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Kota Kendari
Kendari Bay at night.jpg
Unity Tower Kendari.jpg
Kendari Bay Bridge.jpg
Masjid Al-Alam Kendari (3).jpg
Kendari at night.jpg
Clockwise, from top: Kendari at night, Kendari Bay Bridge, a road section in Kendari, Al-Alam Mosque, and MTQ Unity Monument
Flag of Kendari City.png
Lambang Kota Kendari.png
Lokasi Sulawesi Tenggara Kota Kendari.svg
Location within Southeast Sulawesi
Sulawesi location map plain.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Sulawesi and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kendari (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 3°58′2.96″S122°35′40.92″E / 3.9674889°S 122.5947000°E / -3.9674889; 122.5947000 Coordinates: 3°58′2.96″S122°35′40.92″E / 3.9674889°S 122.5947000°E / -3.9674889; 122.5947000
CountryFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
ProvinceFlag of Southeast Sulawesi.svg  Southeast Sulawesi
Incorporated1 July 1978
City Status27 September 1995
  MayorSulkarnain Kadir
  Vice MayorSiska Karina Imran
  Total271.76 km2 (104.93 sq mi)
 (2020 Census)
Time zone UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Area code (+62) 401
HDI Increase2.svg 0.828 (Very high)

Kendari is a city and the capital of Southeast Sulawesi, a province in Indonesia. With a population of 345,107 according to the 2020 census, it is the most populous city in the province, and the fourth most on Sulawesi. The city covers an area of 271.76 square kilometers (104.93 sq mi), or about 0.7% of Southeast Sulawesi's land area.


The city was historically the center of the Tolaki people, who make up a majority of both the city's and the province's population. Located on Kendari Bay, it continues to be an important trade center hosting the province's main port and airport. It is the economic and educational center of the province, and is home to various universities and colleges. Kendari has the highest Human Development Index (HDI) in Sulawesi.



The word "Kendari" is thought to come from a version of the word "Kandai", meaning a tool made of bamboo and wooden planks to push boats away from a dock. Over time, the pronunciation changed, and the city is now officially known as Kendari. [1]

Early history

The Bay of Kendari has been known since the 15th century and appears on Portuguese chartered maps, marked with the name "Citta dela Baia" ("City of the Bay"). The bay was known as "Baia du Tivora" ("Tivora Bay"). [1] The Kingdom of Konawe, founded in the fifth century by the Tolaki people, ruled the settlement. Its early government structure was simple and resembled those of tribal societies. The kingdom had several historical periods. [2] :42

Its first king was Mokole Roro, who ruled the kingdom between 428 and 447, in a period known as Ancient Konawe. The kingdom was still small and did not yet rule all of today's Konawe region or Kendari city. [2] :42 The kingdom's capital was in Rahambuu, a town known today as Unaaha, around 60 kilometers (37 mi) from Kendari. The kingdom included three smaller kingdoms loyal to Unaaha. [2] :42

The Old Konawe period followed the Ancient Konawe period. It was marked by the unification and consolidation of the kingdom's power over the region. There was a huge unknown disaster, which is thought to have almost eliminated all the people in the region. [2] :42 According to local legend, Onggodo, a holy man, is thought to have arrived in the kingdom from the Maluku Islands. [2] :43 He is believed to have saved the kingdom from disaster[ clarification needed ], and later married one of the kingdom's princesses. [2] :43 Konawe society was divided into three classes. Anakia were nobles and the upper classes; Tononggapa were the commoners and peasants, and Oata were slaves. [2] :43 People in the region were tied to a religious symbol called the Kalo Sara, which symbolized harmony, peace, and kinship. [3] [2] :45 Kalo Sara means "circle of tribal laws", and is symbolized in the form of a large bracelet made of three rattan pieces that are tied together and a white napkin on which to put the bracelet. [4] The rattan bracelet symbolized unity and the white napkin symbolized good deeds. [4] The three pieces of rattan have various meanings and interpretations, such as father, mother, and children, or government, religion, and tradition. [4]

