Pontianak

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Pontianak
City of Pontianak
Kota Pontianak
Other transcription(s)
   Jawi ڤونتيناك
   Chinese 坤甸
Pontianak Montage.jpg
From top, left to right:
Shopping complex in South Pontianak, The North Pontianak Equatorial Monument, Some of the official government buildings, Traditional Malay House, Traditional Borneo birds sculpture, Road gate of Pontianak city, Enggang Badak sculpture.
Flag of Pontianak City.png
Seal of Pontianak.svg
Nickname(s): 
Kota Khatulistiwa (Equatorial City)
Motto(s): 
Pontianak Bersinar (Pontianak Shines)
Locator map of Pontianak City in West Kalimantan.svg
Location within West Kalimantan
Indonesia Kalimantan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pontianak
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pontianak
Pontianak (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 00°01′14″S109°20′29″E / 0.02056°S 109.34139°E / -0.02056; 109.34139 Coordinates: 00°01′14″S109°20′29″E / 0.02056°S 109.34139°E / -0.02056; 109.34139
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Region Kalimantan
Province Coat of arms of West Kalimantan.svg West Kalimantan
Founded by the Sultanate of Pontianak 23 October 1771
Settled by the Dutch5 July 1779
Granted municipality status1953
Granted city status31 December 1965
Government
  TypeCity Government
  Mayor Ir. Edi Rusdi Kamtono, MM, MT
  Vice Mayor Bahasan, SH
Area
  City of Pontianak118.31 km2 (45.68 sq mi)
Elevation
1 m (3 ft)
Highest elevation
1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Lowest elevation
0.8 m (2.6 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  City of Pontianak658,685 [1]
Time zone UTC+7 (IWST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+7 (Not observed)
Area code (+62) 561
Vehicle registration KB
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.794 (High) [2]
Website pontianakkota.go.id
150 mm (5+78 in). Temperatures are consistent throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures of 31 °C (88 °F) and average low temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F).

Pontianak
Chinese name
Chinese 坤甸
Climate data for Pontianak
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)30.8
(87.4)
31.8
(89.2)
31.9
(89.4)
32.0
(89.6)
32.4
(90.3)
32.3
(90.1)
31.9
(89.4)
32.2
(90.0)
32.2
(90.0)
31.8
(89.2)
31.1
(88.0)
30.8
(87.4)
31.8
(89.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.9
(80.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.8
(82.0)
28.1
(82.6)
28.0
(82.4)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.2
(81.0)
27.6
(81.7)
Average low °C (°F)23.1
(73.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches)266
(10.5)
183
(7.2)
205
(8.1)
264
(10.4)
230
(9.1)
173
(6.8)
148
(5.8)
148
(5.8)
194
(7.6)
316
(12.4)
393
(15.5)
376
(14.8)
2,896
(114)
Average rainy days181517201814131316202120205
Average relative humidity (%)88878789878583818689918987
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.18.48.68.18.38.79.19.28.78.17.77.88.4
Source: Climate-Data.org [7]

Administrative divisions

Pontianak City comprises six administrative districts (kecamatan), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census [8] and the 2020 Census. [9] The table includes the number of administrative villages (kelurahan) in each district, and its post code.

PontianakMap-3.png
NameArea
in
km2
Pop'n
Census
2010
Pop'n
Census
2020
No.
of
vill.
Post
code
Pontianak Barat
(West Pontianak)
16.24123,029146,700478113
- 78136
Pontianak Kota
(Pontianak Town)
16.02110,111123,028678111
- 78117
Pontianak Selatan
(South Pontianak)
16.5281,82190,839578123
& 78124
Pontianak Tenggara
(Southeast Pontianak)
16.1744,85649,127478124
Pontianak Timur
(East Pontianak)
12.0082,370105,787778132
- 78136
Pontianak Utara
(North Pontianak)
41.36112,577143,204478241
- 78244
Totals118.31554,764658,68529

The first four of the above districts lie on the south bank of the Kapuas River (listed from west to east), while the last two districts lie on the north bank (the East and North districts are separated by the Landak River, which joins with the Kapuas Kecil River at this point to create the Kapuas Besar River). The built-up or urbanized area continues southeastwards along the south bank of the Kapuas River into the town of Sungai Raya, a kecamatan in the Regency of the same name.

