|City of Batam|
("The Industrial City")
|• Mayor||Muhammad Rudi|
|• Vice mayor||Amsakar Achmad|
|• Total||1,595 km2 (616 sq mi)|
|• Land||715 km2 (276 sq mi)|
|• Water||880 km2 (340 sq mi)|
|• Density||750/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||800/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)|
|Area code||(+62) 778|
|HDI||0.810 (Very high)|
Batam is the largest city in the province of Riau Islands, Indonesia. The city administrative area covers three main islands of Batam, Rempang, and Galang (collectively called Barelang), as well as several small islands. Batam Island is the core urban and industrial zone, while both Rempang Island and Galang Island maintain their rural character and are connected to Batam Island by short bridges. Batam is an industrial boomtown, an emerging transport hub, and part of a free trade zone in the Indonesia–Malaysia–Singapore Growth Triangle, located 20 km (12 mi) off Singapore's south coast and also part of the Indonesia–Malaysia–Thailand Growth Triangle.
According to Statistics Indonesia's 2020 census, Batam had a population of 1,196,396, making it the third largest city in the region of Sumatra, after Medan and Palembang. km. During the 2010 national census, Batam was the fastest-growing municipality in Indonesia the decade prior, with a population growth rate of 11% per year. In 2017, the island suffered severe job losses, some 300,000 workers were laid off.It is the closest part of Indonesia to Singapore, at a minimum land distance of 5.8
The first recorded inhabitants at Batam Island are Malays known as Orang Laut, from the year 231 AD.The island that once served as the field of struggle of Admiral Hang Nadim against the invaders was used by the government in the 1960s as a petroleum logistics base on Sambu Island.
In the 1970s, according to Presidential Decree number 41 year 1973, Batam Island was designated as a working environment of an industrial area supported by Batam Island Industrial Development Authority or better known as Batam Authority Board (BOB, now Batam Development Board (Indonesian : Badan Pengusahan Batam or BP Batam) as the driving force for the development of Batam, with the initial aim of making Batam the "Indonesian version of Singapore". With the rapid development of the island, based on Government Regulation No. 34 of 1983, the Batam District (which is part of Riau Islands Regency) was upgraded to municipality status which has the duties in running government administration and society and support the development of BP Batam.
In the Reformation era in the late 1990s, with Act No. 53 of 1999, the Batam administrative municipality changed its status to an autonomous region, namely Batam City Government to carry out governmental and developmental functions by involving BP Batam.
Batam is a roughly oval island with many bays, islets, and peninsulas, located west of Bintan Island, south of Singapore, north of Rempang and Galang, and east of Bulan Island. The Riau Strait separates Batam and Bintan. Batam Municipality covers 3,990 km², of which 1,040 km² is land, a figure which includes some land reclamation. However, Barelang Island (not actually one but three, see above) covers roughly 715 km² of that 1,040 km², and Batam island itself covers only about 410 km² out of the total. The bulk of the municipal population resides on Batam Island.
Batam has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy rainfall year-round.
|Climate data for Batam|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||22.2|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||261|
The Batam city government takes care of all population administration and civil registration as well as human resources. The current mayor is Muhammad Rudi for the period 2016–2021, accompanied by Amsakar Ahmad as deputy mayor.
The Agency for Free Trade Zone and Free Port of Batam, often abbreviated as BP Batam, is a government nonstructural body under the Chairmanship of the Board of Regions (DK) Batam Central Government, which is chaired by a Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs. BP Batam plays a role in land governance and investment in the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) of Batam.
Batam city is divided into twelve districts (kecamatan) – which include several adjacent islands such as Bulan, Rempang and Galang, as well as Batam Island itself. The whole municipality is thus often known by the abbreviation of Barelang. The districts are tabulated below with their areas, 2010 census populationsand 2020 census populations, together with the number of administrative villages within that district and its postal codes.
|Belakang Padang1||68.1||18,508||22,439||6||29412, 29413|
|Bulang2||158.8||9,531||10,707||6||29471 - 29476|
|Galang 3||350.9||14,983||16,989||8||29481 - 29487|
|Sei Beduk |
|106.0||80,349||96,193||4||29433 & 29437|
|Nongsa4||114.7||49,828||81,451||4||29465 - 29468|
|Batam Kota |
|38.9||162,238||198,617||6||29431 - 29433,|
|Sekupang5||68.9||100,108||156,283||7||29425 - 29428|
|Batu Aji||40.8||127,455||139,512||4||29422, 29424 & |
|Lubuk Baja||11.2||80,780||84,533||5||29432, 29441, |
29443 - 29445
|Batu Ampar||11.2||58,745||60,450||4||29452 - 29454|
|Bengkong||14.0||92,033||119,836||4||29432 & 29458|
At the 2020 census, Batam had a population of 1,196,396 inhabitants. The population was increasing rapidly, with a population growth rate of more than 8% per year between 2001 and 2012, but has subsequently diminished.