Islamic period

Islam has been present in the kingdom since early the 15th century, especially after the foundation of the neighbouring Sultanate of Buton, just south of Konawe. It was brought by Buginese merchants from Makassar, who mostly settled in coastal regions and through trade. The kingdom officially embraced Islam during the reign of King Lakidende (1724–1786). Lakidende embraced Islam after traveling around Western parts of Sulawesi and studying Islam in the Bone kingdom around today's South Sulawesi. [2] 45 During Lakidende's reign, the kingdom banned things that were considered un-Islamic, such as eating pork. He promoted the construction of mosques in each village, and marriage in accordance with Islamic tradition. [2] :46 However, despite Islamisation, the kingdom's governance structure did not change significantly, and many animist traditions were incorporated with Islamic beliefs by the people. [2] :46 The Kalo Sara symbol was interpreted differently in accordance with Islamic beliefs instead of being abandoned altogether. [2] :47 During this period, Konawe became a multicultural society, with merchants from Java, Makassar, and Maluku settling on the island. [2] :48

Colonial period

A house in Kendari, 1920 Boeginesiska hus i Kendari, ost-Celebes. Sulawesi. Indonesien - SMVK - 000253.tif
A house in Kendari, 1920

In 1828, the governor of the Dutch East Indies tasked a sailor named Jacques Nicholas Vosmaer with mapping the eastern coast of Sulawesi to find a suitable location for a trading post. The first detailed map of Kendari Bay was published on 9 May 1831, and named Vosmaer Bay in his honor. [1] During this time, Konawe was in a weakened state following a succession of crises. [5] :39 In 1858, La Mangu[ who? ] signed a treaty with the Dutch as he wished to create a separate kingdom, Laiwoi, independent from Konawe. [5] :40 The kingdom would be located in Ranome Eto, and its founding was kept secret from Konawe royal council members. [5] :40 Laiwoi existed legally, but did not control any territory, as Konawe maintained its hold on the area. The Dutch promised armed help to create the kingdom on the condition that the treaty would be kept secret from the people of Konawe until their other wars in which the Dutch were involved in South Sulawesi ended. [5] :41

In 1905, following the end of their war against the Gowa Sultanate, the Dutch turned their attention to the eastern coast of Sulawesi. La Mangu had died by now, but the Dutch maintained their plans to establish Laiwoi, approaching nobles from Ranome Eto with the treaty, [5] and finally, naming Saosao as king, increasing tensions with the Konawe. To avoid armed conflict, the Dutch government mediated an agreement. [5] :44 However, Konawe secretly mobilised its troops and established an arms store in Puwilalo. In response, the Dutch attempted, and failed, to negotiate with their leader, Watukila. Finally, the Dutch decided to attack Watukila's troops and invaded the kingdom. [5] :46 In 1908, Dutch troops besieged Puundombi Fort, leading to Konawe's fall. [5] :49 Laiwoi would move it's capital to Kendari, and armed resistance to it and the Dutch continued into 1937. [5] :59

Japanese occupation & independence

Dutch guerrilla area in Kendari, 1942 Dutch Guerrilla Area in Kendari, 1942.jpg
Dutch guerrilla area in Kendari, 1942

Japanese troops occupied the city after the Battle of Kendari in 1942. The Dutch garrison opted for guerilla warfare, but following increased Indonesian nationalist sentiment, and the lack of resistance that followed, Dutch command ultimately pressed for surrender. This occurred officially on 27 March 1942. [6] [7] As in other regions, Japanese troops provided opportunities for Indonesian nationalism to spread in the region, and gave nationalist groups military training. [5] :60

One month after the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, youth in the region created a militia headquartered in Kolaka. The PRI (Indonesian Republican Youth) controlled the militia and spread its influence to cities and towns in Southeast Sulawesi, including Kendari. Lasandara, a local administrator for the Dutch, officially supported independence. [5] :61 However, in October, Australian troops entered the region with the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration. On the 19th of November, a Republican militia clashed with Dutch troops in an event known as the Kolaka incident. In February 1946, Dutch troops occupied the large cities in the region, [5] :64 however, guerilla resistance by the Republicans continued until 1948. [5] :64 The city and the surrounding region became part of the State of East Indonesia, which was incorporated into the newly recognised Indonesian Republic a year later. The city was heavily affected by the Darul Islam rebellion, which started in South Sulawesi but spread to the eastern coast. Because of the conflict, there were several refugee camps around the city. In 1964, the new province of Southeast Sulawesi was created with Kendari as its capital city. [8] In 1978, Kendari gained city status as an administrative city and in 1995 as a kotamadya —medium-sized city. [1]


