Regency (Indonesia)

Last updated

A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is the division of administrative regions in Indonesia after provinces, which are headed by a regent. In addition to districts, the division of administrative areas after the provinces is the city. In general, both districts and cities have the same authority. Structuring the relationship between the Governor and the Governor and the Regent as well as the Mayor in the implementation of good governance and institutional arrangements that can synergize the effective relationship of government authority between the Provincial Government and the Regency and City Governments alone, [1] [2] sometimes incorrectly referred to as a district [lower-alpha 1] , is an administrative division of Indonesia, directly under a province. Regencies and cities are divided into districts (Kecamatan, or Distrik in Papua). [3] [4]

Contents

The English name "regency" comes from the Dutch colonial period, when regencies were ruled by bupati (or regents) and were known as regentschap in Dutch (kabupaten in Javanese and subsequently Indonesian). [5] Bupati had been regional lords under the precolonial monarchies of Java. [6] When the Dutch abolished or curtailed those monarchies, the bupati were left as the most senior indigenous authority. [7] [8] [9] They were not, strictly speaking, "native rulers" because the Dutch claimed full sovereignty over their territory, but in practice, they had many of the attributes of petty kings, including elaborate regalia and palaces and a high degree of impunity. [10] [11]

Etymology

Portrait of a Javanese regent in gala uniform (circa 1900). COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Portret van een Javaanse Regent in gala-uniform. TMnr 60042311.jpg
Portrait of a Javanese regent in gala uniform (circa 1900).

The Indonesian title of bupati is originally a loanword from Sanskrit originating in India, a shortening of the Sanskrit title bhumi-pati (bhumi भूमि '(of the) land' + pati पति 'lord', hence bhumi-pati 'lord of the land'). [12] In Indonesia, bupati was originally used as a Javanese title for regional rulers in precolonial kingdoms, its first recorded usage being in the Telaga Batu inscription, which dates to the Srivijaya period, in which bhupati is mentioned among the titles of local rulers who paid allegiance to Sriwijaya's kings. [13] [12] Related titles which were also used in precolonial Indonesia are adipati ('duke') and senapati ('lord of the army' or 'general'). As we know today, the district has de facto existed since Januari 28, 1892, in the 19th century AD, when the Dutch East Indies government established the Landarchief. On January 29, 1892, the first landarchivasis was confirmed, Mr. Jacob Anne van der Chijs which lasted until 1905. Juridically, the existence of Indonesia archival institutions began with the proclamation of Indonesia independence on August 17, 1945. [14]

Pre-independence period

Sosroningrat, Regent of Jepara 1881-1905 Sosroningrat, regent van Djapara.jpg
Sosroningrat, Regent of Jepara 1881–1905

Regencies in Java territorial units were grouped together into residencies headed by exclusively European residents. This term hinted that the residents had a quasi-diplomatic status in relation to the bupati (and indeed they had such a relationship with the native rulers who continued to prevail in much of Indonesia outside Java), but in practice the bupati had to follow Dutch instructions on any matter of concern to the colonial authorities. Like the current system of government in Indonesia, the system of historical times is still in effect. [15] [16] [17]

The relationship between those sides was ambivalent: while legal and military power rested with the Dutch government (or, for a long time, with the Dutch East India Company under a Governor General in Batavia on Java, the regents held higher protocollary rank than the assistant-resident who supposedly advised them and held day-to-day sway over the population. [18] After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, the terms bupati and kabupaten were applied throughout the archipelago to the administrative unit below the residency (karesidenan).

Recent history

In the Telaga Batu inscription, which was found in the village near Palembang and contains a worship of the king of srivijaya, there may be the word bhupati. The inscription is estimated to be from the end af the 7th century AD, Indonesia inscription expert Johannes Gijsbertus de Casparis translated bhupati with the term head (hoofd in Dutch), the word bhupati is also found in the Ligor inscription, which was found in the Nakhon Si Thammarat province of Thailand, In the 17th century, Europeans called the area Ligor. this inscription was identified in 775 AD 7th century AD, the term bhupati was used to refer to the king of srivijaya hujunglangit in the 9th century AD [19] [20] [21]

Since the start of the Reform Era in 1998 a remarkable secession of regency governments has arisen in Indonesia. The process has become known as pemekaran (division). Following the surge of support for decentralisation across Indonesia which occurred following the fall of Soeharto in 1998, key new decentralisation laws were passed in 1999. Subsequently, there was a jump in the number of regencies (and cities) from around 300 at the end of 1998 to 514 in 2014 sixteen years later. This secession of new regencies, welcome at first, has become increasingly controversial within Indonesia because the administrative fragmentation has proved costly and has not brought the hoped-for benefits.

