The Spirit of Java
|• Sunan||Pakubuwana XIII|
|• Duke||Mangkunegara IX|
|• Mayor||Gibran Rakabuming|
|• Vice Mayor||Teguh Prakosa|
|• City||44.02 km2 (17.00 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,658.3 km2 (1,026.4 sq mi)|
|Elevation||92 m (302 ft)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 (31,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)|
|Area code||(+62) 271|
|HDI||0.821 (very high)|
Surakarta (Javanese : ꦯꦸꦫꦏꦂꦠ), known colloquially as Solo, is a city in Central Java, Indonesia. The 44 km2 (16.2 sq mi) city adjoins Karanganyar Regency and Boyolali Regency to the north, Karanganyar Regency and Sukoharjo Regency to the east and west, and Sukoharjo Regency to the south. On the eastern side of Solo lies Solo River (Bengawan Solo). Its built-up area, consisting of Surakarta Municipality and 59 districts spread over seven regencies, was home to 3,649,254 inhabitants as of 2010 census.
Surakarta is the birthplace of the current President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo. He served as Mayor of Surakarta from 2005 to 2012.
Hominid habitation in the region of Surakarta is evidenced from roughly one million years ago, the age of the "Java Man" skeleton found 80 kilometers upstream.
The Surakarta area was part of the Medang Kingdom and in this time a village called Wulayu seems to have already existed in or around the present-day city of Surakarta, as evidenced by a ferry charter issued by Balitung in A.D. 904. The Majapahit empire renewed this ferry charter in 1358.
By the 18th century, the village had acquired the name of Solo, which is still used to this day. In 1745, on the basis of astrological calculations and Dutch commercial interest, Solo was chosen to be the new capital of the Mataram Sultanate which was on the verge of becoming a vassal state of the Dutch East India Company. Sultan Pakubuwono II gave Solo the additional name Sarakarta or Surakarta, which thereafter became the legal name of the city.The formal name is derived from the previous capital Kartasura. The official court history claims that Surakarta originally stood on a lake, which was drained by the favor of the mythical queen of the southern sea, Nyai Roro Kidul.
In the ensuing colonial era, the city was divided into the Surakarta Sultanate (northern court, also called Kartasura Sultanate) and the Yogyakarta Sultanate (southern court). Surakarta ruled by a succession of sultans, who were given the unique Javanese cultural title Susuhunan. Since both Surakarta and Yogyakarta had become vassal states of the Dutch, traditional court arts, notably gamelan, were developed to demonstrate cultural power instead of having military skirmishes.
Perhaps the most significant ruler of the 20th century was Pakubuwono X. His relationship with the Dutch, his large family, and his popularity contributed to perhaps the largest funeral procession that ever occurred in Solo. He had spent a large amount of money on the Royal Graveyard at Imogiri, both the main sections of the graveyard and the new section that he was buried in. In the era just prior to independence Surakarta had European, Chinese, and Arab quarters.
After hearing the proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Pakubuwono XII declared Surakarta a part of the Republic of Indonesia (RI). Because of this support, President Sukarno declared Surakarta the Daerah Istimewa Surakarta (DIS)/"Surakarta Special Region" with the Pakubuwono XII continuing as governor.
In October 1945, a republican movement was established in Surakarta led by Tan Malaka, a member of the Indonesian Communist Party. On October 17, the vizier of Surakarta, KRMH Sosrodiningrat V (a member of the BPUPK), was kidnapped and murdered by communists. The new vizier, KRMT Yudonagoro, and 9 other court officials were also kidnapped and murdered by the same movement in March 1946. The next in the line of succession, KRMTH Wuryaningrat, was also kidnapped but was let go.In response to this general lawlessness, Prime Minister of Indonesia Sutan Syahrir met with Wuryaningrat and other Surakarta leaders in May and agreed to abolish the established government entirely. On June 16, 1946, the Surakarta "special region" was abolished and replaced with a regency (kabupaten). This event is commemorated as the birthday of the city of Surakarta.
On June 26, Sutan Syahrir was kidnapped in Surakarta by a rebel movement led by Major General Soedarsono, the commander of the 3rd division. President Sukarno was angry at this kidnapping and on July 1, 1946, 14 communist leaders including Tan Malaka were arrested by Indonesian police on Sukarno's instructions. However, Soedarsono freed the rebel leaders immediately. Sukarno asked the local military commander in Surakarta, Lieutenant Colonel Suharto to arrest Major General Soedarsono and the rebel group. Suharto refused to follow this command unless it was given directly by the Military Chief of Staff, General Soedirman. Sukarno was angry at this rejection of his commanding authority, and called Suharto a stubborn (koppig) officer.[ citation needed ]
Suharto pretended that he supported the rebellion and persuaded Soedarsono and his group to stay at his headquarters at Wiyoro, Surakarta for their own safety. Later that night he persuaded Soedarsono to meet President Sukarno at his palace the next morning. Suharto secretly informed the presidential guard troops about Soedarsono's plan on the next morning. On July 3, 1946, Soedarsono and his group were arrested by the presidential guard near the palace. Prime Minister Syahrir was released unharmed. Several months later, Maj. Gen. Soedarsono and his group were pardoned and released from prison.