|Ethnic groups in Batam, 2000|
Today, Batam is inhabited by a heterogeneous mixture of people due to labor migration and desire to be close to Singapore; it is very diverse, two-thirds of the population are migrants.The predominant ethnicities are Malays, Javanese, Batak, Minangkabau, and Chinese. As a municipality it exemplifies the national motto of "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" (Unity in Diversity). The location of Batam, which is close to Singapore, is conducive to the development of economic, sociopolitical, and cultural aspects of the local community.
Islam is the majority religion in Batam, followed by Christians, Buddhists and Hindus. Most of those who follow Islam are Javanese, Malays and Minangkabaus. The Great Mosque of Batam, located in the city center adjacent to the main square, the mayor's office and the provincial Parliament, is an important symbol of Islamic religious life in Batam. Christianity are also widely embraced by people of Batam, especially those from the Batak people of Sumatra and migrants from Flores also from East Indonesia. The majority of the Chinese population practises Buddhism. A number of Viharas are located in Batam, of which Vihara Duta Maitreya is one of the most frequented, and is the largest Vihara in Southeast Asia with an area of 4.5 hectares.
Indonesian is the common lingua franca of Batam in daily use. Other languages such as local Malay (similar to the Malaysian standard as spoken in neighbouring Malaysia and Singapore), Minangkabau, Batak, Javanese, and Chinese ethnic dialects like Hokkien and Teochew are also used. The usage of Mandarin and English are trending due to Singaporean influence, especially by expatriates living in Batam.
Based on Presidential Decree No. 41/1973, the Batam Industrial Development Authority (BP Batam) was established to manage 415 square kilometer industrial complex in Batam City for heavy industry. Previously only Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil company, settled there with only 6,000 inhabitants.Shipbuilding and electronics manufacturing are important industries on the island. Being located close to the ports of Singapore, the speed of goods shipping and product distribution is increased, benefiting the island's economy. With lower labor costs and special government incentives, it is the site of many factories operated by foreign companies.
Under a framework signed in June 2006, Batam, along with parts of neighbouring Bintan and Karimun, are a part of a Special Economic Zone with Singapore; this zone eliminates tariffs and value-added taxes for goods shipped between Batam and Singapore.In 2007, Law No. 44 was enacted to supplement Law No. 36/2000 in establishing Batam as a free trade zone for 70 years. BP Batam still manage the industrial complex. And in 2016, responsibility of industrial complex changed from the governor of Riau Islands Province to the Office of the Coordinating Economic Minister as per Presidential Decree No. 8/2016.
Over 1.5 million tourists visited the city in 2015.Batam is the third-busiest entry port to Indonesia next to Bali and Jakarta. In 2014, around 58.8% of foreign tourists came from Singapore, 12.8% from Malaysia and 4.2% from South Korea.
Ferries connect Batam to Singapore, Bintan, and Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Five ferry terminals are on the island: Batam Harbour Bay Ferry Terminal, Nongsapura Ferry Terminal, Sekupang, Waterfront City, and Batam Center Ferry Terminal. Connections to Singapore are by way of Harbourfront and Tanah Merah Ferry Terminals run by Singapore Cruise Centre (SCC).
The most recent incident happened on 29 November 2015 when a ferry, 'Sea Prince', hit floating object(s) while en route to Singapore from Batam and began leaking. A total of 97 passengers were rescued on life rafts.
Signs showing a picture of a raised finger over a pair of lips have been placed in August 2014 at the Batam Centre International Ferry Terminal to request silence while queuing for immigration to hear names being called and clearly hear instructions given by the immigration officer. Some visitors have been sent back immediately on the first ferry available for flouting this rule. The signs are also applicable at other terminals, but are not strictly enforced.
Trans Batam is the most reliable and the cheapest public transportation in Batam. It began to operate in 2005. Trans Batam is the second BRT system in Indonesia, after Jakarta's TransJakarta. The price for one ride is Rp2,000 for students and Rp4,000 for the public. Trans Batam operates from 05:30 to 19:00.