Demographics

The 2010 census enumerated Pontianak's population at 554,764; the latest official estimate (from mid 2019) is 646,661. [10] Population is an important element in urban and regional planning. In the funding, the elements of the population among others are needed to calculate the land needs, the needs of facilities and utilities of a region, predict the movement of transportation, and provide an overview of the characteristics of a region. Important aspects of the population in its link with planning are population size, population distribution and population composition.

Researchers conducted research on population data in the city of Pontianak during the last 2 years i.e., 2010 - 2015 collected by the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) Pontianak by accessing the data online. According to the data obtained, Population Growth Rate in Pontianak City in the period of 1990-2000 is 0.7 percent per year, while for the period 2000-2010 increased to 1.8 percent per year.

Ethnicities

The population of Pontianak is predominantly ethnic Malays and Chinese. In addition, there are also ethnic Dayak, Javanese, Bugis, Madurese, Arabic, Sundanese, Banjar, Batak, Minangkabau and others. Intermarriage between different ethnic groups is common in Pontianak.

Ethnic groups in Pontianak, 2015
Ethnicity PopulationPercentage
Chinese 190,48533.20%
Malay 167,24629.15%
Dayak 75,21813.11%
Javanese 61,62010.74%
Bugis 36,7206.40%
Madurese 35,8596.25%
Others6,5981.15%
The Chinese Dharma Bhakti buddhist temple in Jalan Tanjung Pura, Pontianak Vihara Dwi Dharma Bhakti.jpg
The Chinese Dharma Bhakti buddhist temple in Jalan Tanjung Pura, Pontianak

Compared to other Indonesian cities, Pontianak is one of the few cities with a significant number of Chinese Indonesians. The Chinese have lived in Pontianak for centuries. Most of the Chinese were passing through west Borneo from the third century for a last rest on their sailing journeys before returning to China. Beginning in the 7th century many Chinese had started to trade in western Borneo. Apart from the Chinese traders, in the 17th century Dutch colonization brought in mass Chinese for mining gold. Most of these Chinese miners originated from the Fujian or Guangdong provinces.

The two largest sub-groups of the Pontianak Chinese are the Teochew and Hakka. The Teochew people are from the northeastern coast of Guangdong and Hakka people from the interior of Fujian come to West Kalimantan. The Hakka people are pioneer groups living in villages and mining areas, working as miners, farmers, and also small traders. This is in contrast to the Teochew people who prefer to live in urban areas for trade. Even now the Teochew people form the largest ethnic Chinese population in the city of Pontianak and south of Pontianak. The Hakka people mostly live in the northern area of Pontianak.

The second largest ethnic group in Pontianak is the Malay people. The Pontianak Malay are one of the early inhabitants of the city. Pontianak was the seat of the Pontianak Sultanate, a great Malay kingdom for centuries. The Malay people mostly live on the bank of the Kapuas River and other rivers in Pontianak. They also live in coastal areas of the city. Most of the Pontianak Malay work as traders, government officials, and in other jobs.

Other significant ethnic groups living in Pontianak are the Dayak, Bugis, Madurese, and Javanese. Most of the Dayak living in Pontianak are the indigenous/native people of the interior part of West Kalimantan. Some of the Dayak still practice animism, which involves traditional rituals and dances. However, most of the Dayaks have converted to Christianity and are more urbanized. The Bugis, Javanese, and Madurese are immigrants from other parts of Indonesia. They migrated to Pontianak due to the Transmigration program enacted by the Dutch and continued during the New Order. Conflicts often erupted between the Madurese and the Dayak.

Language

Indonesian is the official language of Pontianak as well as other parts of Indonesia. The native language and main lingua franca of the city is Pontianak Malay, a distinct variety of Malay that is closely related to Johor-Riau Malay in Malaysia, Riau, and the Riau Islands in Indonesia and Singapore. The main differences between Pontianak Malay and Indonesian is that they use "Kamek" instead of "Kami" and "Kitak" instead of "Kalian". However, many people in the city also use Indonesian as their second language.

