Kendari

Last updated

Kendari
Kendari Bay at night.jpg
Unity Tower Kendari.jpg
Kendari Bay Bridge.jpg
Masjid Al-Alam Kendari (3).jpg
Kendari at night.jpg
Clockwise, from top: Kendari at night, Kendari Bay Bridge, a road section in Kendari, Al-Alam Mosque, and MTQ Unity Monument
Flag of Kendari City.png
Lambang Kota Kendari.png
Lokasi Sulawesi Tenggara Kota Kendari.svg
Location within Southeast Sulawesi
OpenStreetMap
Kendari
Sulawesi location map plain.svg
Red pog.svg
Kendari
Location in Sulawesi and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kendari
Kendari (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 3°59′27″S122°30′31″E / 3.9907°S 122.5086°E / -3.9907; 122.5086 Coordinates: 3°59′27″S122°30′31″E / 3.9907°S 122.5086°E / -3.9907; 122.5086
CountryFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
ProvinceFlag of Southeast Sulawesi.svg  Southeast Sulawesi
Incorporated1 July 1978
City Status27 September 1995
Government
  MayorAsmawa Tosepu
  Vice MayorSiska Karina Imran
Area
  Total271.76 km2 (104.93 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total345,107
Time zone UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Area code (+62) 401
HDI Increase2.svg 0.828 (Very high)
Website kendarikota.go.id

Kendari is the capital city of the Indonesian province of Southeast Sulawesi. With a population of 345,107 according to the 2020 census, it is the most populous city in the province, and the fourth most on Sulawesi. The city covers an area of 271.76 square kilometers (104.93 sq mi), or about 0.7 percent of Southeast Sulawesi's land area. Located on Kendari Bay, it continues to be an important trade center, with the province's main port and airport. It is the economic and educational center of the province, home to various universities and colleges. Kendari has the highest Human Development Index (HDI) in Sulawesi. [1]

Contents

History

Etymology

The word "Kendari" is thought to come from a version of the word "Kandai", meaning a tool made of bamboo and wooden planks to push boats away from a dock. Over time, the pronunciation changed, and the city is now officially known as Kendari. [2]

Early history

The Bay of Kendari has been known since the 15th century and appears on Portuguese chartered maps, marked with the name "Citta dela Baia" ("City of the Bay"). The bay was known as "Baia du Tivora" ("Tivora Bay"). [2] The Kingdom of Konawe, founded in the fifth century by the Tolaki people, ruled the settlement. Its early governmental structure was simple and resembled those of tribal societies. The kingdom had several historical periods. [3] :42

Its first king was Mokole Roro, who ruled the kingdom between 428 and 447, in a period known as Ancient Konawe. The kingdom was still small and did not yet rule all of today's Konawe region or Kendari city. The kingdom's capital was in Rahambuu, a town known today as Unaaha, around 60 kilometers (37 mi) from Kendari. The kingdom included three smaller kingdoms loyal to Unaaha. [3] :42

The Old Konawe period followed the Ancient Konawe period. It was marked by the unification and consolidation of the kingdom's power over the region. There was a huge unknown disaster, which is thought to have almost eliminated all the people in the region. According to local legend, Onggodo, a holy man, is thought to have arrived in the kingdom from the Maluku Islands. He is believed to have saved the kingdom from the unknown disaster, and later married one of the kingdom's princesses. Konawe society was divided into three classes. Anakia were nobles and the upper classes; Tononggapa were the commoners and peasants, and Oata were slaves. [3] :42–43 People in the region were united by the Kalo Sara, meaning "circle of tribal laws", a religious symbol of harmony, peace, and kinship, a large bracelet made of three rattan pieces tied together on a white napkin. [4] [3] :45 The rattan bracelet symbolized unity and the white napkin symbolized good deeds. The three pieces of rattan have various meanings and interpretations, such as father, mother, and children, or government, religion, and tradition. [5]

Islamic period

Islam has been present in the kingdom since the early 15th century, especially after the foundation of the neighbouring Sultanate of Buton, just south of Konawe, brought by Buginese merchants from Makassar who mostly settled in coastal regions, and through trade. The kingdom officially embraced Islam during the reign of King Lakidende (1724–1786), who had embraced Islam after traveling around Western parts of Sulawesi and studying Islam in the Bone kingdom around today's South Sulawesi. During his reign, the kingdom banned things that were considered un-Islamic, such as eating pork. He promoted the construction of mosques in each village, and marriage in accordance with Islamic tradition. The kingdom's governance structure did not change significantly, and many animist traditions were incorporated with Islamic beliefs by the people. The Kalo Sara symbol was interpreted in accordance with Islamic beliefs instead of being abandoned altogether. During this period, Konawe became a multicultural society, with merchants from Java, Makassar, and Maluku settling on the island. [3] :45–48

Colonial period

A house in Kendari, 1920 Boeginesiska hus i Kendari, ost-Celebes. Sulawesi. Indonesien - SMVK - 000253.tif
A house in Kendari, 1920

