Gunungsitoli

Last updated
Gunungsitoli
Kota Gunungsitoli
Ya'ahowu Park, Gunungsitoli.jpg
Durian Monument, Gunungsitoli.jpg
BNI Bank Gunungsitoli Branch.jpg
Nias Earthquake Memorial Park.jpg
Clockwise, from top: Ya'ahowu Park, BNI Gunungsitoli, Nias Earthquake Memorial Park, Durian Monument
Gunungsitoli Logo Official.png
Lokasi Sumatra Utara Kota Gunungsitoli.svg
Location within North Sumatra
Indonesia Sumatra location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Gunungsitoli
Location in Sumatra
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Gunungsitoli
Gunungsitoli (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 1°17′N97°37′E / 1.283°N 97.617°E / 1.283; 97.617 Coordinates: 1°17′N97°37′E / 1.283°N 97.617°E / 1.283; 97.617
CountryFlag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia
Province Flag of North Sumatra.svg  North Sumatra
Government
  MayorLakhömizaro Zebua
  Vice MayorSowa'a Laoli
Area
  Total469.36 km2 (181.22 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total136,017
  Density290/km2 (750/sq mi)
  [1]
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code (+62) 639
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.693 (Medium)
Website gunungsitolikota.go.id

Gunungsitoli is a city, [2] located on North Sumatra province, Indonesia. It is located on Nias island which is in the Indian Ocean, on the west side of Sumatra. It is also the only city on the island and the main hub for the island and surrounding smaller islands. Located on the north-eastern side of the Nias island, the city was historically a series of fortification made by the Dutch colonial administration in the island since 1600s against frequent raids from Nias tribes especially from the southern parts of the island. It was the only location effectively controlled by the Dutch on the island until 1914.

Contents

The city has population of 136,017 people as of 2020 which make it the seventh populous city in North Sumatra. It also has density of 290 per square kilometers, making it the most densely populated place on Nias islands. Being the only city in the island, it is the economic centers of the island and surrounding Nias archipelago as well as the only place with significant non-agriculture industries on the island. The city was previously part of a larger Nias Island Regency, but became separated on 2008

History

Precolonial

Adu Zatua statues from Nias Nias Ahnenfiguren Museum Rietberg RIN 403.jpg
Adu Zatua statues from Nias

Nias island as a place was mentioned by Ptolemy on 150 together with groups of other islands off the western coast of Sumatra as "Barus islands". [3] The island had well-established trade contacts with Arab and Chinese traders since around 7th century. [3] On 1154, the island was mentioned by Muhammad al-Idrisi as Niyan, described as "densely populated, with one big town, and inhabited by many tribes". [4]

Archeological evidence shows that human have inhabited the island since 12,000 years ago. Remains of tools were found on Tögi Ndrawa cave by Indonesian archeologist from Medan in August 1999. The excavation shows sign of mesolithic culture and still inhabited until at least 700 years ago. [3] According to folk stories of Nias people, the island were settled by six ancestor tribes. However, current Nias people or Ono Niha (literally means "human" in Nias language) is relatively recent according to records compiled by German missionary on the island, Wilhelm Heinrich Sundermann. [4] Migration of Ono Niha, current Nias people, occurred around 1350 from mainland Sumatra and together brought with them knowledge of metallurgy, agriculture, husbandry, and woven clothing. It is unknown whether previous inhabitants of the island were assimilated or outcompeted by the arrival of Ono Niha. [3]

On 1416, Ming treasure voyages led by Zheng He occupied a portion of mainland Sumatra that directly faced Nias island and constructed a port town there named Singkuang (New Land). The occupation led to a significant presence of Chinese communities on the island. [3] Around 1500s, the island were subject to frequent slave raids by ships from Aceh Sultanate which at the time was under Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah who sought to conquer western coast of Sumatra. [3] On 1642, seven ships from Aceh Sultanate stranded on the eastern coast of the island. This resulted in a significant presence of Acehnese communities, known locally as Polem people. [4]

Contact with Europeans

First contact between Nias people and Europeans came on 2 July 1664 where Dutch traders and king of Luaha Laraga made a trade agreement and tariffs for Dutch ships that were using port in today's Idanoi district. [5] On 1668, Dutch East India Company made agreements with village chiefs around today's city and Hinako islands. The company settled the region and built several warehouses. [3] However, the Dutch traders left the region and abandoned the settlement on 1740 due to decreasing influence over the region. [3]

Colonial era

A church scene in Gunungsitoli, around 1900 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Kerkdienst Goenoeng Sitoli Nias TMnr 10013687.jpg
A church scene in Gunungsitoli, around 1900

