Batam

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Batam
City of Batam
Kota Batam
Regional transcription(s)
   Jawi باتام
   Chinese 巴淡
Batam Compilation.jpg
Batam city montage, from top left to right: The front view of Batam Great Mosque, the City Hall building, skyline of Batam city-centre, Nagoya Business Area, and a busy road in downtown.
Lambang Kota Batam.png
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Kota Industri
("The Industrial City")
Locator Batam City.png
Location within Riau Islands
Indonesia Riau Islands location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Batam
Location in Riau Islands
South China Sea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Batam
Location in South China Sea
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Batam
Location in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°05′N104°02′E / 1.083°N 104.033°E / 1.083; 104.033 Coordinates: 1°05′N104°02′E / 1.083°N 104.033°E / 1.083; 104.033
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Province Flag of Riau Islands.png  Riau Islands
Government
  MayorMuhammad Rudi
  Vice MayorAmsakar Achmad
Area
  Total1,595 km2 (616 sq mi)
  Land715 km2 (276 sq mi)
  Water880 km2 (340 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total1,196,396
  Density750/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
  Urban density800/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Postal code
29453
Area code (+62) 778
Vehicle registration BP
HDI Increase2.svg 0.810 (Very high)
Website batamkota.go.id

Batam is the largest city in the province of Riau Islands, Indonesia. The city administrative area covers three main islands of Batam, Rempang, and Galang (collectively called Barelang), as well as several small islands. Batam Island is the core urban and industrial zone, while both Rempang Island and Galang Island maintain their rural character and are connected to Batam Island by short bridges. Batam is an industrial boomtown, an emerging transport hub, and part of a free trade zone in the Indonesia–Malaysia–Singapore Growth Triangle, located 20 km (12 mi) off Singapore's south coast and also part of the Indonesia–Malaysia–Thailand Growth Triangle. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

According to Statistics Indonesia's 2020 Census, Batam had a population of 1,196,396, making it the third largest city in the region of Sumatra, after Medan and Palembang. [4] It is the closest part of Indonesia to Singapore, at a minimum land distance of 5.8 km. During the 2010 national census, Batam was the fastest-growing municipality in Indonesia the decade prior, with a population growth rate of 11% per year. [5] In 2017, the island suffered severe job losses, some 300,000 workers were laid off. [6]

History

Harbor view with oil tanks from the Shell at Sambu Island, 1936 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Havengezicht met olietanks van de Shell op Poelau Samboe TMnr 10018445.jpg
Harbor view with oil tanks from the Shell at Sambu Island, 1936

The first recorded inhabitants at Batam Island are Malays known as Orang Laut, from the year 231 AD. [7] The island that once served as the field of struggle of Admiral Hang Nadim against the invaders was used by the government in the 1960s as a petroleum logistics base on Sambu Island.

In the 1970s, according to Presidential Decree number 41 year 1973, Batam Island was designated as a working environment of an industrial area supported by Batam Island Industrial Development Authority or better known as Batam Authority Board (BOB, now Batam Development Board (Indonesian : Badan Pengusahan Batam or BP Batam) as the driving force for the development of Batam, with the initial aim of making Batam the "Indonesian version of Singapore". With the rapid development of the island, based on Government Regulation No. 34 of 1983, the Batam District (which is part of Riau Islands Regency) was upgraded to municipality status which has the duties in running government administration and society and support the development of BP Batam.

In the Reformation era in the late 1990s, with Law No. 53 of 1999, the Batam administrative municipality changed its status to an autonomous region, namely Batam City Government to carry out governmental and developmental functions by involving BP Batam.

Geography

Batam is a roughly oval island with many bays, islets, and peninsulas, located west of Bintan Island, south of Singapore, north of Rempang and Galang, and east of Bulan Island. The Riau Strait separates Batam and Bintan. Batam Municipality covers 3,990 km², of which 1,040 km² is land, a figure which includes some land reclamation. However, Barelang Island (not actually one but three, see above) covers roughly 715 km² of that 1,040 km², and Batam island itself covers only about 410 km² out of the total. The bulk of the municipal population resides on Batam island.

Climate

Batam has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy rainfall year-round.