In 1828, the governor of the Dutch East Indies tasked a sailor named Jacques Nicholas Vosmaer with mapping the eastern coast of Sulawesi to find a suitable location for a trading post. The first detailed map of Kendari Bay, named Vosmaer Bay in his honor, was published in May 1831. [2] According to reports from Vosmaer in 1839 and another Dutch official named van der Hart in 1853, villages around Kendari Bay where current city is located are settled by Bugis and Bajo traders and fisherman between 10 to 15 years prior to his journey. The bay was an attractive location for migrants that time, due to Konawe's political condition that were relatively stable and peaceful compared to neighbouring kingdoms at that time. Many traders especially those of Bugis people came to Kendari due to ongoing Dutch-Bone War between 1824 and 1825. During this time, Konawe was in a weakened state following a succession of crises. In 1858, La Mangu, a noble from Ranome Eto, signed a treaty with the Dutch, as he wished to create a separate kingdom, Laiwoi, independent from Konawe. Laiwoi would be located in Ranome Eto, and its founding was kept secret from Konawe royal council members. Laiwoi existed legally, but did not control any territory, as Konawe maintained its hold on the area. The Dutch promised armed help to create the kingdom on the condition that the treaty would be kept secret from the people of Konawe until the other Dutch wars in South Sulawesi ended. [6] :39–41

In 1905, following the end of the war against the Gowa Sultanate, the Dutch turned their attention to the eastern coast of Sulawesi. La Mangu had died by now, but the Dutch maintained the plans to establish Laiwoi, approaching nobles from Ranome Eto with the treaty and finally, naming Saosao as king, increasing tensions with the Konawe. To avoid armed conflict, the Dutch government mediated an agreement. However, Konawe secretly mobilised its troops and established an arms store in Puwilalo. In response, the Dutch attempted, and failed, to negotiate with their leader, Watukila. Finally, the Dutch decided to attack Watukila's troops and invaded the kingdom. In 1908, Dutch troops besieged Puundombi Fort, and Konawe fell. [6] :44–49 Laiwoi moved the capital to Kendari; armed resistance to it and the Dutch continued through 1937. [6] :59

Japanese occupation and independence

Dutch guerrilla area in Kendari, 1942 Dutch Guerrilla Area in Kendari, 1942.jpg
Dutch guerrilla area in Kendari, 1942

Japanese troops occupied the city after the Battle of Kendari in 1942. The Dutch garrison initially opted for guerilla warfare, but following increased Indonesian nationalist sentiment, and the lack of resistance that followed, the Dutch command ultimately pressed for surrender, which they did on 27 March. As in other regions, Japanese troops provided opportunities for Indonesian nationalism to spread in the region, and gave nationalist groups military training. [6] :60

One month after the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in August 1945, youth in the region created a militia headquartered in Kolaka. The PRI (Indonesian Republican Youth) controlled the militia and spread its influence to cities and towns in Southeast Sulawesi, including Kendari. Lasandara, a local administrator for the Dutch, officially supported independence. However, in October, Australian troops entered the region with the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration. On 19 November, a Republican militia clashed with Dutch troops in an event known as the Kolaka incident. In February 1946, Dutch troops occupied the large cities in the region; guerilla resistance by the Republicans continued until 1948. [6] :61–64 The city and the surrounding region became part of the State of East Indonesia, which was incorporated into the newly recognised Indonesian Republic a year later. The city was heavily affected by the Darul Islam rebellion, which started in South Sulawesi but spread to the eastern coast. Because of the conflict, there were several refugee camps around the city. In 1964, the new province of Southeast Sulawesi was created with Kendari as its capital city. [7] In 1978, Kendari gained city status as an administrative city and in 1995 as a kotamadya . [2]

Due to its status as provincial capital, Kendari has been experiencing significant urbanization, making it prone to flooding and other disasters. [8] [9] [10]

Geography

Kendari borders the Konawe Regency in the north, South Konawe Regency in the south and west, and Kendari Bay in the east. The city is on the southeastern part of mainland Sulawesi island; several smaller islands around the bay are within its boundaries. The city's topography varies from flat to hilly. Coastal areas tend to be flatter, while the northern part of the city is part of the Nipa-Nipa mountain formation, which reaches elevations of approximately 450 metres (1,480 ft). In general, the city's slopes are less than 25 percent except for those in the north, which in some places exceed 40 percent. [11]

Soil formations in the city are relatively young, dominated by cambisols, which make up around 30 percent of the city's soil. Other formations also exist with less frequency, such as alluvium and podzols, which account for less than eight percent overall. Rivers and coastal areas contain the most abundant alluvium sediments. [11]

Climate

Kendari has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) with heavy rainfall from December to July and moderate rainfall from August to November. The city's average temperature is 31 °C (88 °F). [11]

