Chongqing

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Chongqing

重庆市

Chungking, Ch'ung-ch'ing
Chongqing montage newest 2013.png
Clockwise from top: Jiefangbei CBD Skyline, Temple of the White Emperor, Egongyan Bridge, Qutang Gorge, and the Great Hall of the People
Chongqing in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
Coordinates: 29°33′30″N106°34′00″E / 29.55833°N 106.56667°E / 29.55833; 106.56667 Coordinates: 29°33′30″N106°34′00″E / 29.55833°N 106.56667°E / 29.55833; 106.56667
Country People's Republic of China
Settledc. 316 BC
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-level

25 districts, 13 counties
1259 towns, townships, and subdistricts
Government
  Type Municipality
   CPC Secretary Chen Min'er
  Mayor Tang Liangzhi
  Congress chairman Zhang Xuan
  Conference chairman Xu Jingye
Area
[1]
  Municipality82,403 km2 (31,816 sq mi)
  Urban
5,472.8 km2 (2,113.1 sq mi)
Elevation
244 m (801 ft)
Highest elevation
1,709.4 m (5,608.3 ft)
Population
(2016) [2]
  Municipality30,484,300
  Density370/km2 (960/sq mi)
   Urban
8,518,000 [3]
   Metro
8,518,000
Demonym(s) Chongqinger
Time zone UTC+8 (CST)
Postal code
4000 00 – 4099 00
Area code(s) 23
ISO 3166 code CN-CQ
GDP2018 [4]
 - Total CNY 2.04 trillion
US$ 304.02 billion (18th)
 - Per capitaCNY66,218
US$ 10,007 (10th)
HDI (2016)0.797 [5] (17th) – high
Licence plate prefixes渝A, 渝D (Yuzhong, Jiangbei, Jiulongpo, Dadukou)
渝B (Nan'an, Shapingba, Beibei, Wansheng, Shuangqiao, Yubei, Banan, Changshou)
渝C (Yongchuan, Hechuan, Jiangjin, Qijiang, Tongnan, Tongliang, Dazu, Rongchang, Bishan)
渝F(Wanzhou, Liangping, Chengkou, Wushan, Wuxi, Zhongxian, Kaizhou, Fengjie, Yunyang)
渝G(Fuling, Nanchuan, Dianjiang, Fengdu, Wulong)
渝H (Qianjiang, Shizhu, Xiushan, Youyang, Pengshui)
AbbreviationCQ / ;
City flower Camellia [6]
City tree Ficus lacor [7]
Website CQ.gov.cn (in Chinese)
English.CQ.gov.cn
Chongqing
Chongqing (Chinese characters).svg
"Chongqing" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 重庆
Traditional Chinese 重慶
Hanyu Pinyin Loudspeaker.svg Chóngqìng
Cong2-qin4
( [tsʰoŋ˨˩ tɕʰin˨˩˦] )
Postal Chungking
Literal meaning"Doubled Celebration"

Chongqing ( [ʈʂʰʊ̌ŋ.tɕʰîŋ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), formerly romanized as Chungking, [note 1] is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of China's four municipalities under the direct administration of central government (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in China located far away from the coast. [8]

Southwest China Geographical region

Southwest China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the municipality of Chongqing, the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.

Direct-administered municipalities of China Peoples Republic of China province-level subdivision

A municipality, formally as municipality under the direct administration of central government, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China. These cities have the same rank as provinces, and form part of the first tier of administrative divisions of China.

Beijing Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.

Contents

Chongqing was a municipality during the Republic of China (ROC) administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945); during this period, Chongqing was listed as one of the world's four anti-fascist command centers, along with Washington, London and Moscow. [9] The current municipality was recreated on 14 March 1997 to help develop the central and western parts of China. [10] The Chongqing administrative municipality has a population of over 30 million, spread over an area the size of Austria. [11] The city of Chongqing made of 9 urban districts has a much smaller population of 8,518,000 as of 2016 estimation. [3] According to the 2010 census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality, [12] and also the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, containing 26 districts, eight counties, and four autonomous counties.

Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

The Republic of China (ROC) from 1912–1949 was a state in East Asia which controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. The state was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. Its government fled to Taipei in 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic of China's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.

Second Sino-Japanese War military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle.

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

The official abbreviation of the city, "Yu" ( ), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. [13] This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River.

State Council of the Peoples Republic of China chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China

The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954, is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the premier and includes the heads of each of the cabinet-level executive departments. Currently, the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three other vice premiers, five state councilors, and 25 additional ministers and chairs of major agencies. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China.

Jialing River river in the Peoples Republic of China

The Jialing River, formerly known by numerous other names, is a major tributary of the Yangtze River in the Sichuan Basin. It is named after the Jialing Valley in Feng County, Shaanxi through which it flows.

Chongqing has a significant history and culture. Being one of China's National Central Cities, it serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin. It is a major manufacturing centre and transportation hub; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "13 emerging megalopolises". [14]

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.

Megacity metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people

A megacity is a very large city metropolitan area, typically with a population of more than 10 million people. Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2014 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban agglomerations having over 10 million inhabitants. A University of Bonn report held that they are "usually defined as metropolitan areas with a total population of 10 million or more people". Others list cities satisfying criteria of either 5 or 8 million and also have a population density of 2,000 per square kilometre. A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge. The terms conurbation, metropolis, and metroplex are also applied to the latter. The term metacity has been used to describe metropolitan conurbations containing over 20 million people.

History

Ancient history

Tradition associates Chongqing with the State of Ba. This new capital was first named Jiangzhou (江州). [15]

Ba (state) former country in ancient China

Ba was an ancient state in eastern Sichuan, China. Its original capital was Yicheng, Hubei. Ba was conquered by Qin in 316 BC. The modern minority Tujia people trace some of their origins back to the people of Ba.