On 1776, British traders tried to settled the region but soon also abandoned it due to the region not being profitable. For several decades, there were no significant European presence on the island. The British tried to settle the region again on 1821 but the settlement was taken over by the Dutch on 1825. [3] On 1840, the Dutch tried to gain control the entire island following Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. However, they were unable to establish military presence in the island outside of small area inside Gunungsitoli, known as Rapatgebied. [3] Frequent raids by Nias tribes against Dutch fortification made the settlement concentrated on the area which would form the city. [3] [6]

The Dutch only able to start a significant military campaign against Nias tribes on 1900 and subjugated the entire island by 1914. Nias island was among the last region to be conquered in the Indonesian archipelago by Dutch East Indies. [6] Missionary activities on the island boomed after the Dutch established control over the entire island. On 1916, a mass conversion to Christianity known as Fangesa Sebua (The Great Repentance) occurred in the island. The event started on the city, from Idanoi and later spread to the entire island. [7]

Recent history

The city was one of two location in the Nias island where Dutch authorities put German prisoners during World War II. The prisoners were part of formerly bigger German prisoner groups abroad SS Van Imhoff which sunk by Japanese bombers off the west coast of Sumatra. [8] Upon news about Japanese attack on Sumatra, the German prisoners planned a coup against Dutch colonial authority in the city. The prisoners tried to convince native police, known as Veldpolities to revolt. [9] At the time, the city was home to around 60 German prisoners. On 29 March 1942, the native police were convinced by the prisoners and revolted by shoting Dutch residences. Dutch officials were imprisoned by revolting native police and the city was quickly occupied. [9] On 17 April 1942, Japanese military landed on the city and was welcomed by German prisoners who took over the city. By 24 April 1942, all German prisoners have left the island and the administration was handed over to the Japanese until the end of World War II. [9]

Beringin Market in Gunungsitoli, 1975. On 1975, the city and Nias island seen a short-lived tourist boom followed by brief improvement of infrastructures. Beringin Market in Gunungsitoli, Sumatera Utara Membangun, p330.jpg
Beringin Market in Gunungsitoli, 1975. On 1975, the city and Nias island seen a short-lived tourist boom followed by brief improvement of infrastructures.

During Indonesian National Revolution, the city and Nias island in general was under blockade from Dutch Navy to cut it from western coastline of Sumatra. Due to the blockade, the city printed its own banknotes as the Republican banknotes from Bukittinggi could not be transported. [10] The banknotes were known as ORIPDA-Nias (Regional Money of Republic Indonesia-Nias). [10]

US Navy together with Indonesian Army on Binaka Airport in the aftermath of 2005 Nias earthquake US Navy 050411-N-1485H-005 Ens. Mat Nolan, front center, and Cmdr. Karen McDonald, back left, help unload patients that have been medically evacuated.jpg
US Navy together with Indonesian Army on Binaka Airport in the aftermath of 2005 Nias earthquake

On 1975, Nias island experienced tourist boom especially with Australian tourists. Nias island became destination for surfers. The tourist boom was also followed by general improvement of infrastructure in the city and saw many constructions such as market buildings and roads. [11] However, due to lack of infrastructure at the time despite improvement, the boom was short-lived. [3] The city and the island was devastated by 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami and also 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake. Many of the infrastructure was destroyed and between 2005 and 2010 the residents became reliant on aid from nonprofit organizations to recover. [3]

The city was separated from Nias Regency and became an independent city based on Law Number 47 of 2008. [5] Following decentralization and becoming independent city, Gunungsitoli seen the highest average economic growth in the North Sumatra with figure of 6% on 2018 and 6.05% on 2019. [12] The city's infrastructure has been improved and tourist industry has been particular focus by government both local and central to develop. [13] [3] On 2019, the city together with other regencies in Nias island hosted Sail Nias, which is an annual yacht tournament part of Sail Indonesia event. [14] [15]

The city has been proposed as capital of the newly proposed Nias Islands Province, which is projected to be separated from North Sumatra. [16] As of 2021 however, the creation of the new province together with other new region proposals has been halted due to COVID-19 pandemic which put strain on government budget. [17]

Geography

Gunungsitoli borders North Nias Regency in the north, Nias Regency in the south and west, and the Indian Ocean in the east. The city consists of many hills with topography ranging from 0 – 800 metres above sea level. The soil in the city is mostly unstable and often causes landslides and damages the roads. [18] Soil composition varies from alluvium, limestone, to corals and is generally prone to compaction. [19] Limestone often makes underground water undrinkable. [18]