The lowest average temperature is usually recorded in August and can be 21 °C (70 °F), while the highest average temperature is observed during November reaching 32 °C (90 °F). The average humidity level is between 81 and 87 percent regardless of the month, and wind speed on average sits between 6.8 knots (12.6 km/h; 7.8 mph) and 7.5 knots (13.9 km/h; 8.6 mph) with stronger winds observed in December. [11]

Climate data for Kendari
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)31.5
(88.7)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
30.6
(87.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.4
(84.9)
30.2
(86.4)
31.2
(88.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.6
(90.7)
31.9
(89.4)
31.1
(88.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.4
(81.3)
27.2
(81.0)
26.5
(79.7)
25.9
(78.6)
26.2
(79.2)
26.8
(80.2)
27.6
(81.7)
28.2
(82.8)
27.8
(82.0)
27.2
(80.9)
Average low °C (°F)23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.7
(74.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.3
(73.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches)196
(7.7)
207
(8.1)
242
(9.5)
225
(8.9)
241
(9.5)
224
(8.8)
144
(5.7)
91
(3.6)
103
(4.1)
80
(3.1)
98
(3.9)
181
(7.1)
2,032
(80)
Source: [12]

Governance

Administrative districts

At the time of the 2010 Census, the city was divided into ten districts (kecamatan), but an 11th district (Nambo) was subsequently created from part of Abeli District. All districts are tabulated below with their postcodes, areas and populations at the 2010 Census [13] and the 2020 Census. [14]

DistrictArea in
km2
Population
Census
2010
Population
Census
2020
Post
Codes
Mandonga21.7436,16337,22093111 — 93113
Baruga49.4119,36833,29093116
Puuwatu43.5127,74940,00093114 & 93115
Kadia6.4839,24436,61093117 & 93118
Wua-wua10.7924,40733,45093117 & 93118
Poasia42.9124,97740,66093231 — 93233
Abeli13.9022,43817,19093234 — 93238
Kambu22.1027,13524,72093231
Nambo25.32 [lower-alpha 1] 11,170 [lower-alpha 1]
Kendari14.4825,55728,58093121 — 93129
West Kendari21.1242,92842,23093121— 93127
Totals271.76289,966345,107

Government and politics

As with all Indonesian cities, Kendari is a second-level administrative division, equal in power to a regency, that is run by an elected mayor and vice mayor, who hold executive power, as well as a legislative city parliament. [15] Legislative duties are vested in the local parliament. [16] Heads of districts are appointed by the mayor on the recommendation of the city secretary. [17] [18]

The city is part of the 1st Southeast Sulawesi electoral district, which sends six of the 45 representatives to the provincial parliament. On the city level, it is divided into five electoral districts, which has 35 representatives. [19]

Electoral districtRegionRepresentatives
Kendari 1stMandonga and Puuwatu District8
Kendari 2ndKendari and West Kendari District7
Kendari 3rdAbeli, Nambo and Poasia District6
Kendari 4thBaruga and Kambu District6
Kendari 5thKadia and Wua-Wua District8
Total35

Economy

Entrance gate to Samudera Fishery Port PPS Kendari gate.jpg
Entrance gate to Samudera Fishery Port

The city's economy consists largely of service-related sectors employing 77 percent of its workforce. [20] The construction sector, retail, agriculture and fisheries, processing and manufacturing, education, logistics and the financial and insurance industries are also major industries, listed here in order of percentage of gross regional product (GRP). [21]

Kendari is also industrial, with the manufacturing sector employing 21.04 percent of the workforce, while agriculture employs 1.34 percent. [20] Overall GRP growth of the city was 6.48 percent in 2019, but then the economy contracted 1.3 percent in 2020 because of the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. [21] The poverty rate in 2020 was 4.34 percent. [20]

The nearby Konawe Industrial Area produces mainly nickel–lithium batteries. [22] [23] Shipping comes to Kendari New Port, a large industrial container port, [24] and the Samudera Fishery Port, which hosts 27 fish processing companies as of 2016 and is among the largest centers for that industry in Eastern Indonesia. [25] [26] The fish catch was around 37,000 metric tons (36,000 long tons; 41,000 short tons) tons in 2018, consisting largely of skipjack tuna. [27] There are 142 hotels registered in the city. [28] Kendari is home to 28 large industrial companies and 446 registered small and medium-sized enterprises employing more than 1,500 people. [29] [30] Agricultural exports include frozen shrimp, processed cashew nuts, cocoa butter, and raw octopus; most of these products are exported to Japan and India. [31] [32]

Demographics

Around 90 percent of Kendari's population are members of groups native to the region such as Tolaki, Muna, Buton, and Moronene; the rest are mostly migrants from other parts of Indonesia. [33] There are 173,987 males and 171,120 females in the city. The population grew by 1.7 percent in 2020, with Baruga district growing the most (5.38 percent) while the Kambu district decreased the most, losing 0.9 percent of its population. The most densely populated district is the Kadia district with 5,650 people per square kilometer, while the least was Nambo. The most populated district was West Kendari with 42,230 people while the least populated is Nambo, which has a population of 11,170 people. According to Statistics Indonesia, 189,534 people are considered part of the workforce as of 2020. [34] Most of the city's population are Muslim, with considerable Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu minorities. [35]

