Pematangsiantar

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Pematangsiantar

(Kota Pematangsiantar)
Other transcription(s)
   Batak ᯈᯩᯕᯖᯰᯙᯫᯁᯉ᯳ᯖᯓ᯳
   Chinese 先達
Balai Kota Pematangsiantar 01.jpg
Logo kota pematangsiantar.png
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
ᯃᯬᯖ ᯈᯩᯕᯖᯰᯙᯫᯁᯉ᯳ᯖᯓ᯳
(Sapangambei Manoktok Hitei)
Lokasi Sumatra Utara Kota Pematangsiantar.svg
Location within North Sumatra
Indonesia Sumatra location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Sumatra and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pematangsiantar (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 2°57′36″N99°3′36″E / 2.96000°N 99.06000°E / 2.96000; 99.06000
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Province Flag of North Sumatra.svg  North Sumatra
Government
  MayorHefriansyah
  Vice MayorTogar Sitorus
  Speaker of City CouncilTimbul Marganda Lingga (PDI-P)
  Deputy Speaker of City CouncilMangatas Maruli Tua Silalahi (Golkar) and Ronald Darwin Tampubolon (People's Conscience Party)
Area
  Total79.971 km2 (30.877 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total268,254
  Density3,400/km2 (8,700/sq mi)
  [1]
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code (+62) 622
Website www.pematangsiantarkota.go.id

Pematangsiantar (sometimes written as Pematang Siantar, acronym PS or P. Siantar, colloquially just Siantar), [2] is an independent city in North Sumatra, Indonesia, surrounded by, but not part of, the Simalungun Regency, making Pematangsiantar an enclave within Simalungun Regency. Pematangsiantar formerly had the status of a second level district (daerah tingkat dua) and was the administrative centre of the surrounding Regency, but it has recently been elevated to Kota (City) and separated from the Regency.

Contents

Its population was 229,525 in the 2005 Intermediate Census, 234,698 in the 2010 Census, 247,219 in the 2015 Intermediate Census, and 268,254 at the 2020 Census. [3] making it the second largest city in the province after the provincial capital of Medan.

Administrative divisions

The city is divided administratively into eight districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census [4] and 2020 Census. [5]

NameArea
in
sq.km
Population
Census
2010 [4]
Population
Census
2020 [6]
Siantar Marihat7.82517,87220,933
Siantar Marimbun18.00614,64220,675
Siantar Selatan
(South Siantar)
2.02017,10117,447
Siantar Barat
(West Siantar)
3.20534,98437,896
Siantar Utara
(North Siantar)
3.65046,42349,886
Siantar Timur
(East Siantar)
4.52038,45436,744
Siantar Martoba18.02238,36850,350
Siantar Sitalasari22.72326,85434,323
Totals79.971234,698268,254

History

Before 1907, Pematangsiantar was a Kingdom led by the Damanik. Damanik is one of the clans of the Simalungun ethnic group of the Batak people. The last king of the dynasty was Tuan Sangnawaluh Damanik. In 1907, the Dutch took control, turning Pematangsiantar into their colony. The city remained under Dutch control until 1942 when the Japanese invaded and ruled over Indonesia.

After Indonesia proclaimed its freedom in 1945, Pematangsiantar was granted autonomous status. In 1974, Pematangsiantar became a second level district, and was appointed as the capital of Simalungun Regency. [7]

Demographics

Batak Toba and Javanese are the major ethnic groups in Pematangsiantar, with sizeable native Simalungun, Mandailing, Chinese, Minangkabau and Karo.

The majority of Pematangsiantar's inhabitants are Christian (51.25%) and Muslim (43.9%). Around 4.36% percent are Buddhists, and there are smaller numbers of Hindus and followers of Confucianism.

