Banjarmasin

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Banjarmasin
Other transcription(s)
   Jawi بنجر ماسين
Banjarmasin Montage.jpg
From top, left to right:
Kayu Tangi roundabout, Proclamation monument of South Kalimantan, Sultan Suriansyah tomb complex, Hotel G-Sign of Banjarmasin, Sabilal Muhtadin Great Mosque, Soetji Nurani (EYD: Suci Nurani) Temple, and Traditional Floating Market of Kuin River.
Lambang Kota Banjarmasin.gif
Seal
Nicknames: 
Kota Seribu Sungai (Indonesian: City of Thousand Rivers), the Venice of the East
Motto(s): 
Kayuh Baimbai (Banjarese: 'Rowing Together')
Lokasi Kalimantan Selatan Kota Banjarmasin.svg
Banjarmasin within South Kalimantan
Indonesia Kalimantan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Banjarmasin
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 3°20′S114°35′E / 3.333°S 114.583°E / -3.333; 114.583 Coordinates: 3°20′S114°35′E / 3.333°S 114.583°E / -3.333; 114.583
Country Indonesia
Province South Kalimantan
CityBanjarmasin
Subdistricts5
Established24 September 1526
Government
  MayorIbnu Sina
Area
   City 98.46 km2 (38.02 sq mi)
  Metro
3,404.46 km2 (1,314.47 sq mi)
Elevation
1 m (3 ft)
Population
 (2018 estimated)
   City 722,357
  Density7,300/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
   Metro
2,184,427
  Metro density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (WITA)
Area code(s) +62 511
HDI (2018)Increase2.svg 0.768 (High) [1]
Website www.banjarmasinkota.go.id

Banjarmasin is the capital of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is located on a delta island near the junction of the Barito and Martapura rivers. As a result, Banjarmasin is sometimes called the "River City". Its population was 625,395 at the 2010 Census and estimated to be more than 720,000 in late 2017.

South Kalimantan Province in Indonesia

South Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is located in Kalimantan, the Indonesian territory of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. The population of South Kalimantan was recorded at just over 3.625 million people at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate is 4,119,794. One of five Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, it is bordered by the Makassar Strait in the east, Central Kalimantan in the west and north, the Java Sea in the south, and East Kalimantan in the north. The province also includes the island of Laut, located off the eastern coast of Kalimantan. The province is divided into 11 regencies and 2 cities. South Kalimantan is the traditional homeland of the Banjar people, although there are some part of East Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan that is also included in this criteria. Nevertheless, South Kalimantan, especially the capital city Banjarmasin has always be the cultural capital of Banjarese culture. Many Banjarese has migrated to other parts of Indonesia, as well as neigbouring countries such as Singapore and Malaysia. In addition, other ethnic groups also inhabit the province, such as several group of the Dayaks, who mostly live in the interior part of the province, as well as the Javanese, who mostly migrated from Java due to the Transmigration program which dated from the Dutch colonial era.

Indonesia Republic in Southeast Asia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

River delta Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river

A river delta is a landform created by deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment, and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment. The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers. They can provide coastline defense and can impact drinking water supply. They are also ecologically important, with different species' assemblages depending on their landscape position.

Contents

Economy

Main economic sectors include transportation and communication (26.1% of the city's GDP), processing industries (24.9%) and trade and commerce (16.5%). Main processing industries are: plywood, rattan and rubber manufacturing.[ citation needed ]

Plywood manufactured wood panel made from thin sheets of wood veneer

Plywood is a material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another. It is an engineered wood from the family of manufactured boards which includes medium-density fibreboard (MDF) and particle board (chipboard).

Rattan material (vegetable source)

Rattan is the name for roughly 600 species of old world climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae. Rattan is also known as manila, or malacca, named after the ports of shipment Manila and Malacca City, and as manau. The climbing habit is associated with the characteristics of its flexible woody stem, derived typically from a secondary growth, makes rattan a liana rather than a true wood.

Administration

The city of Banjarmasin is divided into five districts (kecamatan), listed below with their population at the 2010 Census: [2]

NameArea in
Sq.km
Population
Census 2010
Banjarmasin Selatan
(South Banjarmasin)
38.27146,068
Banjarmasin Timur
(East Banjarmasin)
23.86111,912
Banjarmasin Barat
(West Banjarmasin)
13.13143,461
Banjarmasin Tengah
(Central Banjarmasin)
6.6691,700
Banjarmasin Utara
(North Banjarmasin)
16.54132,340

Infrastructure and transport

Banjarmasin is served by the Syamsudin Noor Airport, located about 25 km outside the town. The town is served by a deepwater port, Trisakti Harbour, which is the centre of the Barito basin; exports include rubber, pepper, timber, petroleum, coal, gold, and diamonds.[ citation needed ] Passenger ships and ferries to and from Java also carry their operation here.

