-level divisions of Hubei are subdivided into 103 county-level divisions (39 districts, 24 county-level cities, 37 counties, 2 autonomous counties, 1 forestry district; the directly administered county-level divisions are included here). Those are in turn divided into 1234 township-level divisions (737 towns, 215 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 273 subdistricts).[ citation needed ]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [17] District area [17] City proper [17] Census date
1 Wuhan 7,541,5279,785,3889,785,3882010-11-01
2 Xiangyang [lower-alpha 1] 1,433,0572,199,6905,500,3072010-11-01
3 Yichang 1,049,3631,411,3804,059,6862010-11-01
4 Jingzhou 904,1571,154,0865,691,7072010-11-01
5 Shiyan [lower-alpha 2] 724,016767,9203,340,8412010-11-01
(5)Shiyan (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 173,085558,355see Shiyan2010-11-01
6 Huangshi 691,963691,9632,429,3182010-11-01
7 Tianmen 612,5151,418,9131,418,9132010-11-01
8 Ezhou 607,7391,048,6681,048,6682010-11-01
9 Xiaogan 582,403908,2664,814,5422010-11-01
10 Xiantao 553,0291,175,0851,175,0852010-11-01
11 Hanchuan 468,8681,015,507see Xiaogan2010-11-01
12 Daye 449,998909,724see Huangshi2010-11-01
13 Zaoyang 442,3671,004,741see Xiangyang2010-11-01
14 Zhongxiang 439,0191,022,514see Jingmen2010-11-01
15 Qianjiang 437,757946,277946,2772010-11-01
16 Jingmen 426,119632,9542,873,6872010-11-01
17 Suizhou 393,173618,5822,162,2222010-11-01
18 Xianning 340,723512,5172,462,5832010-11-01
19 Enshi 320,107749,574part of Enshi Prefecture 2010-11-01
20 Macheng 302,671849,090see Huanggang2010-11-01
21 Yingcheng 302,026593,812see Xiaogan2010-11-01
22 Honghu 278,685819,446see Jingzhou2010-11-01
23 Guangshui 272,402755,910see Suizhou2010-11-01
24 Songzi 271,514765,911see Jingzhou2010-11-01
25 Wuxue 270,882644,247see Huanggang2010-11-01
26 Huanggang 267,860366,7696,162,0692010-11-01
(27) Jingshan [lower-alpha 3] 266,341636,776see Jingmen2010-11-01
28 Anlu 237,409568,590see Xiaogan2010-11-01
29 Zhijiang 218,396495,995see Yichang2010-11-01
30 Shishou 213,851577,022see Jingzhou2010-11-01
31 Laohekou 212,645471,482see Xiangyang2010-11-01
32 Chibi 202,542478,410see Xianning2010-11-01
33 Yicheng 201,945512,530see Xiangyang2010-11-01
34 Lichuan 195,749654,094part of Enshi Prefecture 2010-11-01
35 Danjiangkou 190,021443,755see Shiyan2010-11-01
36 Dangyang 183,823468,293see Yichang2010-11-01
37 Yidu 176,233384,598see Yichang2010-11-01
  1. Formerly known as Xiangfan PLC until 2 December 2010.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Yunyang (Yunxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. Jingshan County is currently known as Jingshan CLC after census.

Politics

Secretaries of the CPC Hubei Committee:

  1. Li Xiannian (李先念): 1949−1954
  2. Wang Renzhong (王任重): 1954−1966
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1966−1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1970−1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973−1978
  6. Chen Pixian (陈丕显): 1978−1982
  7. Guan Guangfu (关广富): 1983−1994
  8. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1994−2001
  9. Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 2001
  10. Yu Zhengsheng (俞正声): 2001−2007
  11. Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2007−2011
  12. Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2011−2016
  13. Jiang Chaoliang (蒋超良): 2016−present

Governors of Hubei:

  1. Li Xiannian (李先念): 1949−1954
  2. Liu Zihou (刘子厚): 1954−1956
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1956−1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1968−1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973−1978
  6. Chen Pixian (陈丕显): 1978−1980
  7. Han Ningfu (韩宁夫): 1980−1982
  8. Huang Zhizhen (黄知真): 1982−1986
  9. Guo Zhenqian (郭振乾): 1986−1990
  10. Guo Shuyan (郭树言): 1990−1993
  11. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1993−1995
  12. Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 1995−2001
  13. Zhang Guoguang (张国光): 2001−2002
  14. Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2002−2007
  15. Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2007−2010
  16. Wang Guosheng (王国生): 2010−2016
  17. Wang Xiaodong (王晓东): 2016−present

Economy

Rice fields in Tongshan County Tongshan-County-rice-fields-9883.jpg
Rice fields in Tongshan County

Hubei is often called the "Land of Fish and Rice" (鱼米之乡). Important agricultural products in Hubei include cotton, rice, wheat, and tea, while industries include automobiles, metallurgy, machinery, power generation, textiles, foodstuffs and high-tech commodities. [18]

Mineral resources that can be found in Hubei in significant quantities include borax, hongshiite, wollastonite, garnet, marlstone, iron, phosphorus, copper, gypsum, rutile, rock salt, gold amalgam, manganese and vanadium. The province's recoverable reserves of coal stand at 548 million tons, which is modest compared to other Chinese provinces. Hubei is well known for its mines of fine turquoise and green faustite.[ citation needed ]

A quarry in Yiling District west of Yichang. Rocks are lined up on the roadside to attract customers Yiling-District-roadside-quarry-4851.jpg
A quarry in Yiling District west of Yichang. Rocks are lined up on the roadside to attract customers

Once completed, the Three Gorges Dam in western Hubei will provide plentiful hydroelectricity, with an estimated annual power production of 84,700 Gwh. Existing hydroelectric stations include Gezhouba, Danjiangkou, Geheyan, Hanjiang, Duhe, Huanglongtan, Bailianhe, Lushui and Fushui.

Hubei's economy ranks 11th in the country and its nominal GDP for 2011 was 1.959 trillion yuan (US$311 billion) and a per capita of 21,566 RMB (US$2,863). The government of Hubei hopes to keep the GDP growth rate above 10% annually and double per capita GDP by 2020. [18]

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [24] 29,590,000    
1928 [25] 26,699,000−9.8%
1936-37 [26] 25,516,000−4.4%
1947 [27] 20,976,000−17.8%
1952 [28] 21,470,000+2.4%
1954 [29] 27,789,693+29.4%
1964 [30] 33,709,344+21.3%
1982 [31] 47,804,150+41.8%
1990 [32] 53,969,210+12.9%
2000 [33] 59,508,870+10.3%
2010 [34] 57,237,740−3.8%
Wuhan (Hankou) part of Hubei Province until 1927; dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Hubei Province.

Han Chinese form the dominant ethnic group in Hubei. A considerable Miao and Tujia population live in the southwestern part of the province, especially in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture.

On October 18, 2009, Chinese officials began to relocate 330,000 residents from the Hubei and Henan provinces that will be affected by the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han river. The reservoir is part of the larger South-North Water Transfer Project. [35]

Religion

Religion in Hubei [36] [note 1]

   Christianity (0.58%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (92.92%)

The predominant religions in Hubei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 6.5% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 0.58% of the population identifies as Christian, declining from 0.83% in 2004. [36]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 92.92% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Culture

Hubei Provincial Museum Hubei Provincial Museum.JPG
Hubei Provincial Museum
Hubei Museum of Art Hubei-Museum-of-Art-0142.jpg
Hubei Museum of Art
Hubei Provincial Library Hubei Provincial Library.jpg
Hubei Provincial Library

People in Hubei speak Mandarin dialects; most of these dialects are classified as Southwestern Mandarin dialects, a group that also encompasses the Mandarin dialects of most of southwestern China.[ citation needed ]

Perhaps the most celebrated element of Hubei cuisine is the Wuchang bream, a freshwater bream that is commonly steamed.[ citation needed ]

Types of traditional Chinese opera popular in Hubei include Hanju (simplified Chinese :汉剧; traditional Chinese :漢劇; pinyin :Hàn Jù) and Chuju (楚剧; Chǔ Jù).