Senior levels of the administration expressed a general feeling that the process of pemekaran needed to be slowed (or even stopped for the time being), although local politicians at various levels across government in Indonesia continue to express strong populist support for the continued creation of new regencies. [22] Indeed, no further regencies or independent cities have been created since 2014. However, a paper on fiscal decentralization and regional income inequality in 2019 argued that that fiscal decentralization reduces regional income inequality. [23]

Since 1998, a large portion of governance have been delegated from central government in Jakarta to local regencies, with regencies now playing important role in providing services to Indonesian people. [24] Direct elections for regents and mayors began in 2005, with the leaders previously being elected by local legislative councils. [25]

Statistics

As of 2020, there are 416 regencies in Indonesia, and 98 cities. 120 of these are in Sumatra, 85 are in Java, 37 are in Nusa Tenggara, 47 are in Kalimantan, 70 are in Sulawesi, 17 are in Maluku, and 40 in Papua. [26]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Banten</span> Province of Indonesia in western Java

Banten is the westernmost province on the island of Java, Indonesia. Its provincial capital city is Serang. The province borders West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta to the east, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Sunda Strait to the west, which separates Java from the neighbouring island of Sumatra. The province covers an area of 9,662.82 km2 (3,730.84 sq mi) and has a total population of over 11.9 million according to the 2020 Census, up from around 10.6 million during the 2010 census, with the official estimate for mid-2021 being 12.06 million. Formerly part of the province of West Java, Banten was declared a separate province in 2000. The Banten region is the homeland of the Sundanese Banten people and has historically had a slightly different culture from the Sundanese people in the West Java region. In recent years, the northern half, particularly the areas near Jakarta and the Java Sea coast, have experienced rapid rises in population and urbanization, while the southern half, particularly that facing the Indian Ocean, maintains a more traditional character.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Provinces of Indonesia</span> First-level subdivision of Indonesia

Provinces of Indonesia are the 37 administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Subdivisions of Indonesia</span>

Indonesia is divided into provinces. Provinces are made up of regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). Provinces, regencies and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies.

In Indonesia, village or subdistrict is the fourth-level subdivision below a district, regency/city, and province. There are a number of names and types for villages in Indonesia, with desa being the most frequently used for regencies and kelurahan for cities. According to the 2019 report by the Ministry of Home Affairs, there are 8,488 urban villages and 74,953 rural villages in Indonesia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Magelang Regency</span> Regency in Central Java, Indonesia

Magelang is a regency in Central Java, Indonesia, famous for its 9th century Buddhist temple of Borobudur. Its capital is Mungkid. It covers an area of 1,085.73 km2 and had a population of 1,181,723 at the 2010 Census and 1,299,859 at the 2020 Census. These figures exclude the autonomous city of Magelang, which is separately administered but is geographically enclaved within the regency, which borders Temanggung Regency to the north, Semarang Regency to the northeast, Boyolali Regency to the east, the Special Region of Yogyakarta to the south and southeast, Purworejo Regency to the southwest, and Wonosobo Regency to the west. Its motto is Magelang Gemilang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sukabumi Regency</span> Regency in West Java, Indonesia

Sukabumi Regency is a regency (kabupaten) in southwestern Java, as part of West Java province of Indonesia. The regency seat is located in Palabuhan Ratu, a coastal district facing the Indian Ocean. The regency fully encircles the administratively separated city of Sukabumi. Covering an area of 4,145.70 km2, the regency is the largest regency in West Java and the second largest regency on Java after the Banyuwangi Regency in East Java. The regency had a population of 2,341,409 at the 2010 census and 2,725,450 at the 2020 census. with a large part of it living in the northeastern part of the regency that encircles Sukabumi City, south of Mount Gede. A plan to create a new regency, the North Sukabumi Regency is currently waiting for the approval of the central government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salakanagara</span>

The Salakanagara Kingdom is the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in Western Java. The kingdom existed between 130-362 AD.
Claudius Ptolemaeus wrote about Java in his book, Geographie Hypogenesis. He mentions the name of Argyre Chora in Labadio. According to the historian, Labadio means Dwipa-Javaka, Dwipa-Javaka or Java Dwipa, which is the ancient name of Java Island. There was one kingdom which rule west coast Java in 160 AD, Salakanagara. Salakanagara means “Silver Nation”. It reinforces the theory that Ptolemaeus may have visited Java in 160 AD.
A relatively modern literature in the 17th century Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara describes Salakanagara as being founded by an Indian merchant from Pallava Kingdom.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bantenese people</span> Ethnic group in Indonesia