The slope in the city interior varies from 8% to 25% depending on the location. Coastal areas are mostly more flat with a different slope that takes up less than 8%. The city is located right between the subduction zone of the Eurasia plate and Indo-Australia plate, making it extremely prone to earthquakes. The city was devastated by the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake. The Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency noted that on average, the city experienced more than 300 earthquakes per month on a varying scale. The city is also prone to tsunamis due to its coastal location. [19]

Climate

Located close to the equatorial line, it has a tropical rainforest climate with an average of 21 days of rain per month. The average rainfall per month in 2019 was 250.21 millilitre cubic. However, this could vary widely from 100 to 300 millilitre cubic per month. Moisture in the city is usually between 87 - 95%, and the average temperature sits on at 26 °C. Wind speed on average per month reaches 5.17 knot per hour. [18]

Demographics

Nias traditional attire. Nias people are the majority of the city's inhabitants Baju adat Nias.jpg
Nias traditional attire. Nias people are the majority of the city's inhabitants

Annual population growth was 0.73% in 2020, with sex ratio of 94 males per 100 females. As with other Indonesian cities, the population is young with 95,147 out of 136,017 of the population of reproductive age above 15 years and considered part of the workforce. 46.8% of the city population lived in Gunungsitoli District in 2020. Despite the high birthrate and expansive structure of its population pyramid, the population growth was slow because of migration outside of the city to bigger cities such as Padang and Medan. [20] [18]

Cap Go Meh festival celebrated by Chinese Indonesians in Gunungsitoli, February 2020. The city has significant population of Chinese Indonesians. Cap Go Meh Gunungsitoli.png
Cap Go Meh festival celebrated by Chinese Indonesians in Gunungsitoli, February 2020. The city has significant population of Chinese Indonesians.

The majority of the city's population is Protestant, with a minority of Muslims, Catholics, and Buddhists. The Protestant population was 116,435, followed by 21,979 Muslims, 10,363 Catholics, and 382 Buddhists. [20] [18] The majority of city's residents are Nias people, with significant minorities of other ethnicities such as Batak, Minangkabau, Javanese, Chinese Indonesians, and Acehnese people. [21] The Chinese population were mainly descendants of traders traced back to precolonial era, while the Acehnese people found mostly around Mudik village on Idanoi were descendants from Acehnese ships crews. [4] Most of Acehnese and Chinese population have been assimilated into Nias society and could fluently speak Nias language. There were also population of Bugis people especially around region close to Hinako Islands, whom whoever were killed by raids from Acehnese ships during precolonial era. [4] Other ethnicities are known by Nias as "Orang Seberang" (Indonesian: people from across). [21]

Most of people in the city speaks Nias language, which is also taught at schools as regional language. [22] [23] Indonesian language is also well-understood in the city. [24]

Governance

Administrative Districts

The city has an area of 469.36 square kilometers or 0.63% of North Sumatra province area. It is divided into six districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2000 and 2010 Censuses [25] and the 2020 Census. [26] The table also includes the locations of the district administrative centres, the number of administrative villages (rural desa and urban kelurahan) in each district, and its postal code.

NameArea
in km2
Population
Census
2000
Population
Census
2010 [25]
Population
Census
2020 [1]
Number
of
villages
Post
code
Idanoi134.7822,41421,48223,6742622870
South Gunungsitoli56.8513,04613,73914,8061522851
West Gunungsitoli28.707,6637,4368,008922811
Gunungsitoli109.0946,60460,62563,6553222810
Gunungsitoli Alo'oa60.216,4296,7087,781922851
North Gunungsitoli79.7315,22316,21218,0941022851
Totals469.36111,379126,202136,017101

Local government

Nias Regent office building in Gunungsitoli. The city was once part of the Nias Regency until 2008. Nias Regent office.png
Nias Regent office building in Gunungsitoli. The city was once part of the Nias Regency until 2008.
Gunungsitoli People's Representative Council

Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Gunungsitoli
Type
Type
History
New session started
30 October 2019
Structure
Seats25
DPRD Kota Gunungsitoli 2019.svg
Political groups
   Nasdem Party (2)
   Perindo Party (2)
   Hanura (4)
   Demokrat (4)
   Golkar (2)
   PKPI (1)
   Gerindra (3)
   PAN (1)
[27]
Elections
Open list