The other prevailing language in Pontianak is the Chinese language. Several varieties of Chinese exists in Pontianak, the most notable being Teochew and Hakka. Teochew is a variant of Southern Min originating from Guangdong. It is mostly mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Teochew is mostly spoken in the central and southern parts of the city, as well as suburbs south of the city. Hakka is spoken in the northern part of the city, as well as in suburbs north of the city. There are more Teochew speakers than Hakka speakers in Pontianak. These varieties of Chinese has been influenced by other languages such as Malay, Indonesian, and other languages. They have incorporated words from Indonesian and other languages. Therefore, native speakers from China may find it difficult to communicate using Teochew and Hakka with the people from Pontianak. Other Chinese variants such as the Cantonese and Hokkien have fewer speakers.

Other languages such as the Javanese, Madurese, Buginese, and different dialects of Dayak are also spoken.

Religion

Masjid Jami' Pontianak, first built in 1771 on the banks of Kapuas River. The place of worship is among the oldest surviving structures in Pontianak. The Muslim population are predominantly consist of the native Malays, along with smaller number of Dayaks and communities from other provinces. Masjid Jami Pontianak.jpg
Masjid Jami' Pontianak, first built in 1771 on the banks of Kapuas River. The place of worship is among the oldest surviving structures in Pontianak. The Muslim population are predominantly consist of the native Malays, along with smaller number of Dayaks and communities from other provinces.

The majority of the population are Muslims (63.4%); the rest are Buddhists (20.2%), Catholics (9.1%), Protestants (3.2%), Confucians (1.3%), Hindus (0.1%), and others (0.1%). [11] Most of the Muslims are Malay, Javanese, Madurese, etc. While most of the people who adhere to Buddhism and Confucianism are Chinese Indonesian, many Chinese also adhere to Christianity. The Dayak people adhere to either Catholicism or Protestantism, while also incorporating local beliefs. Some of the Dayak also adheres to Kaharingan, a local folk religion. However, the Indonesian government does not recognize Kaharingan as a religion and therefore classifies those who adhere to Kaharingan beliefs as Hindus.

Several places of worship are located in Pontianak, such as the Jami Mosque of Pontianak, which is considered the great mosque of Pontianak. Located in the complex of the palace of the former Pontianak Sultanate, this mosque is the oldest mosque and is one of the two buildings that witnessed the establishment of the city of Pontianak. At first, this mosque was also used as a center of government for the Sultanate of Pontianak. The name of this mosque was given by Syarif Usman Alkadri who is the son of Sultan Sharif Abdurrahman, who continued the construction of the mosque until it was completed.

Other places of worship are the Cathedral of Saint Joseph, Pura Giripati Mulawarman, Vihara Budhisatva Karaniya Metta, and the Pontianak Congregation of West Kalimantan Christian Church. Some of these have existed since the Dutch colonial era, while some are constructed by the Indonesian government.

Economy

Equator monument The top of equatorial monument Pontianak.jpg
Equator monument

The gross regional domestic product of Pontianak City, according to the ADHK 2010 business field in 2015, reached 20.80 trillion rupiah. When compared to 2014, the production volume of goods and services produced in Pontianak City in 2015 increased by 0.96 trillion rupiah, or by 4.84 percent. Most of Pontianak city's economy relies on industry, agriculture, and trade. The trade, hotel, and restaurant sectors have been the largest economic base in Pontianak City in recent years.

This can be seen from the percentage distribution of GDP, where the large and retail trade sector has the greatest role in total GDP compared to other sectors, which is 18.30 percent. In terms of usage, the value of GDP shows how products of goods and services are used for consumption, investment, or trading purposes with foreign/regional parties. Based on the percentage of GDP, aggregate demand in Pontianak City in 2015 as a whole experienced a growth of 4.84 percent compared to the previous year, whereas the household consumer component contributed as much as 10.61 trillion rupiah or by 51 percent.