Climate data for Batam
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)29.8
(85.6)
30.4
(86.7)
31.0
(87.8)
31.2
(88.2)
31.2
(88.2)
31.0
(87.8)
30.7
(87.3)
30.6
(87.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.8
(87.4)
30.3
(86.5)
29.6
(85.3)
30.6
(87.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.0
(78.8)
26.3
(79.3)
26.8
(80.2)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
26.4
(79.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.7
(80.0)
Average low °C (°F)22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
22.9
(73.2)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.1
(73.6)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
22.8
(73.0)
22.6
(72.7)
22.3
(72.1)
22.8
(73.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches)261
(10.3)
151
(5.9)
186
(7.3)
202
(8.0)
191
(7.5)
171
(6.7)
173
(6.8)
171
(6.7)
190
(7.5)
207
(8.1)
275
(10.8)
298
(11.7)
2,476
(97.3)
Source: Climate-Data.org [8]

Governance

BP Batam logo Badan Pengusahaan Batam.jpeg
BP Batam logo

Mayor

The role of Batam City government takes care of all population administration and civil registration as well as Human Resources. In realizing the democratization and continuity of governance in Batam City, on January 5, 2011, the election of the mayor and the deputy mayor of Batam was. Ahmad Dahlan and Muhammad Rudi were elected Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Batam period of 2011–2016. The current mayor is Muhammad Rudi for the period 2016–2021, accompanied by Amsakar Ahmad as Deputy Mayor of Batam.

Batam Development Board (BP)

Agency for Free Trade Zone and Free Port of Batam, often abbreviated as BP Batam, is a government body under the Chairmanship of the Board of Regions (DK) Batam Central Government, which is chaired by Darmin Nasution, Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs. BP Batam plays a role in land governance and investment in the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) of Batam.

Administrative divisions

The whole Batam view from the air Unnamed Road, Kota Batam, Kepulauan Riau 29411, Indonesia - panoramio.jpg
The whole Batam view from the air
Panoramic view of Batam Centre Batam Centre - panoramio (2).jpg
Panoramic view of Batam Centre

Batam City (Kotamadya Batam) is divided into twelve districts (kecamatan) – which include several adjacent islands such as Bulan, Rempang and Galang, as well as Batam Island itself. The whole municipality is thus often known by the abbreviation of Barelang. The districts are tabulated below with their areas, 2010 Census populations [9] and 2020 Census populations, [10] together with the number of administrative villages within that district [11] and its postal codes.

NameArea
in km2
Population
Census 2010
Population
Census 2020
No. of
villages
Postal
codes
Belakang Padang168.118,50822,439629412, 29413
29414, 29416
Bulang2158.89,53110,707629471 - 29476
Galang 3350.914,98316,989829481 - 29487
Sei Beduk
(Sungai Beduk)
106.080,34996,193429433 & 29437
Sagulung55.3149,727209,306629439
Nongsa4114.749,82881,451429465 - 29468
Batam Kota
(central city)
38.9162,238198,617629431 - 29433,
29461, 29464
Sekupang568.9100,108156,283729425 - 29428
Batu Aji40.8127,455139,512429422, 29424 &
29438
Lubuk Baja 11.280,78084,533529432, 29441,

29443 - 29445

Batu Ampar11.258,74560,450429452 - 29454
Bengkong14.092,033119,836429432 & 29458

Notes:

Demographics

At the 2020 Census, Batam had a population of 1,196,396 inhabitants. The population was increasing rapidly, with a population growth rate of more than 8% per year between 2001 and 2012, but has subsequently diminished.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 6,000    
1978 34,000+466.7%
1988 88,000+158.8%
1992 123,000+39.8%
1998 294,000+139.0%
2005 616,088+109.6%
2010 944,285+53.3%
2020 1,196,396+26.7%
sources: [12] [13]

Ethnicity

Ethnic groups in Batam, 2000 [14]
Ethnicity Percentage
Malay 26.78%
Javanese 17.61%
Batak 14.97%
Minangkabau 14.93%
Chinese 6.28%
Buginese 2.29%
Banjarese 0.67%
Others16.47%

Today, Batam is inhabited by a heterogeneous mixture of people due to labor migration and desire to be close to Singapore; it is very diverse, two-thirds of the population are migrants. [12] The predominant ethnicities are Malays, Javanese, Batak, Minangkabau, and Chinese. As a municipality it exemplifies the national motto of "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" (Unity in Diversity). The location of Batam, which is close to Singapore, is conducive to the development of economic, sociopolitical, and cultural aspects of the local community.