As with all of Indonesian cities, the local government is a second-level administrative division run by a mayor and vice mayor together with the city parliament, and it is equivalent to a regency. [28] Executive power lies in the mayor and vice mayor, while legislation duties are carried by the local parliament. Mayor, vice mayor, and parliament members are democratically elected by the people of the city in an election. [29] Meanwhile, heads of districts are appointed directly by the city mayor on the recommendation of the city secretary. [30] [31]

Politics

On a provincial level, the city is part of the 8th electoral district of North Sumatra province together with Nias, South Nias, North Nias, and West Nias Regency which combined have six representatives in provincial parliament. [32] On the city level, it is divided into three electoral districts and together, the city parliament has 25 representatives. [32]

Electoral districtRegionRepresentatives
Gunungsitoli 1stGunungsitoli11
Gunungsitoli 2ndGunungsitoli Idanoi, South Gunungsitoli, West Gunungsitoli9
Gunungsitoli 3rdNorth Gunungsitoli, Gunungsitoli Alo'oa5
Total25

Economy

Market scene in Gunungsitoli. Trade dominates the city's economic activities Market scene in Gunungsitoli.jpg
Market scene in Gunungsitoli. Trade dominates the city's economic activities

The biggest contributor to the city's gross regional product is the trade sector with a figure of 25.49%, followed by construction with 21.82%, and fisheries & agriculture with 14.6%. Economic growth was 6.05% in 2019. The city's gross regional product on 2021 was 5,776.11 billion rupiahs, which was the second highest in the island after South Nias Regency. [33]

Agriculture and fisheries

Despite its being smaller than other sectors in terms of contribution to the gross regional product, agriculture employs more people in the city with a figure of around 31% of the city's workforce. In 2019, the amount of paddy field cultivated in the city was 2,313 hectares with a crop yield of 12,997 tons. Copra is among the main export of the island which is shipped out from Gunungsitoli after harvested from neighbouring regencies. [34] Other cultivated crops exist in the city, such as corn with a crop yield of 655.54 tons, cassava with 1,456 tons, and sweet potatoes with production of 634.25 tons. Most of the city population planted cassava without harvesting it, and instead used its leaves to feed pigs. Pig population in the city as of 2020 was 2,699. Egg production also exists in the city with production of 268 tons of eggs in 2020. [18] [20] Fish catch in 2020 was 6,284 tons from the sea and 129 tons of freshwater fish. [18]

Industry

The city hosts the only shipyard in the island, located on North Gunungsitoli. The shipyard was built on 2017 and start operating on 2019, mostly on repair and painting of the ship. [35] The city government runs an ice factory mainly to support fisheries in the city. The factory has capability to produce around 300 blocks of ice per day. [36] Other industries in the city include production of foods for livestock such as from corn. [37] [38] Gunungsitoli has significant tofu industry produced by soybean from other region such as Sibolga. [39] [40] Other processed products in the city includes dodol with durian flavour which is Nias' signature dish, [41] meubel products, and taro-related products. [40]

There are also fisheries-related industries such as fish processing and production of canned fish. [35]

Tourism

The city is gateway of Nias island and hub for tourist before reaching tourist destinations. According to city government, there are 110 tourist spots identified inside the city alone. Despite the decline of tourist industry following earthquakes, there are still significant international tourist visits mostly by Australians. [42] Tourist potentials include but not limited to Nias culture as well as beaches and natural spots such as cave and waterfalls. [35] On 2019, total 64,767 tourists visited the city which were dominated by domestic tourists. The tourist sector is supported by presence of 23 hotels in the city as of 2019. [35]

Finance

There are several banks in the city such as North Sumatra Bank, Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Bank Negara Indonesia, Bank Mandiri, Bank Danamon, among others. There are also several insurance companies mostly state-owned such as Jiwasraya and Putra Muda. [35] Finance sector contributed 3.29% to the city's gross regional product as of 2021. [33]

Infrastructure

A highschool in Gunungsitoli SMA1 Gunungsitoli.png
A highschool in Gunungsitoli

As of 2020, there were 28 kindergartens, 105 elementary schools, 35 junior high schools, and 12 senior high schools in the city, in addition to 14 vocational high schools and six higher education institutions. [20] On late 2021, several higher colleges and schools merged to form Nias Raya University. [43] It is the first and so far only university in the island and its main campus is located on South Nias Regency. [44] [45] [46]

M. Thomsen Regional Hospital, main hospital of the region M. Thomsen Regional Hospital Gunungsitoli.jpg
M. Thomsen Regional Hospital, main hospital of the region