Education

A school in Kendari SDN 1 Kendari.jpg
A school in Kendari

There are 133 kindergartens, 141 elementary schools, 58 junior high schools, and 32 senior high schools. There are 20 vocational high schools in the city as of 2020. [34] The city is home to various institutions of higher education, most notably Haluoleo University, which is the older of the two public universities in the province. The university has over 40,000 active students and was the sixth most populous school in Indonesia based on undergraduate population. [36] [37] Kendari State Islamic Institution is the largest Islamic college in the province. [38] It has over 6,000 active students, primarily undergraduates, mainly studying Islamic education and sharia economics. [39]

Construction of the Kendari Modern Library, in Kadia District, was completed in 2021. [40] The library is managed by the provincial government and was modeled after the Harvard Library. [41] The library has seven floors, a cinema room, meeting spaces, an area for local artifacts, and a cafe. [42]

Kendari Modern Library, completed in late 2021 Kendari Modern Library.jpg
Kendari Modern Library, completed in late 2021

The school participation rate is relatively high—99.44 percent for ages seven to 12 years old, and 94.76 percent for ages 13 to 15. The city reports a literacy rate of 97.94 percent. [34]

Healthcare

Bahteramas Regional Hospital Bahtera Regional Hospital, Southeast Sulawesi.jpg
Bahteramas Regional Hospital

As of 2020, the city has 15 hospitals, including a maternity hospital, six polyclinics, 30 puskesmas (community health centers), five of which provide inpatient care, and 40 pharmacies. There are 38 primary clinics, 216 healthcare centers, and 55 family planning clinics in the city. Of the 15 hospitals, five are public hospitals while 10 are private. There are two psychiatric hospitals, one public, and one private. [34]

The provincial government is constructing a hospital specializing in cardiology; construction began in 2019 and is expected to be completed in 2022. [43] It is claimed to be the first cardiology hospital in Eastern Indonesia. [44]

Transportation

There are 614.35 kilometers (381.74 mi) of road within the city boundaries, of which 472.53 km (293.62 mi) have been paved and sealed with asphalt. Most of the roads are owned by the city government; the rest are state-owned national roads or provincial roads. [34] As of 2021, both inner and outer ring roads are under construction. [45] [46] The Kendari Bay Bridge, with a length of 1.34 km (0.83 mi), opened in 2020 and shortened travel times crossing the bay between Kota Lama and Poasia from a half hour to 5 minutes. [47] [48]

The city is served by Haluoleo Airport, formerly Wolter Monginsidi Airport. It has regular flights to Jakarta and Makassar and smaller regions around it. [49] [50] Haluoleo is being developed into an international airport to relieve pressure on the already congested Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport. [51] [52] Kendari New Port, in the city, is an international seaport, managed by Pelindo IV, which is used for the export and import of goods from the region. [53] It is one of two international container ports on Sulawesi island that are currently being developed along with Makassar New Port in the city of Makassar. [54] There are smaller ports, such as Wawonii and Nusantara, used mostly for ferries to the smaller islands surrounding the city. [55] [56] Almost 4,800 ships visited the city in 2020. [34]

Usage of ride-hailing services such as Gojek and Grab is widespread in the city. [57] [58] Like most other Indonesian cities, angkots run on routes regulated by city government within Kendari. [59] For long-distance land travel, the city is served by Perum DAMRI with various routes to the city of Baubau, Kolaka Regency, and the towns of Raha, Ereke, and Tondasi inside the province as well as interprovince routes to Tana Toraja Regency and Makassar. [60] [61] The city also has an urban bus system run by the city government since 2015. [62]

Media

Many online and print media companies are based in the city, largely serving southeastern Sulawesi. One is the Fajar Group, a media conglomerate that owns several television channels, print media, and online news websites in the city and province. [63] There are several private television channels in Kendari including Net.Kendari, GlobalTV Kendari, and local channels including Sigma TV. [64] The Indonesian state-owned television channel TVRI and state-owned radio broadcaster Radio Republik Indonesia also have branches in the city. [65] [66]