Trans Batam serves 8 corridors of route:
|Corridor #||Origin & destination|
|2||Tanjung Uncang–Batam Centre|
|6||Tanjung Piayu–Batam Centre|
|Source: Batam City Government Transportation Agency|
Taxis in Batam are available almost anywhere, at ferry terminals, the airport, shopping malls, hotels, etc. More than 3000 taxis are in Batam. In the early 2000s, Batam commonly had Toyota Corolla taxis. Starting in late 2013, more than 95% of taxis are brand new using the Toyota Limo and Chevrolet Lova.
Hang Nadim International Airport is the island's main airport, and has the longest runway of all airports in Indonesia. The airport was the largest airport in the Sumatra region from 1995 to 2012 with a capacity of six million passengers annually, and is now the second-largest in the Sumatra region after Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan, which has a capacity of eight million passengers. The airport has 4 paired jetbridges and 2 single jetbridges. Hang Nadim International Airport is a hub for Lion Air, Batik Air and Citilink. BP Batam, which operates Hang Nadim International Airport, will build a new terminal with a capacity of eight million passengers per year for each terminal (16 million passengers per year in total for two terminals) in late 2016. BP Batam intends to build eight paired jetbridges in the new terminal.Domestic destinations include Pekanbaru, Palembang, Medan, Jakarta, Padang, Surabaya, Bandung, Bandar Lampung, Balikpapan, Yogyakarta, Makassar, and many more. International flights currently include Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (operated by Batik Air Malaysia).
Due to piling works for touristic activity, sand mining, and logging for charcoal business, only 4.2% of Batam Island is covered in mangrove forests, a great decrease from 24% in 1970.Originally, Batam Island had 41,500 hectares of mangrove forests.
The Riau Islands is a province of Indonesia. It comprises a total of 1,796 islands scattered between Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, and Borneo including the Riau Archipelago. Situated on one of the world's busiest shipping lanes along the Malacca Strait and the South China Sea, the province shares water borders with neighboring countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei. The Riau Islands also has a relatively large potential of mineral resources, energy, as well as marine resources. The capital of the province is Tanjung Pinang and the largest city is Batam.
Natuna Regency is an islands regency located in the northernmost part of the Province of Riau Islands, Indonesia. It contains at least 154 islands, of which 127 of them are reported as uninhabited. This archipelago, with 264,198.37 km2 area, contains the island district of Pulau Laut, Bunguran/Greater Natuna Island, the island district of Pulau Tiga, the island district of Midai, the island district of Subi, and the island district of Serasan.
The Riau Archipelago is a geographic term for the core group of islands within the Riau Islands Province in Indonesia, and located south of Singapore and east of Riau on Sumatra. Before the province of Riau Islands was formed, there was no ambiguity in term; however, in Indonesian language, both the archipelago and administrative province are referred to as simply "Kepulauan Riau". The province may have the word "Provinsi" preceding it for clarity. Additionally the term BBK for Batam Bintan Karimun may refer to the archipelago.
Pekanbaru is the capital of Indonesian province of Riau, and a major economic center on the eastern part of Sumatra Island. Its name is derived from the Malay words for 'new week' . It has an area of 632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi), with a population of 897,767 at the 2010 Census, and 983,356 at the 2020 Census. It is located on the banks of the Siak River, which flows into the Strait of Malacca, Pekanbaru has direct access to the busy strait and has long been known as a trading port.
Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island in the Riau archipelago of Indonesia. It is part of the Riau Islands province, the capital of which, Tanjung Pinang, lies in the island's south and is the island's main community.
Galang is an island of 80 km2 located 25 mi (40 km) southeast of Batam, belonging to a group of three islands called Barelang. Part of the Riau Archipelago, Indonesia, Galang is located just south of Batam and Rempang which themselves are just south of Singapore and Johor. Administratively, all three islands form part of the city of Batam; the nearest other city to Galang is Tanjungpinang on Bintan island, about a 30-minute boat ride away. The island is connected by the Barelang Bridge to Rempang and Batam.
Galang Refugee Camp accommodated Indochinese refugees from 1979 to 1996 on Galang Island in the Riau Islands of Indonesia. It is estimated that around 250,000 refugees passed through Galang during this period.
The Sijori was established in 1994 between three countries, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, to strengthen economic links in the region and optimise the complementarity between the three countries. It started off as the SIJORI Growth Triangle in 1989, which includes Singapore, Johor, and a part of Riau Islands Province, specifically the Riau Archipelago.