Industry

The number of large and medium industrial enterprises in the city of Pontianak as of 2005 was 34 companies. Labor absorbed by industrial enterprises amounted to 3,300 people, consisting of 2,700 production workers and other workers and 600 administrators. Moderate or major industrial companies located in the District of North Pontianak have the largest labor force of around 2,952 people.

The resulting output value of large industrial enterprises or medium amounted to 1.51 trillion rupiah, where large industrial enterprises or are located in the District of North Pontianak dominated by rubber industry companies. The smallest output value derived from companies located in the District Pontianak City, worth 2.85 billion Rupiahs.

For Gross Value Added (NTB) obtained from all large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in Pontianak City during 2005, this amounted to 217.57 billion rupiah and indirect taxes obtained amounted to 462.78 million rupiah. The value added at factor fees earned amounted to 217.10 billion rupiah.

For small industrial centers, the industry results for agriculture and forestry (IHPK) shows that the snack food industry, centered in Sungai Kuhl, is the largest local small industry, employing as many as 329 people. Investment value reached 249.50 million and the sales amounted to 780.50 million. The water taro weaving industry has 16 business units with an investment of 17.5 million and sales of 110 million rupiah, mostly located in Tanjung Hulu, Pontianak East.

Agriculture

As of 2006, cassava, rice, and yams were the most prominent crops in Pontianak. Residents also farmed vegetables and aloe vera. Jackfruit, banana, and pineapple are also grown in the city. Farms in Pontianak raise cattle (beef and dairy), goats, pigs, and chickens.

In the surrounding areas of Pontianak, the herb Mitragyna speciosa , known colloquially as kratom, is grown, and Pontianak is a major center for exportation of the herb.

Trade

Trade is one of the rapidly growing businesses in the city of Pontianak. Modern trade began to develop in 2001 with the founding of Mal Sun Apartments in Dubai City. Modern shopping centers began to be built in various corners of the city, such as Ayani Mega Mall and Mall Pontianak. Various national retail companies are starting to do business in Pontianak.

Education

Based on data from the Pontianak City Education Office, in 2015 Pontianak has 111 kindergartens, 161 elementary schools, 76 junior high schools, 44 high schools, and 29 vocational high schools. The primary school education level (SD) has the highest student-teacher ratio at 22:1.

School Participation Rate (APS) in Pontianak for 7–12 years age group during the last three years has been around 100 percent. In the 13-15-year age group, school participation in this age group has fluctuated considerably in recent years. However, school participation of children aged 13–15 years continues to increase to close to 100 percent.

STMIK Pontianak Gedung STMIK Pontianak.jpg
STMIK Pontianak

There are colleges and universities operated by both state authorities, as well as private and religious institutions. The University of Tanjung Pura, a state university, was established in Pontianak in 1963. Other universities are maintained by private institutions: Muhammadiyah University, University of Widya Dharma, University of Panca Bhakti, STMIK, STAIN, POLNEP, and AKBID St Benedicta.

Culture

The cultural diversity in Pontianak presents various events throughout the year. The Tionghua/Indonesian Chinese community celebrates Lunar New Year, Cap Go Meh (Lantern Festival, which falls on the fifteenth day of the first month of lunar calendar), and Cheng Meng (Tomb Sweeping Festival, on first day of the fifth solar term of the lunar calendar). The Malay celebrates Idul Fitri, Idul Adha, and Maulidur Rasul. The Dayak People celebrates the harvest season, locally known as Gawai Dayak. These events are usually marked with extravagant cultural parades around the city.

The equatorial line passing Pontianak is marked by a monument north of the city center. Between 21 and 23 March and 21–23 September (the equinoxes), solar culmination can be observed near the monument, where the setting of the sun will be exactly at 0° at noon (12:00), causing shadows at the monument and everything nearby to disappear for a few seconds. [12]

Cuisine

Durian Tart Tart durian Pontianak.JPG
Durian Tart

Pontianak is also known for its culinary attractions, with its mix of Tionghua/Indonesian Chinese, Malay, local Dayak, and Javanese influences. Diversity makes Pontianak food a culinary paradise. The food is well known for the following:

Transportation

Pontianak is well-connected by road, air, and sea. There are multiple city and intercity public transportation options.