Citations

  1. "[Metode Baru] Indeks Pembangunan Manusia 2020-2021" [[New Method] Human Development Index 2020-2021] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia . Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Sejarah Kota Kendari" [Kendari City History] (in Indonesian). City of Kendari. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Hakim, Ramlah (1 June 2011). "Lingkar Rotan Kalosara: Perjumpaan Islam Dan Tradisi Dalam Sejarah Islam Konawe". Al-Qalam. 17 (1): 39–49. doi: 10.31969/alq.v17i1.96 . ISSN   2540-895X.
  4. Yahya, M.; dan Subair, M. (November 2019). "Prakarsa Bugis-Mandar dalam Pendidikan Keagamaan di Lalowura Loea Kolaka Timur Sulawesi Tenggara" [Bugis-Mandar Initiative in Religious Education in Lalowura Loea Kolaka, East Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi]. Pusaka (in Indonesian). 7 (2): 155. doi: 10.31969/pusaka.v7i2.260 . ISSN   2337-5957 . Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  5. ZonaSultra, Admin (30 October 2019). "Kalosara dari Dulu hingga Kini: Merawat Perdamaian, Mengokohkan Persatuan (Bagian 1)" [Kalosara from Past to Present: Maintaining Peace, Strengthening Unity (Part 1)]. ZonaSultra.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 "Sejarah Perlawanan terhadap Imperialisme dan Kolonialisme di Sulawesi Tenggara" [History of resistance to imperialism and colonialism in the Southeast Sulawesi region](PDF) (in Indonesian). Department of Education and Culture. 1983–84. Retrieved 13 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. Rabani, L.; Purwanto, B.; Margana, S. (2020). "Politik dan Ekonomi di Dua Kota: Baubau dan Kendari pada tahun 1950-an–1960-a" [The Politics and Economy in Two Towns: Baubau and Kendari in 1950s-1960s]. Mozaik Humaniora (in Indonesian). 20 (1): 39–56. doi: 10.20473/mozaik.v20i1.15746 . S2CID   225224424.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. "Wali Kota Pantau Peringatan Harganas di Kendari" [Mayor Monitors Harganas Warning in Kendari] (in Indonesian). City of Kendari. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  9. Gandri, L.; Suslistyantara, B.; Purwanto, M.; Zain, A. (2020). "Pemodelan Bahaya Banjir Kawasan Perkotaan (Studi Kasus di Kota Kendari)" [Urban Area Flood Hazard Modeling (Case Study in Kendari City)]. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian (in Indonesian). 7 (1). doi: 10.19028/jtep.07.1.9-16 . S2CID   204262619 . Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  10. Alwan, Alwan; Barkey, Roland A.; Syafri, Syafri (2020). "Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan dan Keselarasan Rencana Pola Ruang Di Kota Kendari" [Changes in Land Use and Alignment of Spatial Pattern Plans in Kendari City]. Urban and Regional Studies Journal (in Indonesian). 3 (1): 1–5. doi: 10.35965/ursj.v3i1.605 . ISSN   2656-8705. S2CID   233684805 . Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  11. 1 2 3 4 "Profil Kota Kendari" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  12. "Kendari climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Kendari water temperature - Climate-Data.org". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  13. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  14. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  15. "UU 22 1999" (PDF) (in Indonesian). President of Indonesia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  16. "UU 8 2015" (PDF) (in Indonesian). President of Indonesia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  17. "PP No. 17 Tahun 2018 tentang Kecamatan [JDIH BPK RI]". peraturan.bpk.go.id (in Indonesian). President of Indonesia. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  18. Government Law No.19 1998
  19. "Keputusan KPU Nomor 291/PL.01.3-Kpt/06/KPU/IV/2018 tentang Penetapan Daerah Pemilihan dan Alokasi Kursi Anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Provinsi dan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Kabupaten/Kota di Wilayah Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara" (PDF) (in Indonesian). KPU RI. 4 April 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  20. 1 2 3 "Kendari Layak Huni 2021" [Kendari is livable 2021] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  21. 1 2 "Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kota Kendari Menurut Lapangan Usaha 2016-2020" [Kendari City Gross Regional Domestic Product by Sector 2016-2020] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  22. Ayu, Ipak (2 June 2021). "Kawasan Industri Dongkrak Kontribusi Manufaktur terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi - Ekonomi" [Industrial Estates Boost Manufacturing Contribution to Economic Growth]. Bisnis Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  23. Putra, Surya (18 November 2020). "Pemkab Konawe Bakal Bangun Pabrik Baterai Lithium Terbesar Kedua di Indonesia Timur" [Konawe Regency Government to Build Second Largest Lithium Battery Factory in Eastern Indonesia] (Press release) (in Indonesian). Konawe Regency . Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  24. "Percepatan Pembangunan Infrastruktur di Kawasan Industri Konawe dan Pelabuhan Kendari New Port" [Acceleration of Infrastructure Development in Konawe Industrial Estate and Kendari New Port] (Press release) (in Indonesian). Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs. 25 July 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  25. Senong, Azis (29 June 2016). "PPS Kendari Himpun 27 Perusahaan Perikanan" [PPS Kendari Gathers 27 Fisheries Companies] (Press release) (in Indonesian). Antara . Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  26. "Industri Lingkup PPS Kendari" [Industry Scope of PPS Kendari] (in Indonesian). Kendari Ocean Fishery Port. Retrieved 15 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  27. "Produksi Pendaratan Ikan Menurut Jenis Ikan di Kota Kendari (Ton), 2017 - 2018" [Landing Fish Production by Type of Fish in Kendari City (Tons), 2017 - 2018] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 16 May 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  28. "Statistik Hotel Dan Tingkat Penghunian Kamar Hotel Kota Kendari 2020" [Hotel Statistics And Hotel Room Occupancy Rate Kendari City 2020] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  29. "Banyaknya Perusahaan Industri Kecil dan Rumah Tangga (Mikro), Tenaga Kerja, dan Nilai Produksi Menurut Kecamatan Tahun 2015" [Number of Small and Home Industry Companies (Micro), Manpower, and Production Value by District in 2015] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  30. "Banyaknya Perusahaan Industri Besar/Sedang, Tenaga Kerja dan Pengeluaran untuk Tenaga Kerja Menurut Kecamatan di Kota Kendari, 2015" [Number of Large/Medium Industrial Companies, Labor and Labor Expenditure by District in Kendari City, 2015] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  31. "Volume dan Nilai Ekspor di Pelabuhan Kendari Menurut Negara Tujuan, 2019" [Volume and Value Export in Kendari Port by Country, 2019] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  32. "Volume dan Nilai Ekspor di Pelabuhan Kendari Menurut Jenis Komoditas, 2019" [Volume and Value Export in Kendari Port by Commodities, 2019] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 9 January 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  33. "BAB I PENDAHULUAN" (PDF). Retrieved 15 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Kota Kendari dalam Angka 2021" [Kendari City in Figures 2021] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 26 February 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. "Jumlah Penduduk Menurut Kecamatan dan Agama Yang Dianut di Kota Kendari, 2019" [Population by Subdistrict and Religion in Kendari Municipality, 2019] (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  36. "Profil Perguruan Tinggi" [College Profile – Halu Oleo University] (in Indonesian). Ministry of Education and Culture. 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  37. Aditya, Rifan (6 August 2021). "11 Universitas dengan Mahasiswa Terbanyak di Indonesia, Apakah Kampusmu Posisi Pertama?" [1 Universities with the Most Students in Indonesia, Is Your Campus in First Position?]. Suara (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  38. "IAIN Kendari – State Institute — General Information". Quipper.com (in Indonesian). 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  39. "List of Study Programs" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Education and Culture. 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  40. "Gedung Perpustakaan di Kendari Selesai Dibangun" [Library Building in Kendari Completed]. Bisnis Indonesia (in Indonesian). 31 January 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  41. Fitrah, Nugraha (5 May 2021). "Target Diresmikan Akhir 2021, Perpustakaan Modern Sultra Masuk Tahap Finishing" [Target to be inaugurated by the end of 2021, Sultra Modern Library Enters the Finishing Stage]. Telisik (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  42. "Begini Konsep Setiap Lantai Gedung Perpustakaan Modern Sultra" [This is The Concept of Each Floor of the Modern Sultra Library Building]. Penas Sultra (in Indonesian). 15 September 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  43. Fua, Ahmad Akhbar (16 June 2021). "Proyek Ambisius Gubernur Sulawesi Tenggara Bangun RS Jantung di Kendari" [The Southeast Sulawesi Governor's Ambitious Project to Build a Cardiac Hospital]. Liputan 6 (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  44. "Kendari Klaim Bangun RS Khusus Jantung Pertama di Indonesia Timur" [Kendari Claims to Build the First Heart Specialist Hospital in Eastern Indonesia]. Tempo (in Indonesian). 29 August 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  45. "Inner Ring Road Solusi Mencegah Kemacetan di Kendari" [Inner Ring Road Solution to Prevent Congestion in Kendari]. Kendari Aktual (in Indonesian). 16 February 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  46. "Outer Ringroad Kendari Masuk Tahap Perkerasan". Inikatasultra.com. 9 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  47. Gunawan, Arif (22 October 2020). "Ada Jembatan Teluk Kendari, Kota Lama ke Kec. Poasia Cuma 5 Menit" [Here is Kendari Bay Bridge, Kota Lama to Kec. Poasia Only 5 Minutes]. Bisnis Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  48. Bhafein, Suhaiela (22 October 2020). "Resmikan Jembatan Teluk Kendari, Jokowi: Besarnya Anggaran Sebanding dengan Manfaat" [Inaugurating the Kendari Bay Bridge, Jokowi: The amount of the budget is proportional to the benefits]. Kompas (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  49. "Data Bandar Udara" [Airport Data] (in Indonesian). Directorate General of Civil Aviation. Archived from the original on 4 September 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  50. Muhamad, Asep (13 February 2010). "Bandara Haluoleo Era Baru Masayarkat Sultra" [Haluleo Airport: A New Era of Sultra Society] (in Indonesian). Ministry of Transportation . Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  51. Moehiddin, Ilham (6 March 2021). "Dalam Dua Hari, Gubernur Ali Mazi Rampungkan Sejumlah Agenda Strategis" [In Two Days, Governor Ali Mazi Completes Several Strategic Agendas]. Government of Southeast Sulawesi (Press release) (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  52. "Profil dan Data Bandara Haluoleo di Kendari" [Haluoleo Airport Profile and Data in Kendari] (in Indonesian). Anyweb.id. 25 June 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  53. "Kendari New Port". Inaport4 (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 4 September 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  54. "Pelindo IV Siapkan Kendari New Port Jadi Pelabuhan Kelas Duni" [Pelindo IV Prepares Kendari New Port to Become a World Class Port]. translogtoday.com. 17 September 2021. Archived from the original on 4 September 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  55. Harianto, Muhammad (5 May 2021). "Penumpang kapal pelabuhan nusantara Kendari membludak" [Passenger Traffic Booming on Ferries from Kendari Islands]. Antara (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  56. "Pelabuhan Feri Wawonii-Kendari Hampir di Boikot, Begini Kronologinya" [Wawonii-Kendari Ferry Port Almost Boycotted, Here's the Chronology]. Asumsi Rakyat (in Indonesian). 6 May 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  57. Fua, Ahmad Akhbar (26 May 2018). "Aturan Baru Grab Bikin Ratusan Pemuda di Kendari Tunda Rencana Nikah" [Grab's New Rules Make Hundreds of Youths in Kendari Postpone Marriage Plans]. Liputan 6 (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  58. Marlina, Siti. "Go-Jek Resmi Beroperasi di Kendari: Go-Food Paling Laris" [Go-Jek Officially Operates in Kendari: Best Selling Go-Food]. Inilah Sultra (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  59. Saputra, M. Rasman (1 March 2019). "Dishub Kendari Alihkan Jalur Angkot Masuk ke Pasar Baru" [Dishub Kendari Diverts Angkot Lines to New Markets]. Zona Sultra (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  60. "Mencengangkan! 6 Bus Damri yang Beroperasi, 4 Tidak Layak Jalan Sebenarnya" [Astonishing! 6 Damri Buses in Operation, 4 Are Not Even Roadworthy]. Berita Kota Kendari (in Indonesian). 17 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 January 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  61. "Damri Kendari: tarif berbagai rute tidak naik selama Lebaran" [Damri Kendari: fares for various routes will not increase during Lebaran]. Antara (in Indonesian). 8 June 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  62. Abdul Rahman, Oleh La Ode (19 May 2015). "Damri Kendari: BRT Dukung Transportasi Massal Perkotaan" [Damri Kendari: BRT Supports Urban Mass Transportation]. Antara (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  63. "Media Naungan Fajar Group di Kendari Segera Helat Sultra Travel dan Property Fair" [Media Shade Fajar Group in Kendari to Immediately Hold Southeast Sulawesi Travel and Property Fair]. Berita Kota Kendari (in Indonesian). 6 March 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  64. "Daftar Izin Yang Sudah Diterbitkan Oleh Menteri Komunikasi Dan Informatika Bulan Juli 2016" [List of Licenses Issued by the Minister of Communication and Information As Of July 2016](PDF) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Communication and Information Technology. July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  65. Heeryl (July 2020). "Kepala Stasiun TVRI Sultra Berganti, Kini Dinahkodai Budy Kurniawan – Kendari Pos" [Head of the South Sulawesi TVRI Station Changed, Now Commanded by Budy Kurniawan – Kendari Pos] (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 4 September 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  66. Baskara, Benny (27 December 2018). "Akomodasi Dan Kontestasi Ruang Budaya di Udara: Kasus Siaran Budaya di Rri Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara" [Accommodation and Contestation of Cultural Space on the Air: The Case of Cultural Broadcasting on RRI Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi]. Studi Budaya Nusantara (in Indonesian). 2 (2): 84–91. doi: 10.21776/ub.sbn.2018.002.02.04 . ISSN   2621-1068 . Retrieved 17 July 2022.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Makassar</span> City and capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Makassar is the capital of the Indonesian province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth-largest urban center after Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung. The city is located on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi, facing the Makassar Strait.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southeast Sulawesi</span> Province of Indonesia