Religion

Religion in Batam – Indonesia 2017 Estimate [15]
religionpercent
Islam
71.20%
Christianity
21.72%
Buddhism
6.78%
Confucianism
0.10%
Hinduism
0.07%
Others
0.03%

Islam is the majority religion in Batam, followed by Christians, Buddhists and Hindus. Most of those who follow Islam are Javanese, Malays and Minangkabaus. The Great Mosque of Batam, located in the city center adjacent to the main square, the mayor's office and the provincial Parliament, is an important symbol of Islamic religious life in Batam. Christianity are also widely embraced by people of Batam, especially those from the Batak people of Sumatra and migrants from Flores also from East Indonesia. The majority of the Chinese population practises Buddhism. A number of Viharas are located in Batam, of which Vihara Duta Maitreya is one of the most frequented, and is the largest Vihara in Southeast Asia with an area of 4.5 hectares.

Language

Indonesian is the common lingua franca of Batam in daily use. Other languages such as local Malay (similar to the Malaysian standard as spoken in neighbouring Malaysia and Singapore), Minangkabau, Batak, Javanese, and Chinese ethnic dialects like Hokkien and Teochew are also used. The usage of Mandarin and English are trending due to Singaporean influence, especially by expatriates living in Batam.

Economy

Industrial area in Batam Industry area - panoramio.jpg
Industrial area in Batam

Based on Presidential Decree No. 41/1973, the Batam Industrial Development Authority (BP Batam) was established to manage 415 square kilometer industrial complex in Batam City for heavy industry. Previously only Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil company, settled there with only 6,000 inhabitants. [16] Shipbuilding and electronics manufacturing are important industries on the island. Being located close to the ports of Singapore, the speed of goods shipping and product distribution is increased, benefiting the island's economy. With lower labor costs and special government incentives, it is the site of many factories operated by foreign companies. [17]

Tengku Fisabilillah (Barelang) Bridge Jembatan Tengku Fisabilillah (jembatan I).jpg
Tengku Fisabilillah (Barelang) Bridge

Under a framework signed in June 2006, Batam, along with parts of neighbouring Bintan and Karimun, are a part of a Special Economic Zone with Singapore; this zone eliminates tariffs and value-added taxes for goods shipped between Batam and Singapore. [18] In 2007, Law No. 44 was enacted to supplement Law No. 36/2000 in establishing Batam as a free trade zone for 70 years. BP Batam still manage the industrial complex. And in 2016, responsibility of industrial complex changed from Governor of Riau Islands Province to the Office of the Coordinating Economic Minister as per Presidential Decree No. 8/2016. [16]

Over 1.5 million tourists visited the city in 2015. [19] Batam is the third-busiest entry port to Indonesia next to Bali and Jakarta. [20] In 2014, around 58.8% of foreign tourists came from Singapore, 12.8% from Malaysia and 4.2% from South Korea. [21] [22]

Transport

Ferry

Sekupang International Ferry Terminal Sekupang ferry terminal.png
Sekupang International Ferry Terminal
Batam Ferry Horizon Fast Ferry.jpg
Batam Ferry

Ferries connect Batam to Singapore, Bintan, and Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Five ferry terminals are on the island: Batam Harbour Bay Ferry Terminal, Nongsapura Ferry Terminal, Sekupang, Waterfront City, and Batam Center Ferry Terminal. Connections to Singapore are by way of Harbourfront and Tanah Merah Ferry Terminals run by Singapore Cruise Centre (SCC).