Imperial era

Jiangzhou subsequently remained under Qin Shi Huang's rule during the Qin dynasty, the successor of the Qin State, and under the control of Han dynasty emperors. Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the Northern and Southern dynasties to Chu Prefecture (楚州), then in 581 AD (Sui dynasty) to Yu Prefecture (渝州), and later in 1102 during Northern Song to Gong Prefecture (恭州). [16] The name Yu however survives to this day as an abbreviation for Chongqing, and the city centre where the old town stood is also called Yuzhong (Central Yu). [15] It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (simplified Chinese :双重喜庆; traditional Chinese :雙重喜慶; pinyin :shuāngchóng xǐqìng, or chongqing in short). In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement.

Qin Shi Huang First Emperor of Qin

Qin Shi Huang was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born Ying Zheng (嬴政) or Zhao Zheng (趙政), a prince of the state of Qin. He became Zheng, the King of Qin (秦王政) when he was thirteen, then China's first emperor when he was 38 after the Qin had conquered all of the other Warring States and unified all of China in 221 BC. Rather than maintain the title of "king" borne by the previous Shang and Zhou rulers, he ruled as the First Emperor (始皇帝) of the Qin dynasty from 220 to 210 BC. His self-invented title "emperor", as indicated by his use of the word "First", would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia.

Qin dynasty Dynasty that ruled in China from 221 to 206 BC

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. Named for its heartland in Qin state, the dynasty was founded by Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of Qin. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the Legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the fourth century BC, during the Warring States period. In the mid and late third century BC, the Qin state carried out a series of swift conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou dynasty, and eventually conquering the other six of the Seven Warring States. Its 15 years was the shortest major dynasty in Chinese history, consisting of only two emperors, but inaugurated an imperial system that lasted from 221 BC, with interruption and adaptation, until 1912 CE.

Han dynasty 3rd-century BC to 3rd-century AD Chinese dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).

In 1362, (Yuan dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebel leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing for a short time. [17] In 1621 (Ming dynasty), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang (大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing as its capital. [18] In 1644, after the fall of the Ming dynasty to a rebel army, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, was captured by Zhang Xianzhong, who was said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan and depopulated the province, in part by causing many people to flee to safety elsewhere. The Manchus later conquered the province, and during the Qing dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of the Qing emperor. [19]

In 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing. [20] The following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners. [21] The French, German, US and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing in 1896–1904. [22] [23] [24] [25]

Provisional capital of the Republic of China

A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944 China from the Eyes of the Flying Tigers 1944-1945 57.jpg
A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944

During and after the Second Sino-Japanese War, from Nov 1937 to May 1946, it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital. After Britain, the United States, and other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941, one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia (South East Asia Command SEAC), Joseph Stilwell, was based in the city. The city was also visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Commander of SEAC which was itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China worked closely with Stilwell. [26] The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed it. Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery, contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II, Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city. [27]

Municipality status

A sunset view of Chongqing Central Business District and Hongya Cave, taken in 2017 A Sunset View of Chongqing Central Business District.jpg
A sunset view of Chongqing Central Business District and Hongya Cave, taken in 2017

On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress decided to merge the Sub-provincial city with the neighbouring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefectures that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division became Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997. On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the four National Central/Core cities, the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. [28] On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which is the third State-level new areas at the time of its establishment. [29]

Organised crime and the gang trials

In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime and corruption. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai undertook a large-scale crackdown, arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, "outlaws" and corrupt cadres, leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over. [30] However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in detail. [31] In 2014, four policemen involved in the interrogation were charged with the practice of "opposed illegal interrogation techniques", considered by observers to be torture. [32] The number of security cameras increased significantly in the early 2010s to the highest of any city in the world at around 500,000.[ citation needed ]

Geography

Physical geography and topography

Topography of Chongqing Chongqing Map.png
Topography of Chongqing

Chongqing is situated at the transitional area between the Tibetan Plateau and the plain on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the sub-tropical climate zone often swept by moist monsoons. It often rains at night in late spring and early summer, and thus the city is famous for its "night rain in the Ba Mountains", as described by poems throughout Chinese history including the famous Written on a Rainy Night-A Letter to the North by Li Shangyin. [33] The municipality reaches a maximum width of 470 kilometres (290 mi) from east to west, and a maximum length of 450 km (280 mi) from north to south. [34] It borders the following provinces: Hubei in the east, Hunan in the southeast, Guizhou in the south, Sichuan in the west and northwest, and Shaanxi to the north in its northeast corner. [35]

Chongqing covers a large area crisscrossed by rivers and mountains. The Daba Mountains stand in the north, the Wu Mountains in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains in the south. The whole area slopes down from north and south towards the Yangtze River valley, with sharp rises and falls. The area is featured by a large geological massif, of mountains and hills, with large sloping areas at different heights. [36] Typical karst landscape is common in this area, and stone forests, numerous collections of peaks, limestone caves and valleys can be found in many places. The Longshuixia Gap (龙水峡地缝), with its natural arch-bridges, has made the region a popular tourist attraction. The Yangtze River runs through the whole area from west to east, covering a course of 665 km (413 mi), cutting through the Wu Mountains at three places and forming the well-known Three Gorges: the Qutang, the Wuxia and the Xiling gorges. [37] Coming from northwest and running through "the Jialing Lesser Three Gorges" of Libi, Wentang and Guanyin, the Jialing River joins the Yangtze in Chongqing. [38]