However, this did not halt the ascendancy of the Communist Party in Surakarta. In November 1946, the communists kidnapped the regent and vice-regent and seized power for themselves, a coup quickly legitimated after the fact by Sukarno. In 1947, Amir Sjarifuddin appointed Wikana, a communist, as Surakarta's military governor.
In December 1948, the Dutch attacked and occupied the cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta as part of Operation Kraai. The Indonesian army led by General Soedirman started a guerrilla war from surrounding areas. The Dutch said that the Republic was destroyed and no longer existed. To disprove this claim, the Indonesian army conducted large-scale raids into the cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, called Serangan Oemoem . On August 7, 1949, Indonesian troops led by Slamet Riyadi managed to beat the Dutch troops and occupy the city for several hours. To commemorate this event, the main street of the city of Surakarta was renamed "Brigadier General Slamet Riyadi Street".
Surakarta remained under communist control until October 1965. Local government was unclear about how to proceed after the 30 September Movement and went about business as usual. As a result, Suharto's forces entered Surakarta without resistance, mobilized local youth paramilitaries, and indiscriminately slaughtered the entire local government.
After Surakarta became a city, it was divided into five districts (kecamatan), each led by a camat, and subdivided into 51 kelurahan, each led by a lurah. The districts of Surakarta City are tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census,together with the latest official estimates (for mid 2019). The table also includes the number of administrative villages (urban kelurahan) in each district and its administrative centre:
Surakarta as a dense core city in Central Java, and its second city, spills considerably into neighboring regencies. Surakarta City and its surrounding regencies, Karanganyar, Sragen, Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, Klaten, and Boyolali, are collectively called the ex-Surakarta Residency (Dutch: Residentie Soerakarta).
Though a traffic study quotes the population as 1,158,000 as of 2008,this reflects only the very core, as the city affects entire neighboring regencies by significantly driving up overall population densities in Sukoharjo Regency and Klaten Regency over the already dense countryside. Furthermore, the government of Indonesia officially defines a broader region as Surakarta's extended metropolitan zone, with the acronym Subosukawonosraten as the city and 6 surrounding regencies, which reflects a broader planning region, though not a core metropolitan area as some of its regencies are not particularly suburbanized. Both the metropolitan area and extended areas border Yogyakarta's metropolitan area, while only the extended metropolitan area borders Kedungsapur or Greater Semarang.
|Greater Surakarta |
The water sources for Surakarta are in the valley of Merapi, a total of 19 locations, with a capacity of 3,404 L/second (899.2 U.S. gal/sec). The average source water height is 800–1,200 m (2624.7 ft to 3937 ft) above sea level. In 1890–1927 there were only 12 wells in Surakarta. Today, underground water wells in 23 locations produce about 45 L/second (11.9 U.S. gal/sec).
In March 2006, Surakarta's state water company (PDAM) had a production capacity of 865.02 L/second (228.5 U.S. gal/sec): from Cokrotulung, Klaten, 27 km (16.8 mi) from Solo, 387 L/s (102.2 U.S. gal/sec); and from 26 deep wells, with a total capacity of 478.02 L/second (126.3 U.S. gal/sec). The total reservoir capacity is 9,140 m3 (,414,533 U.S. gala) nd can serve 55,22% of the population.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Surakarta features a tropical monsoon climate. The city has a lengthy wet season spanning from October through May, and a relatively short dry season covering the remaining four months (June through September). On average Surakarta receives just under 2200 mm (86.6 in) of rainfall annually, with its wettest months being December, January, and February. As is common in areas featuring a tropical monsoon climate, temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year. Surakarta's average temperature is roughly 30 °C every month (86 °F).
|Climate data for Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.1|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.2|
|Average low °C (°F)||22.3|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||324|
One of the earliest censuses held in Surakarta Residency (Residentie Soerakarta) was in 1885. At that time, with an area of about 5,677 km2 (2191.9 sq mi), there were 1,053,985 people in Surakarta Residency, including 2,694 Europeans and 7,543 Indonesian-Chinese. The area, 130 times the current area of Surakarta, had a population density of 186 people/km2 (480/sq mi). The capital of the residency itself (roughly the size of the City of Solo proper) in 1880 had 124,041 people living in it.