The Bantenese people or Sundanese-Bantenese are an indigenous Sundanese people ethnic group native to Banten in the westernmost hemiphere of Java island, Indonesia. The area of Banten province corresponds more or less with the area of the former Banten Sultanate, a Banten nation state that precedes Indonesia. In his book "The Sultanate of Banten", Guillot Claude writes on page 35: “These estates, owned by the Bantenese of Chinese descent, were concentrated around the village of Kelapadua.” Most of Bantenese are Sunni Muslim. The Bantenese speak the Bantenese language is a dialect of the Sundanese language which does not have a general linguistic register, this language is called Basa Sunda Banten.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Minahasa Regency</span> Regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Minahasa Regency is a regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its capital is Tondano. It covers an area of 1,141.64 km2 and had a population of 310,384 at the 2010 Census; this rose to 347,290 at the 2020 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lampung people</span> Ethnic group in Indonesia

The Lampung or Lampungese are an indigenous ethnic group native to Lampung and some parts of South Sumatra, Bengkulu, as well as in the southwest coast of Banten. They speak the Lampung language, a Lampungic language estimated to have 1.5 million speakers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dede Rosyada</span>

Dede Rosyada is a Muslim academic and intellectual from Indonesia. He has been rector of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta since 2015.

Ciaruteun inscription

Ciaruteun inscription also written Ciarutön or also known as Ciampea inscription is a 5th-century stone inscription discovered on the riverbed of Ciaruteun River, a tributary of Cisadane River, not far from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. The inscription is dated from the Tarumanagara kingdom period, one of the earliest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesian history. The inscription states King Purnawarman is the ruler of Tarumanagara.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bantenese language</span> Sundanesic language spoken by Bantenese people

Sundanese Banten or Bantenese is one of the Sundanesic languages dialect spoken predominantly by the Bantenese —an indigenous ethnic group native to Banten— in the westernmost hemisphere of Java island, and in the western Bogor Regency, as well as the northwestern parts of Sukabumi Regency. The Bantenese language is the lingua franca of the Kasepuhan Ciptagelar traditional community in the Cisolok district and the Kasepuhan Banten Kidul traditional community in the Lebak Regency.

Bungku people

Bungku people are an ethnic group who mostly resides in North Bungku, South Bungku, Central Bungku, and Menui Islands districts di Morowali Regency, in Central Sulawesi province of Indonesia. This ethnic group is divided into several sub-groups, namely Lambatu, Epe, Ro'tua, Reta, and Wowoni. Bungku people have their own language, called Bungku language, which is one of their characteristic and serves as a means of communication between themselves. They generally embrace Islam or Christianity.

Munggu Antan inscription

Munggu Antan inscription is an inscription in the form of a stone stele found in the village of Bulus, Purworejo Regency, which was once included in the Kedu Residency. This inscription contains the designation of the village Munggu Antan as a sima dedicated to a temple in Gusali, and it is written in Sanskrit. This inscription was issued by Sang Pamegat Munggu and his younger sister Sang Hadyan Palutungan, who was also the wife of Sang Dewata at Pastika, at the behest of Sri Maharaja Rake Gurunwangi, dated 808 Saka or 887 CE.

Kebon Kopi I inscription

Kebon Kopi I also known as Tapak Gajah inscription, is one of several inscriptions dated from the era of Tarumanagara Kingdom circa 5th century. The inscription bearing the image of elephant footprint, which was copied from the elephant ride of King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara, which is equated with Airavata, the elephant vahana (vehicle) of Indra.

A municipality or municipality is a city which is in an area headed by a regional head, namely the mayor, because the place of the city is in the capital of the lokal province. A municipality is an area headed by a mayor. This city is also known as the city.

Sang Ratu Sri Janasadhu Warmadewa was a king of the Warmadewa dynasty, who ruled Bali around the end of the 10th century CE. Based on various inscriptions, he was the fifth king of the dynasty. King Janasadhu's name has been found in only one inscription, namely the Sembiran inscription, which was dated to 897 Saka.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Regent of Thousand Islands</span> Head of the regency of Thousand Islands

The Regent of Thousand Islands, officially the Administrative Regent of Thousand Islands, is the highest office in the regency of Thousand Islands. Unlike regents in other regencies in Indonesia, the regent is appointed directly by the governor. The regency has no regional parliament, thus making the regent responsible to the governor.

Old Sundanese language Earliest recorded stage of the Sundanese language

Old Sundanese is the earliest recorded stage of the Sundanese language which is spoken in the western part of Java. The evidence is recorded in inscriptions from around the 12th to 14th centuries and ancient palm-leaf manuscripts from the 15th to 17th centuries AD. Old Sundanese is no longer used today, but has developed into its descendant, modern Sundanese.