The central urban area of Chongqing, or Chongqing proper, is a city of unique features. Built on mountains and partially surrounded by the Yangtze and Jialing rivers, it is known as a "mountain city" and a "city on rivers". [39] The night scene of the city is very illuminated, with millions of lights and their reflection on the rivers. With its special topographical features, Chongqing has the unique scenery of mountains, rivers, forests, springs, waterfalls, gorges, and caves. Li Bai, a famous poet of the Tang dynasty, was inspired by the natural scenery and wrote this epigram. [40]

Specifically, the central urban area is located on a huge folding area. Yuzhong District, Nan'an District, Shapingba District and Jiangbei District are located right on a big syncline. And the "Southern Mountain of Chongqing" (Tongluo Mountain), along with the Zhongliang Mountain are two anticlines next to the syncline of downtown. [41]

Li Bai's Poem of Chongqing's Baidi Cheng
Leaving at dawn the White Emperor crowned with cloud,

I've sailed a thousand li through canyons in a day.
With the monkeys' adieus the riverbanks are loud,

My skiff has left ten thousand mountains far away.

Climate

All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.

Annual average 
18.39 °C (65.1 °F)
January average 
7.9 °C (46.2 °F) [42]
July and August average 
28.3 °C (82.9 °F) [42]
Historical Temperature range 
From −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006 [43] [44]
Total annual hours of sunshine 
955
Annual precipitation  
1,108 millimetres (43.6 in) [42]

Chongqing has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), and for most of the year experiences very high relative humidity, with all months above 75%. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces" of the Yangtze River, along with Wuhan and Nanjing, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F) in July and August in the urban area. [45] Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 (unofficial record of −2.5 °C (27 °F) was set on 8 February 1943) to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006 (unofficial record of 44.0 °C (111 °F) was set on 8 and 9 August 1933). [43] [46]

As exemplified by Youyang County below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.

Climate data for Chongqing (Shapingba District, 1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)18.8
(65.8)
24.6
(76.3)
34.0
(93.2)
36.5
(97.7)
38.9
(102.0)
39.8
(103.6)
42.0
(107.6)
43.0
(109.4)
41.9
(107.4)
35.1
(95.2)
29.2
(84.6)
21.5
(70.7)
43.0
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F)10.3
(50.5)
12.9
(55.2)
17.7
(63.9)
23.0
(73.4)
27.2
(81.0)
29.4
(84.9)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
28.3
(82.9)
21.7
(71.1)
17.1
(62.8)
11.5
(52.7)
22.1
(71.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.9
(46.2)
10.0
(50.0)
13.8
(56.8)
18.5
(65.3)
22.6
(72.7)
25.1
(77.2)
28.3
(82.9)
28.3
(82.9)
24.1
(75.4)
18.6
(65.5)
14.2
(57.6)
9.3
(48.7)
18.4
(65.1)
Average low °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
8.0
(46.4)
11.2
(52.2)
15.4
(59.7)
19.3
(66.7)
22.1
(71.8)
24.8
(76.6)
24.7
(76.5)
21.2
(70.2)
16.5
(61.7)
12.2
(54.0)
7.7
(45.9)
15.8
(60.4)
Record low °C (°F)−1.8
(28.8)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.2
(34.2)
2.8
(37.0)
10.8
(51.4)
15.5
(59.9)
19.2
(66.6)
17.8
(64.0)
14.3
(57.7)
6.9
(44.4)
0.7
(33.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
−1.8
(28.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)19.7
(0.78)
23.3
(0.92)
43.2
(1.70)
95.2
(3.75)
145.9
(5.74)
192.6
(7.58)
186.0
(7.32)
137.9
(5.43)
105.8
(4.17)
85.8
(3.38)
48.3
(1.90)
24.3
(0.96)
1,108
(43.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)10.09.811.914.315.515.712.511.312.716.111.59.8151.1
Average relative humidity (%)84807777778176747985848580
Mean monthly sunshine hours 20.629.764.993.6109.497.7158.6167.0106.650.435.920.4954.8
Percent possible sunshine 811182526264248281813824
Source: China Meteorological Administration [42] [47]
The skyscrapers of Chongqing CBD with Hongya Cave at sunset The skyscrapers of Chongqing CBD with Hongya Cave at sunset.jpeg
The skyscrapers of Chongqing CBD with Hongya Cave at sunset

Air

Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year, [48] is known as the "Fog City" (雾都), like San Francisco, and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn. [49] [50] During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army.

Administrative divisions

Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011 [51] ), consisting of 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80,000 square kilometres (30,900 sq mi), is rural. At the end of year 2017, the total population is 30.75 million.