According to the 2009 estimate, there were 245,043 males and 283,159 females (a sex ratio of 86.54) in Surakarta.119,951 of the population were 14 years or younger, 376,180 were between 15 and 64, and 32,071 were above 65. The number of households was 142,627 and the average number of household members was 3.7. The population growth in the last 10 years was about 0.565% per year.
The labor force of Solo in 2009 was 275,546, of whom 246,768 were working, while 28,778 were seeking work. Another 148,254 people aged 15 and above were not in the labor force.Based on employment numbers, the most common work in Solo was worker/paid employee (112,336), followed by self-employee (56,112), self-employee assisted by temporary employee (32,769), unpaid employee (20,193), self-employee assisted by permanent employee (14,880), freelance employee in non-agricultural work (10,241), and freelance employee in agricultural work (237). Based on the industry, most people in Solo worked in trade (106,426), services (59,780), manufacturing (42,065), communication (16,815), construction (9,217), financing (9,157), or agriculture (2,608), and the rest in mining, electricity, gas, and water companies (700).
The mean working week in Solo was 47.04 hours (47.74 for men and 46.13 for women),and 212,262 people worked more than 35 hours per week compared to 34,506 who worked less than that.
According to 2009 statistics, 242,070 people above 15 in the city had finished high school, while 86,890 had only finished junior high school, and 94,840 were still in school or had only finished elementary school. The percentage of high-school graduates was the highest of the cities and regencies in Central Java.
According to the statistics of Data Pokok Pendidikan (Dapodik), in the 2010/2011 school year, there were 68,153 students and 853 schools in Surakarta.There are two big universities possessing more than 20.000 students: Sebelas Maret University (UNS) and Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta (UMS), both are recognised as among Indonesia's 50 best universities according to the Directorate of Higher Education, Ministry of Education RI. There is also arts concentrated university Art Institute of Surakarta (ISI), religious studies State Islamic Institute (IAIN Surakarta). There are around 52 private universities and colleges such as STIKES Muhammadiyah, Universitas Tunas Pembangunan, Universitas Slamet Riyadi, Universitas Surakarta, Universitas Setia Budi, etc.
The per capita GDP of Surakarta in 2009 was 16,813,058.62 IDR, the fourth highest in Central Java after Kudus, Cilacap, and Semarang.The living standard in 2009 was 723,000 IDR. The Consumer price index in January 2011 was 119.44.
Surakarta has a long sport history and tradition. In 1923 Solo already had a football club, one of the earliest clubs in Indonesia (at that time still the Dutch Indies), called Persis Solo. Persis Solo was a giant club in the Dutch Indies and still exists, but is past its heyday. During the Perserikatan tournament, Persis became seven-time champion. Currently it plays in the Liga 2 Indonesia. Other than Persis, several clubs have existed in Solo: Arseto, Pelita Solo, Persijatim Solo FC, and lastly Solo FC played in the Indonesian Premier League in 2011. Both clubs that still exist, Persis and Solo FC, have made Manahan Stadium their home ground. Manahan Stadium is one of the best sports stadiums in Central Java, with more than 25,000 seats, and has several times hosted national and international matches. It was recently the venue for the AFC Champions Cup 2007, the final venue of the Indonesian Cup 2010, and the opening venue for the Indonesian Premiere League on January 15, 2011.
Surakarta is also home to the West Bandits Solo of the Indonesian Basketball League.They play their home games in the Sritex Arena.
Surakarta is the first to host National Paralympic Week in 1957 and hosted several of the subsequent games. As a result, Surakarta has sport facilities sufficient for holding international disabled sports games.
In 1986, Surakarta hosted the 4th FESPIC Games, making the games the first in Indonesian para-sport history in which international disabled sports games were held.The city is also the host city of the 2011 ASEAN Para Games, instead of Jakarta and Palembang, where the main games were held.
Adisumarmo International Airport (IATA code: SOC) has direct flights to Kuala Lumpur by Malaysia Airlines and during the hajj season, Saudi Arabia, as well as regular flights to Jakarta by Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air, Lion Air and Citilink. The airport is located 14 km (8.7 mi) north of the city. In 2009 Adisumarmo had 2,060 outbound domestic flights and 616 outbound international flights.