Kendari borders the Konawe Regency in the north, South Konawe Regency in the south and west, and Kendari Bay in the east. The city is on the southeastern part of mainland Sulawesi island, and includes several smaller islands around the bay. The city's topography varies from flat to hilly. Coastal areas tend to be flatter, while the northern part of the city is part of the Nipa-Nipa mountain formation, which has an altitude of around 450 metres (1,480 ft). [9] In general, the city's slopes are less than 25% except those in the north, which sometimes exceed 40%. [9]

Soil formation in the city is relatively young, dominated by cambisol and gleisolacic[ clarification needed ] soils, which make up around 30% of the city's soil. Other soil formations also exist with less frequency, such as alluvium and pozols,[ clarification needed ] which account for less than eight percent overall. Rivers and coastal areas contain the most abundant alluvium sediments. [9]


Kendari has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) with heavy rainfall from December to July and moderate rainfall from August to November. The city's average temperature is 31 °C (88 °F). [9]

The lowest average temperature is usually recorded in August and can be 21 °C (70 °F), while the highest average temperature is observed during November reaching 32 °C (90 °F). The average humidity level is between 81 and 87% regardless of the month, and wind speed on average sits between 6.8 knots (12.6 km/h; 7.8 mph) and 7.5 knots (13.9 km/h; 8.6 mph) with stronger winds observed in December. [9]

Climate data for Kendari
Average high °C (°F)31.5
Daily mean °C (°F)27.5
Average low °C (°F)23.6
Average rainfall mm (inches)196
Source: [10]


Administrative districts

The city is divided into 11 districts (kecamatan), listed below.

Government and Politics

As with all Indonesian cities, Kendari is a second-level administrative division, equal in power to a regency, that is run by an elected mayor and vice mayor, who hold executive power, as well as a legislative city parliament. [11] Legislative duties are vested in the local parliament. [12] Heads of districts are appointed by the mayor on the recommendation of the city secretary. [13] [14]

The city is part of the 1st Southeast Sulawesi electoral district, which sends six of the 45 representatives to the provincial parliament. On the city level, it is divided into five electoral districts, which has 35 representatives. [15]

Electoral districtRegionRepresentatives
Kendari 1stMandonga and Puuwatu District8
Kendari 2ndKendari and West Kendari District7
Kendari 3rdAbeli and Poasia District6
Kendari 4thBaruga and Kambu District6
Kendari 5thKadia and Wua-Wua District8


Entrance gate to Samudera Fishery Port PPS Kendari gate.jpg
Entrance gate to Samudera Fishery Port

The city's economy consists largely of service-related sectors making up 77% of the city's workforce. [16] The construction sector, retail, agriculture and fisheries, processing and manufacturing, education, logistics and the financial and insurance industries are also major industries, listed here in order of percentage of gross regional product (GRP). [17]

The city is mainly industrial, with the manufacturing sector employing 21.04% of the city's workforce, while agriculture employs 1.34%. [16] Overall GRP growth of the city was 6.48% in 2019, but decreased to -1.30% in 2020 because of the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. [17] The poverty rate in 2020 was 4.34%. [16]

The city is near the Konawe Industrial Area, which produces mainly nickel and lithium batteries. [18] [19] The city is home to Kendari New Port, a large industrial container port, [20] and the Samudera Fishery Port, which hosts 27 fish processing companies as of 2016 and is among the largest fish processing centers in Eastern Indonesia. [21] [22] The fish catch was around 37,000 metric tons (36,000 long tons; 41,000 short tons) tons in 2018, consisting largely of skipjack tuna. [23] There are 142 hotels registered in the city. [24] 28 large industrial companies operate in Kendari, in addition to 446 registered small and medium-sized enterprises employing more than 1,500 people. [25] [26] Agricultural exports include: frozen shrimp, processed cashew nuts, cocoa butter, and raw octopus; most of these products are exported to Japan and India. [27] [28]