Administrative divisions of Chongqing
Division code [52] DivisionArea in km2 [53] Total population 2010 [54] Urban area
population 2010 [55]
SeatPostal codeSubdivisions [56] [ full citation needed ]
Subdistricts Towns Townships
[n 1]
Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
500000Chongqing8240328,846,17015295803 Yuzhong 4000001815672331423245235
500101 Wanzhou 34571,563,050859,662 Chenjiaba Subdistrict 4040001129102187448
500102 Fuling 29461,066,714595,224 Lizhi Subdistrict 4080008126108310
500103 Yuzhong 23630,090 Qixinggang Subdistrict 4000001278
500104 Dadukou 102301,042280,512 Xinshancun Subdistrict 400000524832
500105 Jiangbei 221738,003672,545 Cuntan Subdistrict 400000938848
500106 Shapingba 3961,000,013900,568 Qinjiagang Subdistrict 40000018814086
500107 Jiulongpo 4311,084,419939,349 Yangjiaping Subdistrict 400000711107105
500108 Nan'an 263759,570683,717 Tianwen Subdistrict 400000778561
500109 Beibei 754680,360501,822 Beiwenquan Subdistrict 40070051263117
500110 Qijiang 27471,056,817513,935 Gunan Subdistrict 40080052599365
500111 Dazu 1433721,359315,183 Tangxiang Subdistrict 400900324103197
500112 Yubei 14521,345,410985,918 Shuangfengqiao Subdistrict 4011001412155215
500113 Banan 1834918,692669,269 Longzhouwan Subdistrict 40130081487198
500114 Qianjiang 2397445,012173,997 Chengxi Subdistrict 4097006121280138
500115 Changshou 1423770,009408,261 Fengcheng Subdistrict 40120041431223
500116 Jiangjin 32001,233,149686,189 Jijiang Subdistrict 40220042485180
500117 Hechuan 23561,293,028721,753 Nanjin Street Subdistrict 40150072361327
500118 Yongchuan 15761,024,708582,769 Zhongshan Road Subdistrict 40210071652208
500119 Nanchuan 2602534,329255,045 Dongcheng Subdistrict 4084003151558185
500120 Bishan 912586,034246,425 Bicheng Subdistrict 4027006943142
500151 Tongliang 1342600,086248,962 Bachuan Subdistrict 40250032557269
500152 Tongnan 1585639,985247,084 Guilin Subdistrict 40260022021281
500153 Rongchang 1079661,253271,232 Changyuan Subdistrict 4024006157592
500154 Kaizhou 39591,160,336416,415 Hanfeng Subdistrict 405400726778435
500155 Liangping 1890687,525235,753 Liangshan Subdistrict 405200226733310
500156 Wulong 2872351,038115,823 Gangkou town4085001210424184
500229 Chengkou Co. 3286192,96749,039 Gecheng Subdistrict 405900261722184
500230 Fengdu Co. 2896649,182224,003 Sanhe Subdistrict 408200223553277
500231 Dianjiang Co. 1518704,458241,424 Guixi Subdistrict 408300223262236
500233 Zhong Co. 2184751,424247,406 Zhongzhou town404300225149317
500235 Yunyang Co. 3634912,912293,636 Shuangjiang Subdistrict 40450042215187391
500236 Fengjie Co. 4087834,259269,302 Yong'an town404600198454332
500237 Wushan Co. 2958495,072148,597 Gaotang Subdistrict 4047001112230308
500238 Wuxi Co. 4030414,073105,111 Baichang Subdistrict 4058002151638292
500240 Shizhu Co. 3013415,050134,173 Nanbin town409100171529213
500241 Xiushan Co. 2450501,590150,566 Zhonghe Subdistrict 409900141859208
500242 Youyang Co. 5173578,058137,635 Taohuayuan town40980015238270
500243 Pengshui Co. 3903545,094137,409 Hanjia Subdistrict 409600112855241
  1. Including other township related subdivisions.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of districts
#CityUrban area [55] District area [55] Census date
1Chongqing [lower-roman 1] 6,263,7907,457,5992010-11-01
2 Wanzhou 859,6621,563,0502010-11-01
3 Hechuan 721,7531,293,0282010-11-01
4 Jiangjin 686,1891,233,1492010-11-01
5 Fuling 595,2241,066,7142010-11-01
6 Yongchuan 582,7691,024,7082010-11-01
7 Qijiang [lower-roman 2] 513,9351,056,8172010-11-01
(8) Kaizhou [lower-roman 3] 416,4151,160,3362010-11-01
9 Changshou 408,261770,0092010-11-01
10 Dazu [lower-roman 4] 315,183721,3592010-11-01
(11) Rongchang [lower-roman 5] 271,232661,2532010-11-01
12 Nanchuan 255,045534,3292010-11-01
(13) Tongliang [lower-roman 6] 248,962600,0862010-11-01
(14) Tongnan [lower-roman 7] 247,084639,9852010-11-01
(15) Bishan [lower-roman 8] 246,425586,0342010-11-01
(16) Liangping [lower-roman 9] 235,753687,5252010-11-01
17 Qianjiang 173,997445,0122010-11-01
(18) Wulong [lower-roman 10] 115,823351,0382010-11-01
  1. Chongqing core districts are consist of nine districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan.
  2. Wansheng & Qijiang County currently known as Qijiang after census.
  3. Kaizhou County is currently known as Kaizhou after census.
  4. Shuangqiao & Dazu County currently known as Dazu after census.
  5. Rongchang County is currently known as Rongchang after census.
  6. Tongliang County is currently known as Tongliang after census.
  7. Tongnan County is currently known as Tongnan after census.
  8. Bishan County is currently known as Bishan after census.
  9. Liangping County is currently known as Liangping after census.
  10. Wulong County is currently known as Wulong after census.
Panorama of Chongqing at night taken from Eling Park.jpeg
Panorama of Chongqing at night taken from Eling Park
Jiefangbei CBD, Yuzhong Peninsula of Chongqing at night A View of Chongqing Central Business District.jpg
Jiefangbei CBD, Yuzhong Peninsula of Chongqing at night
New York New York Tower, with a height of 228 m (748 ft), located in Jiefangbei CBD and built in 2005 New York New York Tower.jpg
New York New York Tower, with a height of 228 m (748 ft), located in Jiefangbei CBD and built in 2005

a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.