Air

Inside of Supadio Airport terminal Supadioairport1.jpg
Inside of Supadio Airport terminal

Supadio International Airport is the main airport for Pontianak and West Kalimantan, built by the Japanese during World War II. The Indonesian government then developed the airport, resulting in its present form. The airport is not located within the city limits, but in Kubu Raya Regency which is 17 km away from the city center. Currently it is the second-largest airport in Kalimantan in terms of terminal size, after Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport in Balikpapan.

After construction of a new modern terminal to replace the old and overutilised terminal, the airport currently has a capacity of 3.8 million passengers annually, double the previous terminal's capacity. The airport serves direct domestic flights to other major cities in Indonesia, mostly in Java and Kalimantan. Moreover, the airport also has international flights to some cities in Malaysia, such as Kuala Lumpur and Kuching. The airport is expected to be expanded again in the future to cater to the increasing number of passengers travelling to and from Pontianak. Currently, the only ways to get to the airport are by taxi, private cars, or using DAMRI buses.

Sea

The Port of Pontianak, located on the banks of the Kapuas River, is the economic pulse of the city and connects an area of 146.8 thousand km2 in West Kalimantan Province. The size of this area is comparable to the island of Java plus the island of Madura combined. Main cities and towns served include Pontianak, Sintete, Sambas, Sintang, Sanggau, Kapuas, Hulu, Telok Air, Ketapang, and Singkawang.

There are two port areas under the auspices of PT. Pelindo II (Persero), namely the Port of Sintete and Ketapang Port.

This port's hinterland is dominated by plantations, the forestry sector, the mining sector, and raw materials processing industry. To cater for increased economic activity in this region, Pelindo II has operated the container terminal for Pontianak's port. It has been equipped with two container cranes and various modern equipment that can provide optimal support for loading and unloading activities in the region.

The Pontianak Crossing Port is the main passenger port. It allows ferry connection to other cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Batam, etc. The port currently does not serve international destinations such as Singapore and Malaysia.

Land

A front view of S.J.S Bus, connecting Pontianak to Kuching, Sarawak Pontianak-Kuching coach at Kuching Sentral.jpg
A front view of S.J.S Bus, connecting Pontianak to Kuching, Sarawak

Pontianak lies on the Trans Kalimantan Highway. The highway allows Pontianak to be connected to other major cities in Kalimantan such as Palangka Raya, Banjarmasin, and Samarinda. Moreover, it is possible to travel to East Malaysia and Brunei using the Trans-Kalimantan Highway. The distance from Pontianak to Kuching in Sarawak, Malaysia is about 340 km and takes about 6 hours 30 minutes. The distance from Pontianak to Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei is about 1,100 km and takes about 18 hours. All people travelling to either Malaysia or Brunei must pass through the Entikong border checkpoint, the main Indonesian border checkpoint in Kalimantan.

Pontianak currently does not have a toll road. However, it has been proposed to build a highway connecting Pontianak with Singkawang, [13] and to the Entikong border checkpoint near Malaysia. [14]

Sister cities

Pontianak has sister relationships with these cities:

See also

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North Kalimantan Province of Indonesia

North Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northernmost of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. North Kalimantan borders the Malaysian states of Sabah to the north and Sarawak to the west, and by the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan to the south. Tanjung Selor serves as the capital of the province, while Tarakan is the largest city and the financial centre.

Sarawak's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups. Sarawak has more than 40 sub-ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. This makes Sarawak demography very distinct and unique compared to its Peninsular counterpart.

The Pontianak incident consisted of two massacres which took place in Kalimantan during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies. One of them is also known as the Mandor Affair. The victims were from a wide variety of ethnic groups, and the killings devastated the Malay elite of Kalimantan, with all the Malay Sultans of Kalimantan executed by the Japanese.

References

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