Ethnicities of Pematangsiantar (2010 Census) [8]
Ethnic groupPercentage
Batak Toba
47.46%
Javanese
25.07%
Simalungun
6.65%
Mandailing
5.65%
Chinese
3.78%
Minangkabau
2.41%
Karo
1.77%
Other
7.21%

Transport and travel

Street scenery at Pematangsiantar in 1910s COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Straatgezicht met het Juliana Hotel Pematangsiantar TMnr 10015092.jpg
Street scenery at Pematangsiantar in 1910s
Dutch house in Pematangsiantar (1923) COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Huis Pematangsiantar TMnr 60021752.jpg
Dutch house in Pematangsiantar (1923)
Aerial view of Siantar in 1938 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Luchtfoto van Siantar TMnr 10015093.jpg
Aerial view of Siantar in 1938
Pematang Siantar Zoo Taman Hewan Pematang Siantar (1).JPG
Pematang Siantar Zoo

Pematangsiantar is 50 kilometres from Lake Toba on the Trans-Sumatran Highway. Lake Toba is one of the largest volcanic calderas in the world, and a major tourism destination. It is common to see tourists stopping over in Pt. Siantar. Siantar is famous for Batak culture, 'Batik' and 'Ulos' fabric, and Batak foods. There is a zoo worth visiting that is aptly named Taman Hewan Pematangsiantar - animal garden of Pematangsiantar (Kebun Binatang Pemetangsiantar in Indonesian). It has a good collection of Indonesian native animals, most notably birds, tigers and apes. The zoo itself boasts abundant tropical trees and plants, some of which are quite old. The location is close to the main roads of the city (within walking distance). Ticket price (April 2009) is 7,000 IDR. Another place of interest in the city is Vihara Avalokitesvara - a Buddhist Temple housing the Statue of Kwan Im. At 22.8 meter high, is the tallest statue of its kind in Indonesia. The temple complex is accessible from Jl. Pane. It is part of a new temple complex. Adjacent to the new complex and connected by a bridge across the river of Bah Bolon, the old building of the temple was burned completely in an inferno in May, 2008.

Pematangsiantar can also be reached from Medan by train. There are also large buses which connect Siantar to Medan 130 kilometres away, about a 3-hour trip.

Cuisine

Most of Pematangsiantar's food styles are inherited from Batak and Chinese traditional food. Foods such as saksang (pork cooked in its own blood) and roasted pork, or drinks like tuak (an alcoholic beverage made from sugar palm and sometimes from coconut) prepared by the Batak people are very popular.

Chinese restaurants can also be found across the city. One of the very popular local delicacies inherited from Chinese food is "Mie Pangsit" (Wonton noodles). Minangkabau cuisine is also quite popular, especially Nasi Padang (various dishes with rice) and Sate Padang (spicy satay, usually eaten with rice-cake).

Climate

Pematangsiantar has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy rainfall year-round. The temperatures are slightly moderated by its elevation.

Climate data for Pematangsiantar
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)29.2
(84.6)
29.7
(85.5)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
30.3
(86.5)
30.2
(86.4)
29.9
(85.8)
29.7
(85.5)
29.2
(84.6)
28.9
(84.0)
28.6
(83.5)
28.8
(83.8)
29.5
(85.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)24.3
(75.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.8
(76.6)
25.0
(77.0)
25.3
(77.5)
25.0
(77.0)
24.7
(76.5)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.5
(76.1)
24.2
(75.6)
24.3
(75.7)
24.6
(76.4)
Average low °C (°F)19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.7
(67.5)
20.1
(68.2)
20.3
(68.5)
19.9
(67.8)
19.6
(67.3)
19.6
(67.3)
19.9
(67.8)
20.1
(68.2)
19.9
(67.8)
19.8
(67.6)
19.8
(67.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches)210
(8.3)
181
(7.1)
210
(8.3)
241
(9.5)
261
(10.3)
192
(7.6)
176
(6.9)
233
(9.2)
318
(12.5)
350
(13.8)
263
(10.4)
259
(10.2)
2,894
(114.1)
Source: Climate-Data.org [9]

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References

  1. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. "Official Website of Pematangsiantar City (In Indonesian)". Archived from the original on 2007-01-25.
  3. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  4. 1 2 Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  5. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  6. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  7. "Pematangsiantar history (in Indonesian)". Archived from the original on 2008-05-22.
  8. Sensus Penduduk Tahun 2010
  9. "Climate: Pematangsiantar". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 6 November 2020.

Coordinates: 2°57′36″N99°3′36″E / 2.96000°N 99.06000°E / 2.96000; 99.06000