Black pepper species of plant

Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When fresh and fully mature, it is about 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter and dark red, and contains a single seed, like all drupes. Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper, green pepper, or white pepper.

Petroleum naturally occurring flammable liquid

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.

Coal A combustible sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbon

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.

The city is laced with flood-prone waterways, and many houses are built on rafts or stilts over the water. The waterways are also used for travel, using relatively small rowboats (only major rivers are accessible by larger speedboats, tugboats, longboats, and barges).[ citation needed ]

Banjarmasin serves as the closest town to the large coal loading anchorage port of Taboneo. Together with Tanjung Bara, they constitute the largest coal loading ports in Indonesia. [3]

Tanjung Bara point in Indonesia

Tanjung Bara (TBCT) is a coal loading port in Indonesia. Primarily known for its coal loading terminal, it lies on the southeast coast of East Kalimantan, Borneo.

Demographics

96% of the population is Muslim. Other religions include Protestants, Catholics, Hindus and Buddhists. Banjarese are the majority in the city, with Javanese, Madurese and other ethnics are the minority. [4] The city is the home of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Banjarmasin.[ citation needed ]

History

Sultan Suriansyah Mosque is the oldest mosque in Banjarmasin and the whole South Kalimantan Samping Masjid Suriansyah.jpg
Sultan Suriansyah Mosque is the oldest mosque in Banjarmasin and the whole South Kalimantan

Nan Serunai was an ancient kingdom in South Kalimantan, but soon it was replaced by Buddhist kingdom of Tanjungpuri. In the fourteenth century, Banjarmasin was part of the Hindu kingdoms of Negara Dipa and Negara Daha, a vassal of Majapahit. But Pangeran Samudera converted to become a Muslim in the fifteenth century. Following this Banjarmasin was founded at the junction of the Barito and Martapura Rivers on 24 September 1526. The Dutch opened trade there in 1606. The British controlled the city for several brief periods. The British East India Company (EIC) started trading with the city, which they called Tamborneo or Tomborneo, in 1614. In 1703 the EIC established a factory there, which the inhabitants destroyed four years later. The EIC attempted, highly unsuccessfully, to trade with the city between 1736 and 1746, and then in 1747 the Sultan signed a treaty with the Dutch giving them a trade monopoly. [5]

In 1787 it became a Dutch protectorate. Banjarmasin remained the region's capital until the onset of the Banjarmasin War in 1859, when the Dutch headquarters were moved to Martapura. [6]

Ronggo (a Dutch title used in Borneo and Java) of Banjarmasin with his children COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Portret van de ronggo van Banjarmasin met gevolg en kinderen TMnr 10020637.jpg
Ronggo (a Dutch title used in Borneo and Java) of Banjarmasin with his children

The Hikayat Banjar is the chronicle of Banjarmasin. This text, also called the History of Lambung Mangkurat, contains the history of the kings of Banjar and of Kota Waringin in South-east and South Borneo respectively.[ citation needed ]

In 1930 the city's population was 66,000 and reached 444,000 in 1990. [7]

Banjarmasin was the capital of Dutch Borneo. It was therefore an objective for the Japanese during Japanese Occupation of Indonesia during World War II. Banjarmasin was occupied on 10 February 1942. [8]

Greater Banjarmasin

The metropolitan area, known as Banjar Bakula, consists of the cities of Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru, and the regencies of Banjar, Barito Kuala and Tanah Laut in South Kalimantan. This metropolitan area covers an area of 3,404.46 square km, and at the 2010 Census has a population of 1,924,427.

Island of Pulau Petak near Bandjermasin, across the Barito river Pulau Petak.jpg
Island of Pulau Petak near Bandjermasin, across the Barito river

Pulau Petak

Pulau Petak is an island next to Bandjermasin just across the Barito river. Of old, the people of Pulau Petak have settled along the borders of the rivers, even though pronounced river levees are absent and flood danger exists. The rivers were the main traffic ways and transport occurred mainly by boat.