There were four hospitals, nine polyclinics, six puskesmas, 20 healthcare centers, and six pharmacies. [20] The main public hospital in the city is Dr. M. Thomsen Regional Hospital, named after a Christian missionary and a doctor that operated in the region during the colonial era. Previously, it was named Gunungsitoli Regional Hospital. The hospital is operated by the Nias Regency government because the city was previously part of that regency. It underwent an expansion in early 2021. [47] [48]

Convenience store chains such as Alfamart and Indomaret entered the city in mid-2020. This, however received harsh criticism and rejection from many locals. Incumbent mayor, Lakhomizaro, said that he was threatened by an unknown person when attending Christmas celebration in the city's main church because of him releasing convenience store permits. [49]

Internet connection in the city is mostly provided by Telkomsel, that provides both cellular and fiber optic service IndiHome. The fiber optic service is available on Gunungsitoli, South Gunungsitoli, and Gunungsitoli Idanoi district. Other providers in the city are XL Axiata and Indosat. As of 2019, all the providers are in 4G. [35]

Transportation

A road scene in Gunungsitoli A road scene in Gunungsitoli.jpg
A road scene in Gunungsitoli

Total road length in the city is 490.68 kilometers, most roads paved with asphalt. However, road quality varies because of frequent earthquakes and poor soil condition. According to Statistics Indonesia, in 2019, more than 30% of roads in the city were considered damaged. The city is served by Binaka Airport with regular flights to Medan and Jakarta. [18] [20] [35]

The city has two ports, Angin Port and Roro Siwalubanua II Port. Both ports provided service for passenger and containers. There are regular ferry route to Sibolga, Singkil, and Padang. The city is also served by Sea Toll Program which has route to Padang and also Jakarta. [35]

The city has angkot as with other Indonesian cities, which are regulated by city government and has terminal located on South Gunungsitoli. The terminal, named Faekhu Passenger Terminal, is intended both for angkot and passenger bus. [50] Perum DAMRI has a bus route serving from the city to town of Telukdalam in South Nias. [51]

Related Research Articles

Medan City and capital of North Sumatra, Indonesia

Medan is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of North Sumatra. A regional hub and financial centre of Sumatra, it is one of the four main central cities of Indonesia, alongside Jakarta, Surabaya, and Makassar. As of the 2020 Census, Medan has a population of 2,435,252 within its city limits, and over 3.4 million in its built-up urban area, making it the fourth largest urban area in Indonesia. The Medan metropolitan area—which includes neighbouring Binjai, Deli Serdang Regency, and a part of Karo Regency—is the largest metropolitan area outside of Java, with 4,744,323 residents counted in the 2020 Census. Medan is a multicultural metropolis and a busy trading city bordered by the Strait of Malacca. A gateway to the western part of Indonesia, Medan is supported by the Port of Belawan and Kualanamu International Airport, both of which are connected to the city centre via toll roads and railways.

Jayapura City and Capital of Papua, Indonesia

Jayapura is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of Papua. It is situated on the northern coast of New Guinea island and covers an area of 940.0 km2 (362.9 sq mi). The city borders the Pacific Ocean and Yos Sudarso Bay to the north, Sandaun Province of Papua New Guinea to the east, Keerom Regency to the south, and Jayapura Regency to the west. It is the most populous city in the Indonesian part of New Guinea with a population of 256,705 at the 2010 census and 303,760 at the 2020 Census, as well as one of the most populous on the island alongside Papua New Guinea's capital Port Moresby.

North Sumatra Province of Indonesia

North Sumatra is a province of Indonesia located on the northern part of the island of Sumatra. Its capital and largest city is Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most-populous province after West Java, East Java and Central Java. The province covers an area of 72,981 km2. According to the 2020 population census, the province had a population of 14,799,361.

Padang City and Capital of West Sumatra, Indonesia

Padang is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of West Sumatra. With a Census population of 909,040 as of 2020, it is the 16th most populous city in Indonesia and the most populous city on the west coast of Sumatra. The Padang metropolitan area is the third most populous metropolitan area in Sumatra with a population of over 1.4 million. Padang is widely known for its Minangkabau culture, cuisine, and sunset beaches.

Nias Island off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

Nias is an island located off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Nias is also the name of the archipelago of which the island is the centre, but also includes the Batu Islands to the south-east and the small Hinako Islands to the west. Nias Island covers an area of 5,625.0 km2 (2,171.8 sq mi). It is mostly a lowland area rising to around 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. There were 756,338 inhabitants on the island at the 2010 Census; at the 2015 Census this had risen to 798,506 and the 2020 Census resulted in a total of 880,550.