The most recent incident happened on 29 November 2015 when a ferry, 'Sea Prince', hit floating object(s) while en route to Singapore from Batam and began leaking. A total of 97 passengers were rescued on life rafts. [23] [24]

Harbour Bay International Ferry Terminal Harbour Bay Ferry terminal.jpg
Harbour Bay International Ferry Terminal
Harbour Bay Terminal Harbour Bay Ferry Terminal.jpg
Harbour Bay Terminal

Signs showing a picture of a raised finger over a pair of lips have been placed in August 2014 at the Batam Centre International Ferry Terminal to request silence while queuing for immigration to hear names being called and clearly hear instructions given by the immigration officer. Some visitors have been sent back immediately on the first ferry available for flouting this rule. The signs are also applicable at other terminals, but are not strictly enforced. [25]

Trans Batam

Trans Batam interior Batam Busway Interior.jpg
Trans Batam interior
Trans Batam buses Busway Batam Halte.jpg
Trans Batam buses

Trans Batam is the most reliable and the cheapest public transportation in Batam. It began to operate in 2005. Trans Batam is the second BRT system in Indonesia, after Jakarta's TransJakarta. The price for one ride is Rp2,000 for students and Rp4,000 for the public. Trans Batam operates from 05:30 to 19:00.

Trans Batam serves 8 corridors of route:

Corridor #Origin & destination
1Sekupang–Batam Centre
2Tanjung Uncang–Batam Centre
3Sekupang–Jodoh
4Sagulung–Sekupang
5Jodoh–Batam Centre
6Tanjung Piayu–Batam Centre
7Nongsa–Batam Centre
8Punggur–Jodoh
Source: Batam City Government Transportation Agency [26]

Taxi

Blue Bird taxi Blue Bird BD.jpg
Blue Bird taxi

Taxis in Batam are available almost anywhere, at ferry terminals, the airport, shopping malls, hotels, etc. More than 3000 taxis are in Batam. In the early 2000s, Batam commonly had Toyota Corolla taxis. Starting in late 2013, more than 95% of taxis are brand new using the Toyota Limo and Chevrolet Lova.

Airport

Hang Nadim International Airport is the island's main airport, and has the longest runway of all airports in Indonesia. The airport was the largest airport in the Sumatra region from 1995–2012 with a capacity of six million passengers annually, and is now the second-largest in the Sumatra region after Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan, which has a capacity of eight million passengers. The airport has 4 paired jetbridges and 2 single jetbridges. Hang Nadim International Airport is a hub for Lion Air, Batik Air, Citilink, and Malindo Air. BP Batam, which operates Hang Nadim International Airport, will build a new terminal with a capacity of eight million passengers per year for each terminal (16 million passengers per year in total for two terminals) in late 2016. BP Batam intends to build eight paired jetbridges in the new terminal. [27] Domestic destinations include Pekanbaru, Palembang, Medan, Jakarta, Padang, Surabaya, Bandung, Bandar Lampung, Balikpapan, Yogyakarta, Makassar, and many more. International flights currently include Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (operated by Malindo Air).

Environment

Due to piling works for touristic activity, sand mining, and logging for charcoal business, only 4.2% of Batam island is covered in mangrove forest, a great decrease from 24% in 1970. [28] Originally, Batam Island had 41,500 hectares of mangrove forests. [29]

See also

Related Research Articles

Riau Islands Province of Indonesia

The Riau Islands is a province of Indonesia. It comprises a total of 1,796 islands scattered between Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, and Borneo including the Riau Archipelago. Situated on one of the world's busiest shipping lanes along the Malacca Strait and the South China Sea, the province shares water borders with neighboring countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei. The Riau Islands also has a relatively large potential of mineral resources, energy, as well as marine resources. The capital of the province is Tanjung Pinang and the largest city is Batam.

Natuna Regency Regency in Riau Islands, Indonesia

Natuna Regency is an islands regency located in northernmost part of Province of Riau Islands. It contains for at least 154 islands, of which 127 of them reported as uninhabited. This archipelago, with 264,198.37 sq km area, contains island district of Pulau Laut, Bunguran/Greater Natuna Island, island district of Pulau Tiga, island district of Midai, island district of Subi, and island district of Serasan.

Riau Archipelago Indonesian archipelago

The Riau Archipelago is a geographic term for the core group of islands within the Riau Islands Province in Indonesia, and located south of Singapore and east of Riau on Sumatra. Before the province of Riau Islands was formed, there was no ambiguity in term; however, in Indonesian language, both the archipelago and administrative province are referred to as simply "Kepulauan Riau". The province may have the word "Provinsi" preceding it for clarity. Additionally the term BBK for Batam Bintan Karimun may refer to the archipelago.