Surakarta has four train stations: Solo Balapan, Purwosari, Solo Jebres, and Solo Kota (Sangkrah). Solo Balapan is the largest station in Surakarta, and is the junction between Yogyakarta (westward), Semarang (northward), and Surabaya (eastward), while Purwosari is the junction located west of Solo Balapan, and has a connection to Wonogiri (southward). There are several direct lines to other cities, such as Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Semarang, Madiun, and Malang. For regional traffic, a commuter train KRL Commuterline Yogyakarta–Solo connects Surakarta and Yogyakarta.
On 26 July 2011 the Bathara Kresna Rail Bus has been launched to serve Purwosari–Wonogiri route, but for the moment only Purwosari-Sukoharjo trackage was ready due to there are 99 bridges should be strengthen between Sukoharjo-Wonogiri.Until April 2012, Surakarta-Wonogiri railbus is still in a big question mark due to the 12 tons railbuses are considered too heavy for existing railroad track that only has the capacity of accommodating 10-ton vehicles, furthermore PT KAI have proposed a fare between Rp30,000 ($3.27) and Rp40,000 ($4.36) per passenger, while Surakarta administration wants tickets to be priced much lower between Rp5,000 ($0.54) and Rp7,000 ($0,76).
In 2019, Adisumarmo Airport Rail Link began operation, linking Solo Balapan Station to a station inside Adisumarmo International Airport complex.
Tirtonadi Terminal is the largest bus terminal in Surakarta. Surakarta is situated on Indonesian National Route 15, which connects it to Yogyakarta and Waru (Sidoarjo). Semarang–Solo Toll Road connects the city with provincial capital Semarang. In 2009 the total extent of roadways in the city was 705.34 km: 13.15 km state road, 16.33 km province road, and 675.86 km local road. The number of bus companies was 23, and the total number of buses operating was 1,115 intra-provincial buses and 1,107 inter-provincial.
In 2010, the government of Surakarta launched a new bus service named Batik Solo Trans (BST), which resembles TransJakarta bus rapid transit service. As of 2017, it has only three routes. A single trip costs Rp.3000, Rp.1500 for students. A special ticket for the trip from or to the airport costs Rp.7000.
One main tourist attraction of Surakarta is the Keraton Surakarta, the palace of Susuhunan Pakubuwono, also the Princely Javanese court of Mangkunegaran. Pasar Gede market is often visited by tourists, mostly for its unique architecture and fame as the biggest traditional market in the Solo area. The Pasar Klewer is famous for its batiks in all prices and qualities, while the Pasar Triwindhu located near Mangkunegaran palace specialises in antiques. Taman Sriwedari is a popular local entertainment park featuring a children's playground, dangdut music performance and Wayang Wong traditional Javanese dance performance almost every night. Near the park is Radyapustaka Museum, one of the oldest museums in Indonesia, with a collection of Javanese cultural artefacts. The traditional batik village of Laweyan and Kampung Batik Kauman, located in the southwest part of the city and the city centre respectively, are famous for producing fine quality Javanese batik.
Within Surakarta tourists can also use the Jaladara old steam train which was launched on in September 2009 for 5.6 km connecting Purwosari Station and Solo Kota Station. In 2011 there were 60 trips and in 2012 will be 80 trips.
The Special Region of Yogyakarta is a provincial-level autonomous region of Indonesia in the southern Java. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south, as well as sharing all the land borders to the province of Central Java. Ruled by the Yogyakarta Sultanate, the region is the only officially recognized monarchy within the government of Indonesia. The city of Yogyakarta is a popular tourist destination and cultural center of the region.
Javanese ; Basa Jawa; Aksara Jawa: ꦧꦱꦗꦮ; Pegon: باساجاوا; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ d͡ʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers on the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people.
Central Java is a province of Indonesia, located in the middle of the island of Java. Its administrative capital is Semarang. It is bordered by West Java in the west, the Indian Ocean and the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the south, East Java in the east, and the Java Sea in the north. It has a total area of 32,800.69 km², with a population of 36,516,035 at the 2020 Census making it the third-most populous province in both Java and Indonesia after West Java and East Java. The province also includes the island of Nusakambangan in the south, and the Karimun Jawa Islands in the Java Sea. Central Java is also a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a separate special region since the country's independence, and is administrated separately. Although known as the "heart" of Javanese culture, there are several other non-Javanese ethnic groups, such as the Sundanese on the border with West Java. Chinese Indonesians, Arab Indonesians, and Indian Indonesians are also scattered throughout the province.
Imogiri is a royal graveyard complex in Yogyakarta, in south-central Java, Indonesia, as well as a subdistrict under the administration of Bantul Regency. Imogiri is a traditional resting place for the royalty of central Java, including many rulers of the Sultanate of Mataram and of the current houses of Surakarta and Yogyakarta Sultanate. The name Imagiri is derived from Sanskrit Himagiri, which means 'mountain of snow'. The latter is another name for Himalaya.