Ternate City in North Maluku, Indonesia

Ternate is a city in the Indonesian province of North Maluku and an island in the Maluku Islands. It was de facto provincial capital of North Maluku before Sofifi on the nearby coast of Halmahera became the capital in 2010. It is off the west coast of the much larger island of Halmahera. It is composed of eight islands; Ternate, the biggest and main island of the city, as well as seven smaller islands of Moti, Hiri, Tifure, Mayau, Makka, Mano, and Gurida. In total, the city has a land area of 162.17 square kilometres and had a total population of 185,705 according to the 2010 census, and 205,001 according to the 2020 census, with a density of 1,264 per square kilometre. The biggest and most densely populated city in the province, it is the economic, cultural, and education center of North Maluku as well as hub to neighbouring regions. Historically the capital of powerful Sultanate of Ternate in 15th and 16th centuries, it fought a bitter rivalry with the Tidore Sultanate over control of spice trade in the Moluccas and became a main interest of the competing European powers.

Palangka Raya City and Capital of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Palangka Raya is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan. The city is situated between the Kahayan and the Sabangau rivers on the island of Borneo. As of the 2020 census, the city has a population of 293,500. Palangka Raya is the largest city by land area in Indonesia. Most of the area is forested. It also has the highest Human Development Index rating of any city in Kalimantan.

Langsa City in Sumatra, Indonesia

Langsa, is a city in Aceh, Indonesia. It is located on the island of Sumatra. Apart from a small sea coast to the northeast, it borders Manyak Payed District of Aceh Tamiang Regency to the east and is otherise surrounded by Birem Bayeun District of Aceh Timur Regency to the north, west and south. The city covers an area of 239.83 square kilometres and had a population of 148,945 at the 2010 Census ; this grew to 185,971 at the 2020 Census.

Lhokseumawe City in Sumatra, Indonesia

Lhokseumawe, is the second largest city in Aceh Special District, in the north of Sumatra, Indonesia. The city covers an area of 181.06 square kilometres, and had a population of 171,163 at the 2010 Census and 188,713 at the 2020 Census. Being between Banda Aceh and the large southern city of Medan, the town is a key regional centre important for the economy of Aceh.

Kotabaru Regency Regency in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Kotabaru Regency is one of the eleven regencies in the Indonesian province of South Kalimantan. It consists of two parts; the smaller but more populated part comprises Laut Island, the largest island off the coast of Kalimantan, together with the smaller Sebuku Island off Laut Island's east coast and even smaller islands nearby; the larger but less populated part consists of districts on the mainland of Kalimantan. The regency has an area of 9,442.46 km2, and had a population of 290,142 at the 2010 Census and 325,622 at the 2020 Census. The regency seat is located at the large town of Kotabaru at the northern tip of Laut Island.

North Aceh Regency Regency in Sumatra, Indonesia

North Aceh Regency is a regency in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, in Indonesia. It is located on the island of Sumatra. The regency covers an area of 3,236.86 square kilometres and had a population of 534,085 at the 2010 census and 602,793 at the 2020 Census. The administrative centre is now at Lhoksukon; this followed the separation in 2001 of the former capital of Lhokseumawe, which was cut out of the regency by Law No. 2 of 2001 on 21 June 2001 to form an independent city.

Tarakan City in North Kalimantan, Indonesia

Tarakan is an island and the largest city of the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. The island city is located in northern Borneo, midway along the coast of the province. The city boundaries are co-extensive with the island. Once a major oil-producing region during the colonial period, Tarakan had great strategic importance during the Pacific War and was among the first Japanese targets early in the conflict. It is the sole city within the newly established Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. According to Statistics Indonesia, the city had a population of 193,370 at the 2010 Census and 242,786 inhabitants at the 2020 Census.

Nias Regency Regency in North Sumatra, Indonesia

Nias Regency is a regency in North Sumatra province, Indonesia; it lies on the east side of Nias Island. The regency formerly covered the entire island, and had an area of 3,495.39 square kilometres following the creation of the new regency of Nias Selatan, but prior to the creation of the new regencies of Nias Utara and Nias Barat and the independent municipality of Gunungsitoli from parts of Nias Regency. Since the separation of the new regencies and municipality, the reduced Regency now covers 853.42 km2 of land in the eastern part of the island, and had a population of 131,377 at the 2010 Census and 146,672 at the 2020 Census. Its seat is the town of Gido.