Central Chongqing

Districts

The urban area of Chongqing is known as Central Chongqing (重庆主城区). Spanning approximately 5,473 square kilometres (2,113 square miles), it includes the following nine districts: [57] [58]

A panorama view of the Cental Chongqing Peninsula.jpg
A panorama view of the Cental Chongqing Peninsula
A Night View of Chongqing.jpg
Panorama of the Chongqing Skyline, taken from Jiangbeizui CBD in 2015
Chongqing Grand Theatre Chongqing Grand Theatre 01.jpg
Chongqing Grand Theatre

Landforms

Central Chongqing is in the eastern edge of Sichuan Basin. Yangtze River meets its major tributary stream, Jialing River, in Central Chongqing. The city is located on a big syncline valley. Two tributary ranges of Huaying Mountain (Zhongling Mountain and Tongluo Mountain) roughly forms the eastern and western boundaries of Central Chongqing. The highest point in downtown is the top of E-ling Hill, which is a smaller syncline hill that keeps Yangtze River and Jialing River apart for some more kilometres. The elevation of E-ling Hill is 379 metres (1,243 feet). The lowest point in Central Chongqing is Chaotian Gate, where the two rivers merge with each other. The altitude there is 160 metres (520 feet). The average height of Central Chongqing is 259 metres (850 feet). In the near-suburban Chongqing, however, there are several high mountains. The highest one is called Wugong Ling Mountain, with the altitude of 1,709.4 metres (5,608 feet).

Bridges

The first Chongqing Yangtze river bridge, built in 1977 The First Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge.jpg
The first Chongqing Yangtze river bridge, built in 1977
Night view of Caiyuanba bridge across Yangtze river in Chongqing The night view of Chaotianmen bridge acoross Yangtze river in Chongqing.jpg
Night view of Caiyuanba bridge across Yangtze river in Chongqing

With many bridges on Yangtze River and Jialing River in urban area, Central Chongqing is sometimes called the Bridge Capital of China. The first major bridge built in urban Chongqing is the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge built in 1958. The first bridge on Yangtze River is the Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (or Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge) built in 1977.

Until 2014, within the range of Central Chongqing, there are 20 bridges on Yangtze River and 28 bridges on Jialing River. Bridges in Chongqing have various structures and shapes, making Chongqing a museum of bridges.

Aerial tramway

Chongqing is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways. Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River Tramway, the Jialing River Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River Tramway is still operating. This tramway is 1,160 metres (3,810 feet) long, connecting the southern and northern banks of Yangtze River. The daily passenger volume is about 10,000.

An aerial tramway across Yangtse river in Chongqing CBD Photo by Chen Hualin A aerial tramway across Yangtse river in Chongqing CBD Photo by Chen Hualin .jpeg
An aerial tramway across Yangtse river in Chongqing CBD Photo by Chen Hualin

Demographics

Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument), the landmark and center of Chongqing Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument).jpg
Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument), the landmark and center of Chongqing
Historical population
YearPop.±%
19491,003,000    
19796,301,000+528.2%
198313,890,000+120.4%
199615,297,000+10.1%
1997 [59] *28,753,000+88.0%
2000 [59] 28,488,200−0.9%
2005 [59] 27,980,000−1.8%
2008 [59] 28,390,000+1.5%
2012 [59] 28,846,170+1.6%
2013 [59] 29,700,000+3.0%
2014 [60] 29,914,000+0.7%
2015 [61] 30,170,000+0.9%
*Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.

According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing. [62] The metropolitan area encompassing the central urban area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 17 million. [63] [64]

This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half-year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there. [65]

The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females. [65]

In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over. [66]

Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household. [67]

Politics

The Great Hall of the People serves as the venue for major political conferences in Chongqing Chongqing.jpg
The Great Hall of the People serves as the venue for major political conferences in Chongqing

Chongqing has been, since 1997, a direct-controlled municipality in the Chinese administrative structure, making it a provincial-level division with commensurate political importance. The municipality's top leader is the secretary of the municipal committee of the Communist Party of China ("party chief"), which, since 2007, has also held a seat on the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, the country's second highest governing council. Under the Soviet-inspired nomenklatura system of appointments, individuals are appointed to the position by the central leadership of the Communist Party, and bestowed to an official based on seniority and adherence to party orthodoxy, usually given to an individual with prior regional experience elsewhere in China and nearly never a native of Chongqing. Notable individuals who have held the municipal Party Secretary position include He Guoqiang, Wang Yang, Bo Xilai, Zhang Dejiang, and Sun Zhengcai, the latter three were Politburo members during their term as party chief. The party chief heads the municipal party standing committee, the de facto top governing council of the municipality. The standing committee is typically composed of 13 individuals which includes the party chiefs of important subdivisions and other leading figures in the local party and government organization, as well as one military representative.

The municipal People's Government serves as the day-to-day administrative authority, and is headed by the mayor, who is assisted by numerous vice mayors and mayoral assistants. Each vice mayor is given jurisdiction over specific municipal departments. The mayor is the second-highest-ranking official in the municipality. The mayor usually represents the city when foreign guests visit. [68]

The municipality also has a People's Congress, theoretically elected by lower level People's Congresses. The People's Congress nominally appoints the mayor and approves the nominations of other government officials. The People's Congress, like those of other provincial jurisdictions, is generally seen as a symbolic body. It convenes in full once a year to approve party-sponsored resolutions and local regulations and duly confirm party-approved appointments. On occasion the People's Congress can be venues of discussion on municipal issues, although this is dependent on the actions of individual delegates. The municipal People's Congress is headed by a former municipal official, usually in their late fifties or sixties, with a lengthy prior political career in Chongqing. The municipal Political Consultative Conference (zhengxie) meets at around the same time as the People's Congress. Its role is to advise on political issues. The zhengxie is headed by a leader who is typically a former municipal or regional official with a lengthy career in the party and government bureaucracy.