Pekanbaru City in Riau, Indonesia

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Bintan Island Island of the Riau Archipelago in Riau Islands, Indonesia

Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island in the Riau archipelago of Indonesia. It is part of the Riau Islands province, the capital of which, Tanjung Pinang, lies in the island's south and is the island's main community.

Lingga Regency Regency in Riau Islands, Indonesia

The Lingga Regency is a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, along both sides of the equator, off the eastern coast of Riau Province on Sumatra island. They are south of the populated Riau Archipelago, known for the industrial island of Batam and the tourist-frequented island of Bintan, although the Lingga Islands themselves are rarely visited due to the infrequent local transportation. The equator goes through the northern tip of Lingga Island, the main island in the archipelago.

Galang is an island of 80 km2 located 25 mi (40 km) southeast of Batam, belonging to a group of three islands called Barelang. Part of the Riau Archipelago, Indonesia, Galang is located just south of Batam and Rempang which themselves are just south of Singapore and Johor. Administratively, all three islands form part of the city of Batam; the nearest other city to Galang is Tanjungpinang on Bintan island, about a 30-minute boat ride away. The island is connected by the Barelang Bridge to Rempang and Batam.

Galang Refugee Camp

Galang Refugee Camp accommodated Indochinese refugees from 1979 to 1996 on Galang Island in the Riau Islands of Indonesia. It is estimated that around 250,000 refugees passed through Galang during this period.

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Tanjungpinang City in Riau Islands, Indonesia

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Riau Airlines was an airline based in Pekanbaru in the Indonesian province of Riau, Sumatra. It operated domestic and international services out of Sultan Syarif Qasim II International Airport, Pekanbaru. Riau Airlines was listed in category 1 by Indonesian Civil Aviation Authority for airline safety.

Dumai City in Riau

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Hang Nadim International Airport Airport in Batam, Indonesia

Hang Nadim International Airport, is located in Batam, Riau Islands, Indonesia. It is named after Laksamana Hang Nadim, a Malay warrior. The airport is the primary method of transport to and from Batam, alongside ferries to neighboring islands.

Bintan Regency Regency in Riau Islands, Indonesia

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Rempang

Rempang is an island, located 2.5 km South-East of Batam, 165.83 km². belonging to a group of three islands called Barelang A member of the Riau Archipelago, in the Riau Islands province of Indonesia, Rempang is located just south of Batam and north of Galang which themselves are just south of Singapore and Johor. The nearest city to Rempang is Tanjung Pinang on Bintan, situated about half hour boat ride from Batam.

Kundur Island

Kundur Island is an island within the Riau Archipelago, part of the Riau Islands Province of Indonesia. It lies at about 80 kilometres southwest of Singapore, 76 kilometres (47 mi) southwest of Batam, 32 kilometres (20 mi) south of Great Karimun, 172 kilometres (107 mi) northwest of Lingga Islands and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of Tanjung Pinang. It has an area of about 304 square kilometres (117 sq mi), not including district Buru. According to the 2010 Census population, the population of Kundur Island is 67,090. As Kundur does not have an airport, all visitors arrive by ferry.

Singapore Strait crossing

The Singapore Strait crossing is a proposed tunnel, bridge or combination of the two spanning the Singapore Strait and linking Singapore with the Riau archipelago of Indonesia, most likely with the island of Batam. In the early 1990s the Riau Islands experienced a major economic boom in response to the development of an industrial estate on Batam, located 15 km (9 mi) southeast of Singapore. Singapore and Batam currently are connected only by ferry service.

Barelang is a portmanteau of the words Batam, Rempang, and Galang, three islands in the municipality of Batam in the Riau Islands Province of Indonesia. They are connected by Barelang Bridge.

Batam Center Ferry Terminal is an international ferry terminal located in Teluk Tering, Batam, Riau Islands, Indonesia. The terminal mostly serves international routes to Singapore and Malaysia. It is located north of governmental buildings of Batam and landmarks such as the Grand Mosque of Batam and Engku Putri Fountain.

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