Kraton or Keraton is a type of royal palace in Indonesia. Its name is derived from the Javanese ka-ratu-an, meaning residence of the ratu, the traditional honorific title for a king or queen. In Java, the palace of a prince is called pura or dalem, while the general word for palace is istana, identical to Indonesian and Malay.
Pacitan Regency is a regency located in the southwestern corner of East Java Province, with Central Java Province on its western border. Located between 7.55° - 8.17°S and 110.55° - 111.25°E. The borders of Pacitan Regency are: Wonogiri Regency in the west, Ponorogo Regency and Trenggalek Regency in the east, and the Indian Ocean in the south. It covers an area of 1,389.87 km2 and had a population of 540,881 at the 2010 Census and 586,110 at the 2020 Census. The capital of Pacitan Regency is Pacitan town. The majority of citizens in Pacitan speak Javanese as their first language, while speaking Indonesian as a second language.
Indonesia is divided into provinces. Provinces are made up of Regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). Provinces, regencies and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies.
Yogyakarta is the capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, on the island of Java. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, drama, literature, music, poetry, silversmithing, visual arts, and wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious.
Klaten Regency is a regency in Central Java province in Indonesia. It covers an area of 655.56 km2 and had a population of 1,130,047 at the 2010 Census and 1,260,506 at the 2020 Census. Its capital is the town of the same name.
Wonogiri Regency is a regency in the southeastern part of Central Java province in Indonesia. It covers an area of 1,822.36 km2, and its population was 928,904 at the 2010 Census and 1,096,138 at the 2020 Census. The capital and largest town is Wonogiri, around 33 km southeast of the large Central Java metropolis of Surakarta.
Boyolali is a regency in the eastern part of Central Java province in Indonesia. It covers an area of 1,015.10 km2, and had a population of 930,531 at the 2010 Census and 1,062,713 at the 2020 Census.
Pamekasan Regency is a regency (kabupaten) of the province of East Java, Indonesia. It is located on Madura Island approximately 120 km east of Surabaya, the provincial capital.
Sukoharjo Regency is a regency in the Central Java province in Indonesia. It covers an area of 466.77 km2 and had a population of 824,238 at the 2010 Census and 907,587 at the 2020 Census. Its capital is Sukoharjo, about 10 km south from Surakarta. This regency is bordered by the city of Surakarta in the north, Karanganyar Regency in the east, Wonogiri Regency and Yogyakarta in the south as well as Klaten Regency in the west. The regency is part of the metropolitan zone of Surakarta, which is known as Subosukawonosraten.
Kartosuro is an Indonesian subdistrict (Kecamatan) in the Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java. Kartosuro is a Surakarta's satellite city, and a junction of Surabaya-Solo-Yogyakarta and Solo-Semarang highway. It can be reached within minutes southward of Surakarta's International Airport of Adi Sumarmo.
Pakubuwono XII was the twelfth Susuhunan and the longest ruling of all monarchs in Surakarta history.
Demak is a regency located in the Indonesian province of Central Java, on northern coast of the island. It is bordered by Jepara regency and the Java Sea to the north, Kudus and Grobogan regencies to the east, Grobogan and Semarang regencies to the south, while to the west are Semarang Regency and the city of Semarang, to which the districts of Mranggen and Sayung are essentially suburban. The regency covers an area of 897.43 km2 and had a population of 1,055,579 at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate is 1,162,805. It was originally the centre of the Demak Sultanate, once a dominant power in the region. Due to its strong relation with the spread of Islam in Java and the Wali Sanga, it is sometimes referred to with the nickname Kota Wali.
Karanganyar Regency is a regency in the Indonesian province of Central Java. It covers an area of 773.79 km2 and had a population of 813,196 at the 2010 Census and 931,963 at the 2020 Census. Its capital is the town of Karanganyar.
Surakarta Sunanate was a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia.
Purwosari Station (PWS) is a large class type C railway station located in Purwosari, Laweyan, Surakarta. The station which is located at an altitude of +98 m is included in the Operational Area VI Yogyakarta and only serves economy class trains across south and local or commuter.
Batara Kresna Railbus is a railbus service in Central Java, Indonesia that operates on the Purwosari – Wonogiri route. It is operated by PT Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI) and is a cooperation project between the Surakarta city government and KAI, when Surakarta City was led by Joko Widodo. The railbus is the second of its kind in Indonesia after Kertalaya railbus in South Sumatra.
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|Video about Solo and surrounding from archive.org|