Bengkulu (city)

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Bengkulu
City of Bengkulu
Kota Bengkulu
Other transcription(s)
   Rejangese ꤷꥍꤲ꥓ꤰꥈꤾꥈ
Front gate of Fort Marlborough, Bengkulu 2015-04-19 02.jpg
Masjid Agung.jpg
Exile house of Sukarno, Bengkulu 2015-04-19 06.jpg
Thomas Parr Monument, Bengkulu, 2015-04-19 01.jpg
Bengkulu City and Fort Marlborough.jpg
Clockwise from top left : Fort Marlborough, At-Taqwa Grand Mosque, Thomas Parr Monument, Aerial view of Bengkulu City, and Bung Karno Seclusion House
Flag of Bengkulu City.png
Kota Bengkulu.png
Lokasi Bengkulu Kota Bengkulu.svg
Location within Bengkulu Province
Indonesia Sumatra location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bengkulu
Location in Sumatra and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bengkulu
Bengkulu (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 3°47′44″S102°15′33″E / 3.79556°S 102.25917°E / -3.79556; 102.25917 Coordinates: 3°47′44″S102°15′33″E / 3.79556°S 102.25917°E / -3.79556; 102.25917
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Province Flag of Bengkulu.svg  Bengkulu
Founded18 March 1719
Government
  Mayor Helmi Hasan
  Vice MayorPatriana Sosialinda
Area
  Total151.70 km2 (58.57 sq mi)
Elevation
2 m (7 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total373,591
  Density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
  [1]
Demographics
  Ethnic groups Rejang
Malays
Serawai
Javanese
Batak
Minangkabau
Chinese
  Religion [2] Islam 95.43%
Christianity 2.96%
Catholic 0.81%
Buddhism 0.35%
Hinduism 0.06%
Confucianism 0.01%
Others 0.00%
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code (+62) 736
Website www.bengkulukota.go.id

Bengkulu (Rejangese: ꤷꥍꤲ꥓ꤰꥈꤾꥈ) is the capital of the Indonesian province of Bengkulu. The city is the second largest city on the west coast of Sumatra Island after Padang. Previously this area is under the influence of the kingdom of Inderapura and the Sultanate of Banten. The city also became the exile of Sukarno during the period of 1939 - 1942. It covers an area of 151.70 km2 and had a population of 308,544 at the 2010 Census [3] and 373,591 at the 2020 Census. [4] The city is also the largest city of Bengkulu Province.

Contents

History

The British East India Company founded Bengkulu (named Bencoolen by the British), in 1685, as their new commercial centre for the region. In the 17th century, the British East India Company controlled the spice trade in the Lampung region of southern Sumatra from a port in Banten, in the north west of the neighbouring island of Java. In 1682, a troop of the Dutch East India Company attacked Banten. The local crown prince submitted to the Dutch, who then recognised him as Sultan. The Dutch expelled all other Europeans present in Banten, leading the British to establish Bengkulu. In 1714, the British built Fort Marlborough at Bengkulu.

The trading centre was never financially viable, because of its remoteness and the difficulty in procuring pepper. Despite these difficulties, the British persisted, maintaining a presence there for over a century, ceding it to the Dutch as part of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 to focus their attention on Malacca. Edmund Roberts, the first U.S. envoy to the Far East, visited Bengkulu in 1832. [5] Like the rest of present-day Indonesia, Bengkulu remained a Dutch colony until World War II.

Sukarno (later the first president of Indonesia) was imprisoned by the Dutch in the 1930s, including a brief period in Bengkulu. Sukarno met his future wife, Fatmawati, during his time in Bengkulu.

Geography

The region is at low elevation and can have swamps. In the mid 19th century, malaria and related diseases were common. [6] Bengkulu lies near the Sunda Fault and is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis. The June 2000 Enggano earthquake killed at least 100 people. A recent report predicts that Bengkulu is "at risk of inundation over the next few decades from undersea earthquakes predicted along the coast of Sumatra" [7] A series of earthquakes struck Bengkulu during September 2007, killing 13 people. [8] Bengkulu City has an area of 151.70 km ², and is located on the west coast of Sumatra island, with the province having a coastline about 525 km in length. The area of this city lies parallel to the mountains of Bukit Barisan and face to face with the Indian Ocean.

Administrative districts

The City of Bengkulu comprised eight administrative districts (kecamatan) at the time of the 2010 Census, but subsequently a ninth district (Singaran Pati) was formed out of the northwest half of the existing Gading Cempaka District. The districts are listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and the 2020 Census. The table also includes the numbers of administrative villages (urban kelurahan and rural desa) in each district.

NameArea
in km2
Population
Census 2010
Population
Census 2020
No. of
villages
Selebar46.3646,21179,4986
Kampung Melayu23.1428,37243,9866
Gading Cempaka14.4278,76738,8485
Ratu Agung
(Queen Agung)
11.0249,25550,5628
Ratu Samban
(Queen Samban)
2.8424,62421,3449
Singaran Pati14.44(a)41,3046
Teluk Segara
(Segara Bay)
2.7623,99822,04113
Sungai Serut
(Serut River)
13.5321,98125,2557
Muara Bangka Hulu23.1835,33650,6637
Totals151.70308,544373,59167

Note: (a) the 2010 population of the new Singaran Piti District is included in the figure for Gading Cempaka District, from which it was later split off.

Climate

Bengkulu has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with very heavy rainfall year-round.