Around 90% of the city's population are members of native groups from the region such as Tolaki, Muna, Buton, and Moronene, though a small migrant population from other parts of Indonesia also exists. [29] There are 173,987 males and 171,120 females in the city. The population grew by 1.7% in 2020, with Baruga district growing the most (5.38%) while the Kambu district decreased the most, losing 0.9% of its population. [30] The most densely populated district is the Kadia district with 5,650 people per square kilometer, while the least was Nambo. The most populated district was West Kendari with 42,230 people while the least populated is Nambo, which has a population of 11,170 people. [30] According to Statistics Indonesia, 189,534 people are considered part of workforce as of 2020. [30] `Most of city's population are Muslims, with considerable Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu minorities. [31]


A school in Kendari SDN 1 Kendari.jpg
A school in Kendari

There are 133 kindergartens, 141 elementary schools, 58 junior high schools, and 32 senior high schools. There are 20 vocational high schools in the city as of 2020. [30] The city is home to various institutions of higher education, most notably Haluoleo University, which is the oldest of two public universities in the province. The university has over 40,000 active students and was the sixth most populous school based on undergraduate population. [32] [33] Kendari State Islamic Institution is the largest Islamic college in the province. [34] It has over 6,000 active students, primarily undergraduates, mainly studying Islamic Education and Sharia Economics. [35]

Construction of the Kendari Modern Library, in Kadia District, was completed in 2021. [36] The library is managed by the provincial government and was modeled after the Harvard Library. [37] The library has seven floors, a cinema room, meeting spaces, an area for local artifacts, and a cafe. [38]

Kendari Modern Library, completed in late 2021 Kendari Modern Library.jpg
Kendari Modern Library, completed in late 2021

School participation rate is relatively high—99.44% for ages seven to 12 years old, and 94.76% for ages 13 to 15. The city reports a literacy rate of 97.94%. [30]


Bahteramas Regional Hospital Bahtera Regional Hospital, Southeast Sulawesi.jpg
Bahteramas Regional Hospital

As of 2020, the city has 15 hospitals including a maternity hospital, six polyclinics, 30 puskesmas (community health centers), five of which provide inpatient care, and 40 pharmacies. There are 38 primary clinics, 216 healthcare centers, and 55 family planning clinics in the city. Of the 15 hospitals, five are public hospitals while 10 are private. There are two psychiatric hospitals, one public, and one private. [30]

The provincial government is constructing a hospital specializing in cardiology; construction began in 2019 and is expected to be completed in 2022. [39] It is claimed to be the first cardiology hospital in Eastern Indonesia. [40]


There are 614.35 kilometers (381.74 mi) of road within the city boundaries, of which 472.53 kilometers (293.62 mi) have been paved and sealed with asphalt. Most of the roads are owned by the city government; the rest are state-owned national roads or provincial roads. [30] As of 2021, both inner and outer ringroads are under construction. [41] [42]

The city is served by Haluoleo Airport, formerly known as Wolter Monginsidi Airport. The airport has regular flights to Jakarta and Makassar and smaller regions around it. [43] [44] The airport is being developed to become an international airport to relieve pressure on the already congested Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport. [45] [46] Kendari New Port, in the city, is an international seaport, managed by Pelindo IV, which is used for the export and import of goods from the region. [47] It is one of two international container ports on Sulawesi island that are currently being developed along with Makassar New Port in the city of Makassar. [48] There are smaller ports, such as Wawonii Port and Nusantara Port, used mostly for ferries to the smaller islands surrounding the city . [49] [50] 4,756 ships visited the city in 2020. [30]


Multiple online and print media companies are based in the city, largely serving Southeastern Sulawesi. One major company in the city is the Fajar Group, a media conglomerate that owns several television channels, print media, and online news websites in the city and the province. [51] There are numerous private television channels in Kendari including Net.Kendari, GlobalTV Kendari, and local channels including Sigma TV. [52] The Indonesian state-owned television channel TVRI and state-owned radio broadcaster Radio Republik Indonesia also have branches in the city. [53] [54]