Military

Chongqing was the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese war (i.e., World War II), and from 1938 to 1946, [69] the seat of administration for the Republic of China's government before its departure to Nanjing and then Taiwan. [70] It also contains a military museum named after the Chinese Korean War hero Qiu Shaoyun. [71]

Chongqing used to be the headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that formerly comprise the Chengdu Military Region, which in 2016 was re-organized into the Western Theater Command. [72]

Economy

Jiangbeizui Central Business District from above, taken in 2018 Jiangbeizui CBD.jpg
Jiangbeizui Central Business District from above, taken in 2018
Chaotianmen Bridge connects Jiangbei District with Nan'an District of Chongqing, taken in 2018 Chaotianmen Bridge, Nan'an District of Chongqing.jpg
Chaotianmen Bridge connects Jiangbei District with Nan'an District of Chongqing, taken in 2018
Jiefangbei-People's Liberation (World War II victory monument) Jiefangbei.jpg
Jiefangbei-People's Liberation (World War II victory monument)
Raffles City Chongqing, sitting in the confluence of Yangtze and Jialing River Raffles City of Chongqing.jpg
Raffles City Chongqing, sitting in the confluence of Yangtze and Jialing River

Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right in 14 March 1997 [73] in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy). [74] An important industrial area in western China, [75] Chongqing is also rapidly urbanising. For instance, statistics [76] suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square metres (1,470,000 square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.

Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighbouring Sichuan have been important military bases in weapons research and development. [77] Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common.

Chongqing is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles. [78] Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise, as well as Ford Motor Company, with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing. The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminium plant. [79] Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese. Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 – more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium (China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily polluting and unsafe. [80] Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan before reaching Chongqing [81] and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ). [82] Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports. [83]

The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment. [78] [84] The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam which is the world's largest, will not only supply Chongqing with power once completed but also allows oceangoing ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River port. [85] These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford, [86] Mazda, [87] HSBC, [88] Standard Chartered Bank, [89] Citibank, [90] Deutsche Bank, [91] ANZ Bank, [92] Scotiabank, [93] Wal-Mart, [94] Metro AG [95] and Carrefour, [96] among other multinational corporations.

Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development. [97]

Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China. [98]

The total GDP of Chongqing reached 17,740.59 billion yuan (2670.85 billion USD) in 2017 which is 58,502 yuan per capital (8807.49 USD). Additionally there were too much undeveloped regions joined into Chongqing when it became municipality. The central Chongqing (Chongqing Main Urban Districts\Chongqing Urban\重庆主城区) total GDP of 2017 is 9264.14 billion yuan which is 10,7092.46 yuan (15,706.72 USD) per capital. This data is much higher than the national average.[ citation needed ]

Economic and technological development zones

The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:

Chongqing itself is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Xi'an.

Transport

Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China.

As of October 2014, the municipality had 31 bridges across the Yangtze River including over a dozen in the city's urban core. [107] Aside from the city's first two Yangtze River bridges, which were built, respectively, in 1960 and 1977, all of the other bridges were completed since 1995.

River port

Hydrofoil on the Yangtze in the outer reaches of the municipality YangtzeMeteor.jpg
Hydrofoil on the Yangtze in the outer reaches of the municipality
The confluence of the Jialing River and Yangtze River, as seen from Chongqing Chongqingyangtze.jpg
The confluence of the Jialing River and Yangtze River, as seen from Chongqing

Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River to Yichang, Wuhan, Nanjing or even Shanghai. [108] In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduced or cancelled altogether. Most of the river ferry traffic consists of leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exists throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites. [109]

Railways

Chongqing funicular railway ChongqingFunicular2.jpg
Chongqing funicular railway

Major train stations in Chongqing:

Chongqing is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing has seen a huge increase in rail traffic.

Chongqing is a major rail hub regionally.

Highways

Bicycling can be a challenge in Chongqing Monorail Train Runs Along Jialing River.jpg
Bicycling can be a challenge in Chongqing

Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. Construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to neighbouring provinces. Several ring roads have also been constructed. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges. [110]

Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a large manufacturing centre for these types of vehicles. [111]

Airports

Panorama of Chongqing Jiangbei Airport Terminal 3.JPG
Departure Level of Terminal 3, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

The major airport of Chongqing is Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District. The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe. It is located 21 km (13 mi) north of the city-centre of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China. [112] Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, China Express Airlines, Shandong Airlines and Hainan Airlines's new China West Air. Chongqing also is a focus city of Air China, therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam's international network. The airport currently has three parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Auckland, New York City, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Doha, Dubai, Seoul, Bangkok, Phuket, Osaka, Singapore, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Malé, Bali, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam, Rome and Helsinki.

Chongqing airport is also a 72-hour transit visa-free airport for foreigners in many countries (Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Brunei, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar).

Currently, Jiangbei airport has three terminals. Terminal 1 is the oldest original terminal and is no longer in use. Terminal 2 is a larger building split into Halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. This domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers while its international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. Terminal 3A together with the third runway began operations on August 29, [113] 2017. A fourth terminal and runway are planned to start construction in 2019.

Chongqing airport was the 10th busiest airport nationwide in 2010 measured by passenger traffic, handling 15,802,334 people. By 2015 this number doubled to more than 30,000,000 passengers annually. The airport was also the 11th busiest airport by cargo traffic and by traffic movements in China. During the first half of year 2011, Chongqing airport handled 8.87 million passengers, and surpassed Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport (8.48 million) to become the 9th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China. [114]

Freight development has increased, especially in the export of high value electronics, such as laptop computers. It is envisaged that Chongqing can become the global leading exporter of these products by air, signs of this potential rise being the addition of cargo routes to Frankfurt, [115] Sydney, Chicago, and New York City. [116] [117]

Chongqing Airport has metro access (CRT Line 3 and Line 10) to its central city, and two runways in normal use. [118]

There are two other airports in Chongqing Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport (IATA: JIQ, ICAO: ZUQJ) and Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport (IATA: WXN, ICAO: ZUWX). They are both class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to some domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming. Two more airports are being constructed soon: Wulong Xiannüshan Airport and Wushan Shennüfeng Airport.

Public transit

CRT Line 2 in Chongqing city Light rail in Chongqing city.JPG
CRT Line 2 in Chongqing city

Public transport in Chongqing consists of metro, intercity railway, a ubiquitous bus system and the world's largest monorail network.