References

  1. Example of this incorrect usage is machine translation services. "District" to refer to regencies is incorrect as "districts" legally refers to what is called kecamatan or distrik in Indonesian
  1. Hasrul, Moh (17 May 2017). "Penataan Hubungan Kelembagaan Antara Pemerintah Provinsi Dengan Pemerintah Kabupaten/Kota". Perspektif. 22 (1): 1–20. doi:10.30742/perspektif.v22i1.601.
  2. Hasrul, Moh (January 2017). "Penataan Hubungan Kelembagaan Antara Pemerintah Provinsi Dengan Pemerintah Kabupaten/Kota". Perspektif: Kajian Masalah Hukum Dan Pembangunan. 22 (1): 1–20.
  3. "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 21 Tahun 2001 tentang Otonomi Khusus Bagi Provinsi Papua". Article 1.k, Law No. 21 of 2001 (in Indonesian).
  4. "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintah Daerah". Article 1.24, Law No. 23 of 2014 (in Indonesian).
  5. Indonesia Departemen Dalam Negeri (1985). Departemen Dalam Negeri, tugas, fungsi dan peranannya dalam pemerintah di Daerah (in Indonesian). Departemen Dalam Negeri.
  6. Koesoemahatmadja, Djenal Hoesen (1978). Perkembangan fungsi dan struktur pamong praja ditinjau dari segi sejarah (in Indonesian). Alumni.
  7. Suwarno, P. J. (1989). Sejarah birokrasi pemerintahan Indonesia dahulu dan sekarang (in Indonesian). Penerbitan Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta. ISBN   9789798109010.
  8. Raharjo, Supratikno; Munandar, Agus Aris (1 January 1998). Sejarah Kebudayaan Bali: Kajian Perkembangan dan Dampak Pariwisata (in Indonesian). Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan.
  9. Poesponegoro, Marwati Djoened (1975). Sejarah nasional Indonesia: Jaman kebangkitan nasional dan masa akhir Hindia Belanda (in Indonesian). Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
  10. Lubis, Nina Herlina (2000). Tradisi dan transformasi sejarah Sunda (in Indonesian). Humaniora Utama Press. ISBN   9789799231338.
  11. Koesoemahatmadja, Djenal Hoesen (1978). Perkembangan fungsi dan struktur pamong praja ditinjau dari segi sejarah (in Indonesian). Alumni.
  12. 1 2 Setiawan, Irfan (29 June 2018). Handbook Pemerintahan Daerah (in Indonesian). Wahana Resolusi. ISBN   9786025775185.
  13. Casparis, J.G., (1956), Prasasti Indonesia II: Selected Inscriptions from the 7th to the 9th Century A.D., Dinas Purbakala Republik Indonesia, Bandung: Masa Baru.
  14. "Sejarah".
  15. Pakan, Djon (2002). Kembali ke jatidiri bangsa: Sumpah Pemuda Indonesia, Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945, Pancasila, dan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 : sejarah, filsafat, dan refleksi pemikiran kebangsaan (in Indonesian). Millennium Publisher. ISBN   9789799437525.
  16. Adiwilaga, Rendy (1 May 2018). Kepemimpinan Pemerintahan Indonesia: Teori dan Prakteknya (in Indonesian). ISBN   9786024751227.
  17. Pusat Studi Sunda (2004). Bupati di Priangan: dan kajian lainnya mengenai budaya Sunda (in Indonesian). Pusat Studi Sunda.
  18. Hatmadji, Tri. Ragam Pusaka Budaya Banten (in Indonesian). Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. ISBN   9789799932402.
  19. "Prasasti Ligor, Jejak Historis Raja Jawa di Semenanjung Melayu pada Abad Kedelapan Masehi". 30 December 2020.
  20. "Kerajaan Sriwijaya: Letak, Raja-raja, Masa Kejayaan, dan Peninggalan Halaman all". 30 May 2021.
  21. "Prasasti Hujung Langit -". 7 February 2022.
  22. Sitomorang, Yosua (9 June 2010). "Strategic Asia: When it comes to Regional Autonomy in Indonesia, Breaking Up Should be Harder to Do'". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012.
  23. Siburian, Matondang Elsa (2020). "Fiscal decentralization and regional income inequality: evidence from Indonesia". Applied Economics Letters. 27 (17): 1383–6. doi:10.1080/13504851.2019.1683139.
  24. Hill, Hal (18 September 2013), Power shift in Indonesia, The Australian
  25. Kwok, Yenni (26 September 2014). "Indonesia Scraps Regional Elections". Time. Retrieved 4 May 2018. pushed to have district chiefs, mayors and governors indirectly voted in by local parliaments, as they were in 2005.
  26. Putri, Arum Sutrisni (8 January 2020). "Jumlah Kabupaten dan Provinsi di Indonesia". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 July 2021.