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Sejarah Kota Kendari". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "Islamisasi Sejarah Konawe".
  3. Yahya, M., dan Subair, M. (November 2019). "Prakarsa Bugis-Mandar dalam Pendidikan Keagamaan di Lalowura Loea Kolaka Timur Sulawesi Tenggara". Pusaka. 7 (2): 155. doi: 10.31969/pusaka.v7i2.260 .CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. 1 2 3 ZonaSultra, Admin (30 October 2019). "Kalosara dari Dulu hingga Kini: Merawat Perdamaian, Mengokohkan Persatuan (Bagian 1)". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "Sejarah Perlawanan terhadap Imperialisme dan Kolonialisme di Sulawesi Tenggara" (PDF).
  6. Womack (2016), pp. 123
  7. Nortier (1988), pp. 101
  8. "Politik dan Ekonomi di Dua Kota: Baubau dan Kendari pada tahun 1950-an–1960-a".
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 "Profil Kota Kendari" (PDF).
  10. "Kendari climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Kendari water temperature -".
  11. "UU 22 1999" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  12. "UU 8 2015" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  13. "PP No. 17 Tahun 2018 tentang Kecamatan [JDIH BPK RI]". Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  14. Government Law No.19 1998
  15. "Keputusan KPU Nomor 291/PL.01.3-Kpt/06/KPU/IV/2018 tentang Penetapan Daerah Pemilihan dan Alokasi Kursi Anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Provinsi dan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Kabupaten/Kota di Wilayah Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara" (PDF). KPU RI. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  16. 1 2 3 "BPS Kota Kendari". Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  17. 1 2 "BPS Kota Kendari". Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  18. "Kawasan Industri Dongkrak Kontribusi Manufaktur terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi - Ekonomi". 2 June 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  19. STUDIO, HASHTECH. "Pemkab Konawe Bakal Bangun Pabrik Baterai Lithium Terbesar Kedua di Indonesia Timur". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  20. "Percepatan Pembangunan Infrastruktur di Kawasan Industri Konawe dan Pelabuhan Kendari New Port - Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Perekonomian Republik Indonesia". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  21. Home; Terkini; News, Top; Terpopuler; Nusantara; Nasional; Sultra, Seputar; Kti; Internasional. "PPS Kendari Himpun 27 Perusahaan Perikanan". Antara News Sultra. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  22. "Industri Lingkup PPS Kendari".
  23. "BPS Kota Kendari". Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  24. "BPS Kota Kendari". Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  25. "BPS Kota Kendari". Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  26. "BPS Kota Kendari". Retrieved 4 September 2021.
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  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Kendari dalam Angka 2021". Retrieved 7 August 2021.
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  32. "PDDikti - Pangkalan Data Pendidikan Tinggi". Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  33. "11 Universitas dengan Mahasiswa Terbanyak di Indonesia, Apakah Kampusmu Posisi Pertama?". (in Indonesian). 6 August 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  35. "PDDikti - Pangkalan Data Pendidikan Tinggi". Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  36. "Gedung Perpustakaan di Kendari Selesai Dibangun | Sulawesi". 31 January 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  37. "Target Diresmikan Akhir 2021, Perpustakaan Modern Sultra Masuk Tahap Finishing". 5 May 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
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  39. (16 June 2021). "Proyek Ambisius Gubernur Sulawesi Tenggara Bangun RS Jantung di Kendari". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  40. "Kendari Klaim Bangun RS Khusus Jantung Pertama di Indonesia Timur - Nasional".
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  42. "Outer Ringroad Kendari Masuk Tahap Perkerasan". 9 July 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  43. "Direktorat Jenderal Perhubungan Udara | Data Bandar Udara". Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  44. Muhamad <asep.muhamad[at]>, Asep. "BANDARA HALUOLEO ERA BARU MASYARAKAT SULTRA". Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  45. "Dalam Dua Hari, Gubernur Ali Mazi Rampungkan Sejumlah Agenda Strategis". 6 March 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
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  47. "Kendari New Port". Inaport4. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  48. "Pelindo IV Siapkan Kendari New Port Jadi Pelabuhan Kelas Dunia". Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  49. (5 May 2021). "Penumpang kapal pelabuhan nusantara Kendari membludak". Antara News. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  50. Rakyat, Asumsi (6 May 2021). "Pelabuhan Feri Wawonii-Kendari Hampir di Boikot, Begini Kronologinya". ASUMSI RAKYAT. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  51. BKK, Fatma (6 March 2020). "Media Naungan Fajar Group di Kendari Segera Helat Sultra Travel dan Property Fair". Berita Kota Kendari (in Indonesian). Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  53. Heeryl. "Kepala Stasiun TVRI Sultra Berganti, Kini Dinahkodai Budy Kurniawan – Kendari Pos" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  54. Baskara, Benny (27 December 2018). "AKOMODASI DAN KONTESTASI RUANG BUDAYA DI UDARA: KASUS SIARAN BUDAYA DI RRI KENDARI, SULAWESI TENGGARA". Studi Budaya Nusantara. 2 (2): 84–91. doi: 10.21776/ub.sbn.2018.002.02.04 . ISSN   2621-1068.