South Nias Regency Regency in North Sumatra, Indonesia

Nias Selatan Regency is a regency in North Sumatra province, Indonesia. The regency covers a land area of 2,487.98 square kilometres and according to the 2010 census had a population of 289,708; the 2020 Census showed a population of 360,531. Its administrative centre is the port of Teluk Dalam. Apart from the southern portion of Nias Island, the regency also includes the smaller Batu Islands to the south, lying between Nias and Siberut.

Penajam North Paser Regency Regency in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Penajam North Paser Regency is a regency (kabupaten) located in East Kalimantan province in Indonesia. Its administrative centre is the town of Penajam. The area which now forms Penajam North Paser was part of Paser Regency until its separation in the year 2002. It covers an area of 3,333.06 km2 and it had 142,922 inhabitants at the 2010 Census and 178,681 at the 2020 Census. Penajam North Paser Regency has the smallest area among the seven regencies in East Kalimantan province.

North Kalimantan Province of Indonesia

North Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northernmost of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. North Kalimantan borders the Malaysian states of Sabah to the north and Sarawak to the west, and by the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan to the south. Tanjung Selor serves as the capital of the province, while Tarakan is the largest city and the financial centre.

Malinau Regency Regency in North Kalimantan, Indonesia

Malinau Regency is a regency of North Kalimantan Province in Indonesia. The administrative centre is the town of Malinau. The regency is home to the Kayan Mentarang National Park. It covers an area of 40,088.38 km2, and had a population of 62,423 at the 2010 Census and 82,510 at the 2020 Census. It is regency with the largest area in the province, as well as the least densely populated. Other than that, Malinau is the only regency in North Kalimantan that is predominantly Protestant and the second most-developed region in North Kalimantan after Tarakan in terms of Human Development Index.

Sangihe Islands Regency Regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

The Sangihe Islands Regency is a regency of North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. It comprises a group of islands situated to the North of Sulawesi. It covers a land area of 736.98 km2, and had a population of 126,100 at the 2010 Census and 139,262 at the 2020 Census. The principal island is also named Sangihe, on which lies the main town of Tahuna. Minor island groups within the Regency include the Marore group considerably to the north of Sangihe Island, the Tatoareng group to the south, and the Nusa Tabukan group off the northeast coast of Sangihe Island. It borders the Philippines in the north, making it one of Indonesia's border regions.

In Indonesian law, the term "city" (kota) is generally defined as the second-level administrative subdivision of the Republic of Indonesia, an equivalent to regency (kabupaten). The difference between a city and a regency is that a city has non-agricultural economic activities and a dense urban population, while a regency comprises predominantly rural areas and is larger in area than a city. However, Indonesia historically had several classifications of cities.