According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with heavy monorail (called 'light rail' in China).

As of 2017, four metro lines, the 14 km (8.7 mi) long CRT Line 1 , a conventional subway, and the 19 km (12 mi) long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3 , a heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown., [119] Line 6 , runs between Beibei, a commuter city in the far north to the centre. [120] Line 5 opened in late 2017.

A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba.jpg
A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba

By 2020 CRT will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line resulting in 363.5 km (225.9 mi) of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place. [121]

By 2050, Chongqing will have as many as 18 lines planned to be in operation. [122]

Culture

Language

Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing Zhongshan Ancient Town,Jiangjin,CHongqing.JPG
Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing

The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang. [123] There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people. [124]

Tourism

Martyrs' Cemetery ChongqingMartyrsCemetery.jpg
Martyrs' Cemetery

As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II, as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose. [125] Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum, dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, a World War II general. [126] the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and the Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II, and Guiyuan, Cassia Garden, where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang in 1945. [127]

The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqing city The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqqing city.jpg
The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqing city
Baotaoping Wharf in Fengjie County Baotaoping wharf.jpg
Baotaoping Wharf in Fengjie County
The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town Fishingtown.jpg
The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town
Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District Cqk01.jpg
Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District

Media

The Chongqing People's Broadcast Station is Chongqing's largest radio station. [142] The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV, claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China. [143] Chongqing TV broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China. The Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one news website. [144]

Cuisine

Chongqing food is part of Sichuan cuisine. Chongqing is known for its spicy food. Its food is normally considered numbing because of the use of Sichuan pepper, also known as Sichuan peppercorn, containing hydroxy alpha sanshool. Chongqing's city centre has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions. [145] Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:

Sports and recreation

Association football

Professional association football teams in Chongqing include:

Chongqing Lifan is a professional Chinese football club who currently plays in the Chinese Super League. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts. [151] Originally called Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese football league system. They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup, [152] and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier. [153]

Chongqing FC was an association football club located in the city, and competed in China League One, the country's second-tier football division, before being relegated to the China League Two, and dissolving due to a resultant lack of funds. [154]

Chongqing is also the birthplace of soccer games in southwestern China. Soccer was introduced to this region in as early as 1905 by some British soldiers and missionaries. They founded a varsity soccer team at the predecessor of modern-day Guangyi High School (also known as Chongqing No.5 High School), and trained them to be a highly skilled team. A professional soccer stadium was constructed on the Guangyi campus in the Southern Mountain. It was the first professional soccer stadium in southwestern China. The Guangyi varsity team beat English and French naval teams and even the Sheffield Wednesday team in friendlies.

Basketball

Chongqing Soaring Dragons became the 20th team playing in Chinese Basketball Association in 2013. They play at Datianwan Arena, in the same sporting complex as Datianwan Stadium. [155]

Sport venues

Sport venues in Chongqing include:

  • The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center is a multi-purpose stadium. It is currently used mostly for football matches, as it has a grass surface, and can hold 58,680. It was built in 2002 and was one of main venues for the 2004 AFC Asian Cup. [156]
  • Yanghe Stadium is a multi-use stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 32,000 people, and is the home of Chongqing Lifan in the Chinese Super League. The stadium was purchased by the Lifan Group in 2001 for RMB80 million and immediately replaced Datianwan Stadium as the home of Chongqing Lifan. [157]
  • Datianwan Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity 32,000 people, and up until 2001 was the home of Chongqing Lifan. [158]

Religion

Religion in Chongqing [159] [note 2]

  Christianity (1.05%)
  Other or no religion [note 3] (72.32%)

The predominant religions in Chongqing are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian. [159]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Zhong Qing Hua Yan Si Jie Yin Dian Pai Fang .JPG
Buddhist temple in Jiulongpo

Notable people

Education

Colleges and universities

Entrance to the Nankai School ChongqingNankai2.jpg
Entrance to the Nankai School

Notable high schools

International schools

International relations

Consulates

ConsulateDateConsular District
Canada Consulate-General, Chongqing [162] 05.1998Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
United Kingdom Consulate-General, Chongqing [162] 03.2000Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Cambodia Consulate-General, Chongqing [162] 12.2004Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi
Japan Consulate-General, Chongqing [162] 01.2005Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi
Denmark Consulate, Chongqing [162] 07.2005Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Philippines Consulate-General, Chongqing [162] 12.2008Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan
Hungary Consulate-General, Chongqing [162] 02.2010Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu
Ethiopia Consulate-General, Chongqing [162] 11.2011Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Italy Consulate-General, Chongqing [163] 12.2013Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Netherlands Consulate-General, Chongqing [163] 01.2014Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi

Twin towns – sister cities

Chongqing has sister city relationships with many cities of the world including:

See also

Notes

  1. Ch'ungk'ing, Ch'ung K'ing, Chongking, and other renderings are also found in older literature. The Beijing-based Standard Chinese pronunciation is rendered in Wade-Giles as Ch'ung-ch'ing, and in the latter 20th century this form was used officially in Taiwan and in Western academic literature.
  2. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [159] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  3. This may include:

Related Research Articles

Sichuan Province

Sichuan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 81 million.

Nankai is a famous family of schools in China founded by Yan Xiu (严范孙) (1860–1920) and Zhang Boling (张伯苓) (1876–1951). The schools include:

Wanzhou District District in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Wanzhou District is Chongqing's second most populated urban core area on the upper reaches of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in China. It is currently governed as a district of Chongqing Municipality, bordering Sichuan to the northwest and Hubei to the southeast. It was formerly known as Wanxian or Wan County. Prior to Chongqing's formation as a direct-controlled municipality, Wanzhou was part of Sichuan province. The urban core of Wanzhou is 228 km (142 mi) away from Chongqing's city proper.