Along the river fruit tree plantations and palawidja (upland crop) fields were developed. From the plantations inland, drainage canal (handils) have been dug towards the back swamps in the centre of the island. Along the handils , lowland rice fields (sawah’s) dominate the landscape. Here, the water management is a difficult task and has been subject of a scientific study. [9]

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Banjarmasin features a tropical rainforest climate. Temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year, averaging about 27 degrees Celsius, and the city has no real dry season. However Banjarmasin has noticeably wetter and drier times of the year. November through May forms the wettest part of the year with monthly precipitation of 200 millimetres (7.9 in) or more per month. June through October is drier with monthly precipitation of about 120 millimetres (4.7 in) per month. Banjarmasin on average sees just under 2,600 millimetres (100 in) of rain per year.

Climate data for Banjarmasin
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)29
(85)
29
(85)
30
(86)
31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(87)
31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(87)
29
(85)
31
(87)
Average low °C (°F)25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(76)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(76)
24
(76)
Average precipitation mm (inches)350
(13.8)
300
(11.8)
310
(12.2)
210
(8.3)
200
(7.9)
120
(4.7)
120
(4.7)
110
(4.3)
130
(5.1)
120
(4.7)
230
(9.1)
290
(11.4)
2,570
(101.2)
Source: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=58669&refer=&units=metric

Places of interest

The Sabilal Muhtadin Mosque, located along the Martapura riverfront, is a major landmark in the city. Completely built in 1979, the mosque accommodates thousands of worshippers on Friday prayers.
A state university (Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, UNLAM) is also located in the town.
A floating marketplace, where buyers and sellers meet each other using boats, is located on the western outskirts of town. It is a traditional market and is considered one of city's identity mark for years.
Banjarmasin has long been renowned as a center for gem trading, particularly rare diamonds and rubies. An informal network with international connections exists, which also supports the large domestic Indonesian trade in rare diamonds. Banjar's diamonds are especially known for their exquisite brilliance. In recent times, however, many of Indonesia's large diamond stones have been traded out of the country.

Culinary

A local dish is "soto banjar", a soup served with lime.[ citation needed ] Another notable local dish is "Ketupat Kandangan", a ketupat dish with coconut milk soup (can be served with either chicken or snakehead fish meat), usually presented or sold by the Kandangan's people or descent who live in Banjarmasin. [ citation needed ]

Sport

The city has professional football club that is playing in Liga 1 (Indonesia), PS Barito Putera.

Related Research Articles

Central Kalimantan Province in Indonesia

Central Kalimantan, is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya and in 2010 its population was over 2.2 million, while the latest official estimate is 2,368,654.

East Kalimantan Province in Indonesia

East Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. Its territory comprises the eastern portion of Borneo. It has a population of about 3.5 million, and its capital is Samarinda.

The Hikayat Banjar is the chronicle of Banjarmasin, Indonesia. This text, also called the History of Lambung Mangkurat, contains the history of the kings of Banjar and of Kota Waringin in southeast and south Borneo respectively.

Banjarbaru City in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Banjarbaru is a city in the province of South Kalimantan in Indonesia. It is located 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of Banjarmasin. The city had a population of 199,627 as of the 2010 population census and the latest official estimate is 215,440; the town of Martapura lies immediately to the north of Banjarbaru, and in effect constitutes an extension of the city.

Banjar people

The Banjar or Banjarese, are a native ethnic group in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Several centuries ago, some of them had travelled to many places in the Malay archipelago.

Barito River river in Indonesia

Barito River is a 890-kilometre-long (550 mi) river with a drainage basin of 100,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi) in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, about 900 km northeast of the capital Jakarta. The average discharge of the river is 194,230 cubic feet per second (5,500 m3/s). It originates in the Muller Mountain Range, from where it flows southward into the Java Sea. Its main affluent is the Martapura River, and it passes through the city of Banjarmasin.

Martapura, South Kalimantan district in Banjar Regency, Kalimantan Selatan Province, Indonesia

Martapura is the capital of the Banjar Regency in South Kalimantan province, Indonesia. It consists of three districts within the Regency - Martapura, West Martapura and East Martapura, with a combined population at the 2010 Census of 147,654 people. This town is famous as santri city in Kalimantan, because of Darussalam pesantren. Originally this town was named Kayutangi, which was the last capital of the former Sultanate of Banjar. The famous Banjarese ulema Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari, author of Sabilal Muhtadin, comes from this town. This town is often visited by tourists because of its diamond industry center and the main diamond polishing in Kalimantan and provides many jewelry handicrafts.