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Haluoleo Airport

Haluoleo Airport is an airport in Kendari, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia. The previous name of the airport was named for Robert Wolter Monginsidi, an Indonesian national hero who was executed by the Dutch during the Indonesian National Revolution. Since February 13, 2010, the airport is renamed to honor Buton Sultanate's sixth sultan, Halu Oleo. The new terminal was opened on 6 April 2012.

Bontang City in Indonesia

Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Borneo in Indonesia, in the province of East Kalimantan. It occupies an area of 161.88 km2 (62.50 sq mi), and the population was 140,787 at the 2010 Census, and 178,917 at the 2020 Census. It is also the third most densely populated place in the province after Balikpapan and Samarinda.

Bima City in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Bima is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Sumbawa in central Indonesia's province West Nusa Tenggara. It is the largest city on the island of Sumbawa, with a population of 142,443 at the 2010 Census and 155,140 at the 2020 Census. It is separate from the adjoining Regency of Bima which had a population of 514,105 at the 2020 Census.

North Central Timor Regency Regency in Indonesia

North Central Timor Regency is a regency in East Nusa Tenggara Province of Indonesia. Its regency seat located in Kefamenanu, which is a district with population of 47,776 out of 259,829 the regency's total population on 2020. Bordering Timor Leste's Oecusse enclave, it is one of few Indonesian region that has land border with other countries.

Tual City in Maluku, Indonesia

Tual is a city in Maluku Province of Indonesia. The city, called Kota Tual in Indonesian, is within the Kei Islands, on Dullah Island, but since 2007 has been administratively separate from the rest of the Kei Islands, which form the Southeast Maluku Regency and comprise two principal islands together with over 190 smaller offshore islands.

Andi Djemma was a king of Luwu in South Sulawesi and Indonesian nationalist who later supported inclusion of his own kingdom to the newly formed Indonesian Republic.

Musabaqah Tilawatil Quran is an Indonesian Islamic religious festival held at national level, aimed at glorification of the Qur'an. On this festival, participants compete at reciting Al-Qur'an employing qira'at.

Ali Mazi

Ali Mazi is an Indonesian lawyer and politician who is the governor of Southeast Sulawesi.

2018 Southeast Sulawesi gubernatorial election

The 2018 Southeast Sulawesi gubernatorial election took place on 27 June 2018 as part of the simultaneous local elections. It was held to elect the governor of Southeast Sulawesi alongside with their deputy, whilst members of the provincial council will be re-elected in 2019.

In Indonesian law, the term "city" (kota) is generally defined as the second-level administrative subdivision of the Republic of Indonesia, an equivalent to regency (kabupaten). The difference between a city and a regency is that a city has non-agricultural economic activities and a dense urban population, while a regency comprises predominantly rural areas and is larger in area than a city. However, Indonesia historically had several classifications of cities.