Shapingba District District in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Shapingba is a district of Chongqing, People's Republic of China, it was formerly known as Shaci District during the Sino-Japanese War. It is one of the most important parts of Chongqing, which covered around 396 square kilometers, 13 subdistricts, and 11 towns. Shapingba is one of the most densely populated areas in Chongqing, with a population of around one million.

Nanchong Prefecture-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Nanchong is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of Sichuan province, China, with an area of 12,479.96 square kilometres (4,818.54 sq mi). At the 2010 census it was home to 6,278,614 people, of whom 1,858,875 lived in the built-up area made of three urban districts. It is the second most populated city of Sichuan Province, after Chengdu. The administrative center is Shunqing District.

Chongqing Rail Transit The urban rail system of Chongqing, China

The Chongqing Rail Transit is the rapid transit system in the city of Chongqing, China. In operation since 2005, it serves the transportation needs of the city's main business and entertainment downtown areas and inner suburbs. As of December 2018, CRT consisted of eight lines, with a total track length of 311.9 km (193.8 mi). Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line are conventional heavy-rail subways, while Lines 2 and 3 are high-capacity monorails. To keep up with urban growth, construction is under way on Lines 9 and S5, in addition to extensions to Lines 1, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line. A network of 18 lines is planned.

Fengdu County County in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Fengdu County is a county located in Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China. The county was established as Fengdu County (豐都縣) during the Sui Dynasty. The name was changed to Fengdu County (酆都縣) during the Ming Dynasty. In 1958, the name was changed back to Fengdu County (豐都縣).

Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport international airport serving Chongqing, China

Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is located in the Yubei District of Chongqing, People's Republic of China. The airport's IATA Airport code, CKG, is derived from the city's former romanized name, Chungking. Jiangbei airport is also a 72-hour transit visa-free airport for foreigners from many countries. In 2017, it was awarded first place in the "Best Airport in the 25–40 Million Passenger Size" category by Airports Council International.

Beibei District District in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Beibei District is a district in the Chongqing municipality, People's Republic of China. A satellite town in the north of central Chongqing, Beibei got its name because of the huge rock that extends to the middle of Jialing River, and is known for its historical culture in the period of the Republic of China. It covers around 755 square kilometers and has a population of about 0.65 millions (2004).

Yubei District District in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Yubei District, literally means the north of Yu , is a district of Chongqing municipality, bordering Sichuan province to the north. Lianglu, which is a town administered by Yubei District, is where the Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is located.

Yunyang County County in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Yunyang County is a county in the northeast of Chongqing Municipality, China, bordering Hubei province to the south.

Xian–Chengdu high-speed railway railway line

Xi'an–Chengdu high-speed railway or Xi'an-Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line in Western China between Xi'an and Chengdu, respectively the provincial capitals of Shaanxi and Sichuan. This line, which commenced operations on 6 December 2017, runs 510 km (320 mi) through Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces and accommodates trains traveling at speeds up to 250 km/h (160 mph). Travel time between the two provincial capitals was reduced from 16 to less than three hours.

Line 3 (Chongqing Rail Transit) line of Chongqing Rail Transit

CRT Line 3 runs from north to south, linking the districts separated by Chongqing's two main rivers, the Yangtze and Jialing rivers. The first phase of the line began construction on 5 April 2007. The initial segment from Lianglukou to Yuanyang opened on September 29, 2011, with a northern extension from Yuanyang to Jiangbei Airport opening on December 30, 2011 and a southern extension from Ertang to terminus Yudong on December 28, 2012. At 55.5 km (34.5 mi), plus 9.97 km (6.20 mi) for the Jurenba branch line opened on December 28, 2016, Line 3 is the longest single monorail in the world by track length. Line 3 is also the world's busiest monorail line with a daily ridership of over 675,000 passengers per day.

Jiefangbei CBD

Jiefangbei CBD, also known as Jiefangbei Shangye Buxingjie (重庆解放碑步行街), is the ultra-dense, urbanized downtown and central business district in the city of Chongqing, China, that is centred on a large pedestrian mall with a landmark monument tower (Jiefangbei) surrounded by collections of tall skyscrapers.

Yongchuang Sports Center is a multi-sports facility located in Yongchuan District of Chongqing Municipality in China. The multi-purpose main stadium, Yongchuan Stadium, has a natural grass surface for association football, with a standard running track around it. The sports center includes a standard swimming pool with 500 seats gallery, six tennis courts, six basketball courts, four gateball courts and related facilities. The site covers an area of 19.47 hectares and the total cost was 139 million yuan. Expansion is planned for 10 badminton courts.

The Port of Chongqing is the port of the Chongqing municipality, laid out along the shores of the Yangtze, Jialing and Wujiang rivers. It is the deepest inland class I port in China.

Bashu Secondary School (巴蜀中学), formerly known as Bashu Middle School (巴蜀中学校) and Chongqing No.41 High School (重庆四十一中), is a reputable high school with a main campus located in the downtown Chongqing. It also has branch campuses in some other districts of Chongqing, as well as an affiliated primary school located next to the main campus.

Chongqing Bachuan International High School and Middle School (重庆市巴川国际高级中学校) or Chongqing Bachuan International Math & Science School is an international school in Tongliang District, Chongqing, China. The school shares its campus with Bachuan Middle School, Bachuan High School and the Bachuan Mini program. The international school opened in 2012.

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Preceded by
Guangzhou
Wartime Capital of China
Republic of China
21 November 1937 – 5 May 1946
Succeeded by
Nanjing
Preceded by
Guangzhou
Wartime Capital of China
Republic of China
14 October 1949 – 30 November 1949
Succeeded by
Chengdu
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