Climate data for Bengkulu
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)31.3
(88.3)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
32.0
(89.6)
32.1
(89.8)
31.9
(89.4)
31.7
(89.1)
31.6
(88.9)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
31.0
(87.8)
30.9
(87.6)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.6
(79.9)
26.9
(80.4)
26.9
(80.4)
27.2
(81.0)
27.3
(81.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.5
(79.7)
26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.8
(80.2)
Average low °C (°F)22.0
(71.6)
22.1
(71.8)
22.1
(71.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.5
(72.5)
21.9
(71.4)
21.4
(70.5)
21.5
(70.7)
21.9
(71.4)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72.0)
22.1
(71.8)
22.0
(71.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)314
(12.4)
270
(10.6)
301
(11.9)
285
(11.2)
234
(9.2)
189
(7.4)
186
(7.3)
205
(8.1)
238
(9.4)
363
(14.3)
412
(16.2)
363
(14.3)
3,360
(132.3)
Source: [9]

Governance

Based on Emergency Law Number 6 Year 1956, Bengkulu was one of the Small Town with an area of 17.6 km2 in South Sumatera province . The mention of this Small Town then changed to Kotamadya based on Law No. 1 of 1957 on the subject of local government. After the issuance of Law Number 9 Year 1967 regarding the establishment of Bengkulu Province, Bengkulu Municipality as well as being the capital for the province. However, the law only came into force on 1 June 1968 after the issuance of Government Regulation No. 20/1968.

Based on the Decree of the Provincial Governor of Bengkulu No. 821.27-039 dated 22 January 1981, the Municipality of Bengkulu was subsequently divided into two districts namely Teluk Segara District and Gading Cempaka District. With the enactment of Decree of Mayor of Bengkulu Region No. 440 and 444 of 1981 and reinforced by the Decree of the Governor of Bengkulu No. 141 of 1982 on 1 October 1982, the mention of the territory of Kedatukan was erased and Pemangkuan became kelurahan. Furthermore, based on Government Regulation No. 41 of 1982, Bengkulu Region Second Level Region consists of 2 Definitive Districts with Teluk Segara District overseeing 17 villages and Gading Cempaka District overseeing 21 urban villages. Then based on Government Regulation No. 46 of 1986, the area of Bengkulu Municipality was increased to 151.7 km2 and consisted of four districts, comprising 38 urban villages (kelurahan) and 17 rural villages (desa). Another five districts were later added by splitting these four.

Historically, there was a court where all legal investigations passed through. Criminals who were sentenced to death had copies of their trials sent to Java for review. [6]

Transportation

Bengkulu is connected by road, air and sea. There are several public transportation modes in Bengkulu such as taxi, angkot (mini-van), ojek (motorcycle taxi).

Airport

The city is served by the newly renovated Fatmawati Soekarno Airport. There is one terminal building for both international and domestic flights.

Harbour

Bengkulu's harbour, known locally as Pulau Bai, serves inter-island as well as International routes. The ferry terminal is the access point to Enggano Island.

Demographics

As of 1832, the population of Bengkulu, and its surrounding area, was estimated at 18,000 people. During that time, the region had a varied population: Dutch, Chinese, Javanese, Indians, and more. Chinatown was located in the centre of the city. [6]

Economy

When under Dutch rule, Bengkulu had plantations. Parsi people harvested and processed nutmeg and mace. The nutmeg would be processed into confectionery products. Pepper was a large export, too. The area also produced smaller amounts of coffee and rice, however, both were primarily imported from Padang. Fruit and animal production was also significant. [6]

Tourism

A square in Bengkulu City. Bengkulu city square.jpg
A square in Bengkulu City.

In this city there are several British heritage buildings and fortresses, including Fort Marlborough, founded in 1713 on Long Beach, Hamilton Monument and Thomas Parr Monument in the downtown area, Sukarno's exile house on Soekarno-Hatta Street, and Jamik Mosque designed by Ir. Sukarno. Bengkulu City also has a number of other mainstay attractions, such as Chinatown, Tapak Paderi Beach, Jakat Beach, Dendam Tak Sudah Lake and Pulau Baai Harbor . Not only that, a number of culinary potential of Bengkulu City is also interesting. Some of them such as Pendap, Lempuk Durian, Pondok Durian Bengkulu, Bai Tat, and so forth. One of which can be a reference to shop for souvenirs, the traveler can go to the area Anggut Bengkulu City. This area has been set local government into a typical souvenir center . And for those of you who love durian, Bengkulu City also has a variety of durian processed hunting spots. This can be found in Pondok Durian Bengkulu. In this outlet travelers can enjoy processed Durian ranging from durian ice cream and a variety of variants, durian toast, pancake durian, durian pancakes and so forth.

Culture

Each year, in the Muslim month of Muharram, Bengkulu hosts the ceremony Tabot. The two centuries old ritual was made by artisans from Madras in India for the construction of Fort Marlborough. It celebrates the martyrdom of Imam Shiite Hussein's death at the Battle of Karbala. The Tabot is an opportunity for a grand procession, accompanied by songs and dances performed by young girls.

Education

As of 1832, the city had two Lancasterian method Dutch schools. At one school, students were taught math, religion and the Malay language. The students frequently used a Malay version of The New Testament to learn Malayan, which was created by Robert Boyle when the British occupied Bengkulu. The other school was at an orphanage. [6]

In this town lies the only state university in the province of Bengkulu, the Universitas Bengkulu (UNIB).

See also

Related Research Articles

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Seluma Regency Regency in Bengkulu, Indonesia

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References

  1. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. Data Sensus Penduduk 2010 - Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia <http://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321&wid=1700000000&lang=id>
  3. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  4. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  5. Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 34.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 38–40.
  7. Andrew C. Revkin (5 December 2006). "Indonesian Cities Lie in Shadow of Cyclical Tsunami". The New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast)) p. A.5.
  8. New York Times
  9. https://en.climate-data.org/location/972211

Bibliography