Tanjungpinang, also written as Tanjung Pinang, is the capital city of the Indonesian province of Riau Islands. It covers a land area of 144.56 km2, mainly on the southern Bintan Island, as well as other smaller islands such as Dompak Island and Penyengat Island. With a population of 227,663 at the 2020 Census, it is the second largest city of the province, after Batam. Tanjungpinang is a historic city of the Malay culture, having served as the capital of both Johor Sultanate and Riau-Lingga Sultanate.
In the Malay epic Sejarah Melayu, Hang Nadim Laksamana Hang Nadim was a warrior of the Johor-Riau during the Portuguese occupation of Malacca. He is the son of legendary Malacca Warrior Hang Jebat and foster son another legendary Malacca Warrior Hang Tuah. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, Sultan Mahmud withdrew from Teloh Naming to Ulu Muar, then settled in Pagoh and Bentayan. Sultan Mahmud and his descendants built up the Johor Sultanate as the basis of Johor-Riau Empire based in Johore, the Riau Islands, Pahang and all those parts of the old Malacca Sultanate which was not occupied by the Portuguese. Although Malacca had fallen to the Portuguese, Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad had continuously sent his army to attack the Portuguese in Malacca from 1511 till 1526. Sultan Mahmud died in Kampar, Sumatra in 1528 and was known as Marhum Kampar.
Dumai, is a city in Riau province on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The city has an area of 1,727.38 km2 and had 253,803 inhabitants at the 2010 census, 285,448 at the 2015 census and 316,782 at the 2020 census. Dumai has a domestic airport, Pinang Kampai Airport. Dumai is an important transport and trade centre, both regionally and internationally, especially to Malaysia. Dumai is rich in oil.
Hang Nadim International Airport is an international airport located in Batam, Riau Islands, Indonesia. It is named after Laksamana Hang Nadim Pahlawan Kechik, a legendary warrior from the region. The airport is the primary method of transport to and from Batam, alongside ferries to neighboring islands, including the sovereign city-state Singapore in the north.
Bintan Regency is an administrative area in the Riau Islands Province of Indonesia. Bintan Regency includes all of Bintan Island and also includes many outlying islands including the Tambelan Archipelago and Badas Islands situated between Bintan and West Kalimantan.
The Barelang Bridge is a chain of 6 bridges of various types that connect the islands of Batam, Rempang, and Galang, Riau Islands built in 1997. Barelang also refers to the islands themselves, which are all administratively part of the municipality of Batam. The smaller islands of Tonton, Nipah, and Setotok connect Batam and Rempang, while a further small island - Galang Baru - is connected at the southern end of the chain. The entire Barelang region covers 715 km².
Rempang is an island, located 2.5 km South-East of Batam, 165.83 km2. belonging to a group of three islands called Barelang A member of the Riau Archipelago, in the Riau Islands province of Indonesia, Rempang is located just south of Batam and north of Galang which themselves are just south of Singapore and Johor. The nearest city to Rempang is Tanjung Pinang on Bintan, situated about half hour boat ride from Batam.
Kundur Island is an island within the Riau Archipelago, part of the Riau Islands Province of Indonesia. It lies at about 80 kilometres southwest of Singapore, 76 kilometres (47 mi) southwest of Batam, 32 kilometres (20 mi) south of Great Karimun Island, 172 kilometres (107 mi) northwest of Lingga Islands and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of Tanjung Pinang. It has an area of about 304 square kilometres (117 sq mi), not including Buru District. According to the 2010 Census population, the population of Kundur Island was 67,090. As Kundur does not have an airport, all visitors arrive by ferry.
The Singapore Strait crossing is a proposed tunnel, bridge or combination of the two spanning the Singapore Strait and linking Singapore with the Riau archipelago of Indonesia, most likely with the island of Batam. In the early 1990s the Riau Islands experienced a major economic boom in response to the development of an industrial estate on Batam, located 15 km (9 mi) southeast of Singapore. Singapore and Batam currently are connected only by ferry service.
Indonesia and Singapore established diplomatic relations ) on 7 September 1967, a month after the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) on 8 August 1967. Indonesia and Singapore are two of the five founding members of ASEAN. Both nations are also members of the Non-Aligned Movement and APEC.
The Batam-Bintan Bridge, also known as the Babin Bridge is a proposed series of cable-stayed bridges crossing the Riau Strait between the islands of Batam and Bintan in the Riau Islands of Indonesia, near Singapore. Construction is scheduled to start in 2022 at a cost of 13.66 trillion rupiah, which was planned to be provided under a joint government-enterprises financing scheme. It was targeted to be finished at 2024.