Districts of South Kalimantan

The province of the South Kalimantan in Indonesia is divided into regencies which is turn are divided administratively into districts, known as Kecamatan.

Maanyan people Ethnicity in Indonesia

Ma'anyan, Dayak Maanyan or Eastern Barito Dayak people are a sub-ethnic group of the Dayak people indigenous to Borneo. They are also considered as part of the east Barito Dusun group with the name Dusun Ma'anyan. According to J. Mallinckrodt (1927), the Dusun people group is part of the Ot Danum people cluster, although later that theory was disproved by A. B. Hudson (1967), who argues that the Ma'anyan people are a branch of the Barito family. The Ma'anyan people who are often referred to as Dayak people are also referred to as Dayak Ma'anyan. The Dayak Ma'anyan people inhabit the east side of Central Kalimantan, especially in the East Barito Regency and parts of South Barito Regency which are grouped as Ma'anyan I. The Dayak Ma'anyan people also inhabit the northern parts of South Kalimantan, especially in Tabalong Regency which refers to the Dayak Warukin people. The Dayak Balangan people or Dusun Balangan people which are found in the Balangan Regency and the Dayak Samihim people that are found in the Kotabaru Regency are grouped together with the Dayak Ma'anyan people group. The Dayak Ma'anyan people in South Kalimantan are grouped as Ma'anyan II.

Ngaju people

The Ngaju people are an indigenous ethnic group of Borneo from the Dayak group. In a census from 2000, when they were first listed as a separate ethnic group, they made up 18.02% of the population of Central Kalimantan province. In an earlier census from 1930, the Ngaju people were included in the Dayak people count. They speak the Ngaju language.

Bakumpai people

Bakumpai or Baraki are indigenous people of Borneo and are considered as a sub-ethnic group of the Dayak Ngaju people group with Islamic background. The Bakumpai people first occupy along the Barito riverbanks in South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, from Marabahan to Puruk Cahu, Murung Raya Regency. The Bakumpai people first appeared as a newly recognized people group in census 2000 and were made up of 7.51% of Central Kalimantan population, which before this the Bakumpai people were considered as part of the Dayak people in a 1930 census.

Banjarmasin War

The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) was a colonial war for the restoration of Dutch authority in the eastern and southern section of Borneo.

Sultanate of Banjar

Sultanate of Banjar or Sultanate of Banjarmasin was a sultanate located in what is today the South Kalimantan Province of Indonesia. For most of its history, its capital was at Banjarmasin.

Martapura River river in Indonesia

Martapura River is a river of southeast Borneo, Indonesia. It is a tributary of the Barito River. Other names for the river are Banjar Kecil River or Kayutangi River and due to many activities of Chinese merchants in the past in the downstream area also called China River. It merges with Barito River in Banjarmasin, flowing from the source in Martapura, Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan.

Negara River river in Indonesia

Negara River is a river of Borneo, Indonesia. It flows in the southeast region of the island, within the Negara District, province of South Kalimantan. It is the second longest river in the province after the Barito River, which Negara River flows into.

Prince Antasari Sultan of

Prince Antasari, also known by his Indonesian name Pangeran Antasari, was a sultan of Banjar and is a National Hero of Indonesia.

Sultan Hidayatullah II of Banjar, known also as Pangeran Hidayatullah, was a sultan of the Sultanate of Banjar and a leader of the Banjarese people in the Banjarmasin War.

Kodam VI/Mulawarman is a military territorial command of the Indonesian Army. It has been in active service as the local division for the provinces of North Kalimantan, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan.

References

  1. Indeks Pembangunan Manusia Kota Banjarmasin, Badan Pusat Statistik, 2018
  2. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  3. Admiralty sailing directions - Indonesia (10th ed.). Taunton: UK Hydrographic office. 15 July 2015.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. Kalsel Statistics: Religion, Retrieved 6 September 2009
  5. Long, George (1835) The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: v. 1-27. (C. Knight). Vol. 3, p.375.
  6. Muller Kal: Indonesian Borneo, Kalimantan, Periplus Editions, Singapore 1992, ISBN   0-945971-09-5
  7. Brookfield, Harold et al: In Place of the Forest: Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, 1995
  8. L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Bandjermasin". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942.
  9. International Institute of Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1990, Research Project on Acid Sulphate (Sulfate) Soils in the Humid Tropics. Review of water management aspects, Pulau Petak, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. On line: .