The Shennongjia area is the alleged home of the Yeren , a wild undiscovered hominid that lives in the forested hills.

The people of Hubei are given the uncomplimentary nickname "Nine-headed Birds" by other Chinese, from a mythological creature said to be very aggressive and hard to kill. "In the sky live nine-headed birds. On the earth live Hubei people." (天上九头鸟,地上湖北佬; Tiānshàng jiǔ tóu niǎo, dìshàng Húběi lǎo)

Wuhan is one of the major culture centers in China.

Hubei is thought to be the province that originated the card game of Dou Di Zhu.

Education

The Huazhong University of Science and Technology(HUST) and many other institutions in Wuhan makes it a hub of higher education and research in China.

Universities

Huazhong University of Science and Technology HUST-Main-building-4111.jpg
Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Transportation

Boats on the Yangtze River in Wuhan Wuhan-boat-0157.jpg
Boats on the Yangtze River in Wuhan
Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge Wu Yi Chang Jiang Da Qiao -20060430.jpg
Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge

Prior to the construction of China's national railway network, the Yangtze and Hanshui Rivers had been the main transportation arteries of Hubei for many centuries, and still continue to play an important transport role.

Historically, Hubei's overland transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the Yangtze River, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Hubei, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed in 1957, followed by the Zhicheng Bridge in 1971. As of October 2014, Hubei had 23 bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River, including nine bridges and three tunnels in Wuhan.

Rail

The railway from Beijing reached Wuhan in 1905, and was later extended to Guangzhou, becoming the first north-to-south railway mainline to cross China. A number of other lines crossed the province later on, including the Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway and Beijing-Kowloon Railway, respectively, in the western and eastern part of the province.

The first decade of the 21st century has seen a large number of new railway construction in Hubei. The Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, roughly parallel to the original Wuhan-Guangzhou line, opened in late 2009, and is currently being extended to the north, towards Beijing. A new east-west high-speed corridor connecting major cities along the Yangtze (the Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line) is being constructed as well: the Hefei-Wuhan section, which opened in 2009, has enabled fast service between Wuhan and Shanghai, while the Wuhan-Yuchang and Yichang-Wanzhou sections are (as of 2010) under construction.

Air

Hubei's main airport is Wuhan Tianhe International Airport. Yichang Sanxia Airport serves the Three Gorges region. There are also passenger airports in Xiangyang, Enshi, and Jingzhou (Shashi Airport, named after the city's Shashi District).

Tourism

The province's best-known natural attraction (shared with the adjacent Chongqing municipality) is the scenic area of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze. Located in the far west of the province, the gorges can be conveniently visited by one of the numerous tourist boats (or regular passenger boats) that travel up the Yangtze from Yichang through the Three Gorges and into the neighboring Chongqing municipality.

The mountains of western Hubei, in particular in Shennongjia District, offer a welcome respite from Wuhan's and Yichang's summer heat, as well as skiing opportunities in winter. The tourist facilities in that area concentrate around Muyu in the southern part of Shennongjia, the gateway to Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (神农架国家自然保护区). Closer to the provincial capital, Wuhan, is the Mount Jiugong (Jiugongshan) national park, in Tongshan County near the border with Jiangxi.

A particular important site of both natural and cultural significance is Mount Wudang (Wudangshan) in the northwest of the province. Originally created early in the Ming dynasty, its building complex has been listed by UNESCO since 1994 as a World Heritage Site.

Other historic attractions in Hubei include:

The province also has historical sites connected with China's more recent history, such as the Wuchang Uprising Memorial in Wuhan, Project 131 site (a Cultural-Revolution-era underground military command center) in Xianning, and the National Mining Park (国家矿山公园) in Huangshi. [38]

Sports

University Stadium of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan Hustfields.jpg
University Stadium of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan

Professional sports teams in Hubei include:

Twinning

In 2005, Hubei province signed a twinning agreement with Telemark county of Norway, and a "Norway-Hubei Week" was held in 2007.

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [36] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:

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