Southeast Sulawesi is a province on the island of Sulawesi, forming the southeastern peninsula of that island, together with a number of substantial offshore islands such as Buton, Muna, Kabaena and Wawonii, together with many smaller islands. The capital is the city of Kendari, on the east coast of the peninsula.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Balikpapan</span> City in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Balikpapan is a seaport city in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Located on the east coast of the island of Borneo, the city is the financial center of Kalimantan. Balikpapan is the city with the largest economy in Kalimantan with an estimated 2016 GDP at Rp 73.18 trillion. The city has the third busiest airport in Kalimantan after that in Banjarmasin and Pontianak, namely Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Sepinggan Airport. Port of Semayang was the second busiest seaport in East Kalimantan, after that in Samarinda.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bone state</span> Former country in Indonesia

Bone was a sultanate in the south-west peninsula of what is now Sulawesi, a province of modern-day Indonesia. It came under Dutch rule in 1905, and was succeeded by the Bone Regency.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palu</span> City and capital of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Palu, which is officially known as the City of Palu, is the capital and largest city of Central Sulawesi. Palu is located on the northwestern coast of Sulawesi and borders Donggala Regency to the north and west, Parigi Moutong Regency to the east, and Sigi Regency to the south. The city boundaries encompass a land area of 395.06 km2 (152.53 sq mi). According to the 2020 Indonesian census, Palu has a population of 373,218, making it the third-most populous city on the island after Makassar and Manado; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 377,030. Palu is the center of finance, government, and education in Central Sulawesi, as well as one of several major cities on the island. The city hosts the province's main port, its biggest airport, and most of its public universities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haluoleo Airport</span> Airport in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Haluoleo Airport is an airport in Kendari, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia. The previous name of the airport was named for Robert Wolter Monginsidi (1925–1949), an Indonesian national hero who was executed by the Dutch during the Indonesian National Revolution. Since February 13, 2010, the airport is renamed to honor Buton Sultanate's sixth sultan, Halu Oleo. The new terminal was opened on 6 April 2012.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penajam North Paser Regency</span> Regency in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Penajam North Paser Regency is a regency in the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan. Its administrative centre is the town of Penajam. The area which now forms Penajam North Paser was part of Paser Regency until its separation in the year 2002. It covers an area of 3,333.06 km2 and it had 142,922 inhabitants at the 2010 census and 178,681 at the 2020 census. Penajam North Paser Regency has the smallest area among the seven regencies in East Kalimantan province.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Konawe Regency</span> Regency in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Konawe Regency is one of the regencies in the province of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The capital of the regency is Unaaha. The regency was once known as the district of Kendari. The regency had a population of 241,428 at the 2010 Census, but has since been reduced by the separation of the offshore island districts as the new Konawe Islands Regency in 2013. It now covers 5,781.08 km2 and had a population of 257,011 at the 2020 Census. Prior to its division in 2003, 2007 and 2013, Konawe was known as the rice granary of the province of Southeast Sulawesi because half of the province's rice production comes from Konawe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tana Tidung Regency</span> Regency of Indonesia

Tana Tidung Regency is a regency within the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. It is Indonesia's least populous regency, with 25,584 inhabitants recorded in the 2020 census. Its regency seat is the town of Tideng Pale, in Sesayap District, where a majority of the regency's population lives.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sangihe Islands Regency</span> Regency of Indonesia

The Sangihe Islands Regency is a regency of North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. It comprises a group of islands situated to the North of Sulawesi. It covers a land area of 736.98 km2, and had a population of 126,100 at the 2010 Census and 139,262 at the 2020 Census. The principal island is also named Sangihe, on which lies the main town of Tahuna. Minor island groups within the Regency include the Marore group considerably to the north of Sangihe Island, the Tatoareng group to the south, and the Nusa Tabukan group off the northeast coast of Sangihe Island. It borders the Philippines in the north, making it one of Indonesia's border regions.

Betoambari Airport is an airport near Baubau, a city in the province of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Perum DAMRI</span> Transport enterprise of Indonesia

DAMRI Public Corporation is an Indonesian state-owned bus operator. Under further development as a public company, the name DAMRI is still used as a brand mark of this state-owned company that still carries out passenger and cargo transport using buses and trucks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Islam in Central Sulawesi</span>

Islam in Central Sulawesi, a province of Indonesia, is the majority religion embraced by around 75% of the population, out of a total of 2,683,722 inhabitants . The propagators of Islam were thought to enter the Central Sulawesi through neighboring regions, namely Bone, Wajo, and Mandar from the south and west routes, and through Gorontalo and Ternate from the north and east routes via Tomini Bay and Tolo Bay.

In Indonesian law, the term "city" is generally defined as the second-level administrative subdivision of the Republic of Indonesia, an equivalent to regency. The difference between a city and a regency is that a city has non-agricultural economic activities and a dense urban population, while a regency comprises predominantly rural areas and is larger in area than a city. However, Indonesia historically had several classifications of cities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eddy Sabara</span>

Eddy Sabara was an Indonesian civil servant and military officer. He was the Governor of Southeast Sulawesi for twelve years between 1966 and 1978, and held acting governor positions in four other provinces due to his position in the Ministry of Home Affairs.

The Kolaka incident, known locally as the 19 November incident, was an ambush of a Dutch military convoy near Kolaka, Southeast Sulawesi on 19 November 1945, during the early months of the Indonesian National Revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Balikpapan</span> District in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

West Balikpapan is a district in the city of Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The area is 37.49 km² in water and on land an area of 179.952 km² or about 35.75% of Balikpapan area. West Balikpapan is bordered by Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the North, by North Balikpapan to the North-East, by Central Balikpapan to the East-South, and Balikpapan Bay to the South-West.invetor by amimous name Is Angkit bharata key Formulation results.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 The 2010 population of the new Nambo District, and its post codes, are included in the figures for Abeli District, from which it was later cut out.