References

  1. 1 2 Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. "Jokowi Terbitkan PP Pemindahan Ibu Kota Kabupaten Nias dari Gunungsitoli". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2021-12-27. Retrieved 2021-12-27.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "Sejarah Nias". Museum Pusaka Nias (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 "Orang Nias". Museum Pusaka Nias (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2021-10-19. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  5. 1 2 "niaskab.go.id - Portal Resmi Pemerintah Kabupaten Nias". niaskab.go.id. Archived from the original on 2021-11-21. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  6. 1 2 "Desa Orahili Fau, Benteng Terakhir Nias Melawan Belanda". Nias Satu. 2016-11-16. Archived from the original on 2021-07-17. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  7. Beatty, Andrew (2019-02-07). Emotional Worlds. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-107-02099-3. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  8. "» Todeskampf im Indischen Ozean: Der Untergang der Van Imhoff" (in German). Archived from the original on 2021-05-17. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  9. 1 2 3 Salam, Fahri. "Kudeta Orang-Orang (Nazi) Jerman di Pulau Nias". tirto.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2021-07-19. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  10. 1 2 "Berjuang dengan uang mempertahankan dan memajukan Republik Indonesia : semangat juang otoritas dan masyarakat Sumatera Utara/ penulis: Darsono, Siti Astiyah, Ichwan Azhari, Enny Tin Suryanti, Allan Akbar | OPAC Perpustakaan Nasional RI". opac.perpusnas.go.id. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  11. "Nias Bangkit.COM | News and articles from Nias Island". 2014-08-11. Archived from the original on 2014-08-11. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  12. Bisnis, Harian Medan. "Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Kota Gunungsitoli Peringkat Pertama se-Sumatra Utara". Suarman Telaumbanua - MedanBisnisDaily.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2019-10-25. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  13. RRI 2022, LPP. "Usaha Travel di Kota Gunungsitoli Mulai Menggeliat, Ratusan Wisatawan Mulai Berdatangan". rri.co.id. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  14. https://bisnis.tempo.co/read/1247820/puncak-sail-nias-2019-dimeriahkan-100-kapal-nelayan. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-13.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. antaranews.com (2019-06-28). "Pemkot Gunungsitoli promosikan warisan budaya pada Sail Nias 2019". Antara News. Archived from the original on 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  16. Ibrahim, Muhammad. "8 Provinsi Baru di Indonesia Tak Lama Lagi Akan Disahkan Oleh Pemerintah! - GalaJabar - Halaman 2". galajabar.pikiran-rakyat.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2021-04-08. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  17. "Tito Karnavian Tegaskan Tak Ada Pemekaran Wilayah, Problem Keuangan | Kabar24". Bisnis.com (in Indonesian). 2021-04-24. Archived from the original on 2021-05-13. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Gunungsitoli". gunungsitolikota.bps.go.id. Archived from the original on 2021-05-03. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  19. 1 2 "Profil Gunungsitoli" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-05-03. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Gunungsitoli". gunungsitolikota.bps.go.id. Archived from the original on 2021-05-03. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  21. 1 2 "PU-net". perkotaan.bpiw.pu.go.id. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  22. "BAHAN MUATA LOKAL/ MULOK BAHASA NIAS UNTUK RPP". GURU BERBAGI. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  23. "Mata Pelajaran". SDN 075021 OMBOLOTA SALOO. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  24. Rahayu, Sri; Rahayu, Sri; Rahayu, Sri (2022-01-12). "Interferensi morfologis bahasa Nias dalam bahasa Indonesia pada karangan siswa SMP Gunungsitoli / Sri Rahayu". SKRIPSI Mahasiswa UM (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  25. 1 2 Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  26. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 021.
  27. "Pengumuman: Daftar Calon Terpilih Anggota DPRD Kota Gunungsitoli Pada Pemilu 2019" (PDF). KPU Kota Gunungsitoli. Retrieved 06-03-2021.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  28. "UU 22 1999" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-04-16. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  29. "UU 8 2015" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-02-26. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  30. "PP No. 17 Tahun 2018 tentang Kecamatan [JDIH BPK RI]". peraturan.bpk.go.id. Archived from the original on 2021-04-17. Retrieved 2021-04-16.
  31. Government Law No.19 1998
  32. 1 2 "Keputusan KPU No. 265 Sumatera Utara" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-05-04. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  33. 1 2 "Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Gunungsitoli". gunungsitolikota.bps.go.id. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  34. Editor (2021-03-28). "Tol Laut 2021. KSOP Gunungsitoli Kerja Keras Tingkatkan Muatan Balik Trayek T-2". Jurnal Maritim. Retrieved 2022-01-14.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "PROFIL POTENSI DAERAH KOTA GUNUNGSITOLI TAHUN 2020" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  36. Agency, ANTARA News. "Wali Kota Bagi Es Balok Gratis Kepada Nelayan - ANTARA News Sumatera Utara". Antara News. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  37. "Bahan Produksi Jagung Butuh 20 Ton Sehari". m.riausidik.com. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  38. Agency, ANTARA News. "Wali Kota Resmikan Usaha Pakan Ternak - ANTARA News Sumatera Utara". Antara News. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  39. admin (2015-02-13). "Ketika Tahu Nias Sukses Jadi Tuan di Kampung Sendiri". Kabar Nias (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  40. 1 2 (PDF) https://www.northsumatrainvest.id/data/pdf/publication/BAB%203%20AH%20GUNUNGSITOLI%20pg%201029-1059.pdf.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. "Tempat Oleh-Oleh Khas Gunungsitoli Sumatera Utara, Sayang Untuk Dilewatkan" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  42. "Wisatawan Australia Dominasi Turis Berkunjung ke Pulau Nias". Nias Satu. 2015-07-06. Archived from the original on 2021-01-17. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  43. RRI 2022, LPP. "Universitas Nias Raya (UNIRAYA) Resmi Berdiri di Nias Selatan". rri.co.id. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  44. RRI 2022, LPP. "Universitas Nias Raya Merupakan Universitas Pertama di Kepulauan Nias". rri.co.id. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  45. "Universitas Nias Raya Mengangkat Dr. Martiman S. Sarumaha, M.Pd Sebagai Rektor". MediaNias.ID ǀ Kabar Inspirasi Perubahan. Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  46. "Kampus STIE, STKIP, STIH Nias Selatan, Sah Jadi Universitas Nias Raya" (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2022-01-13. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  47. Media, Kompas Cyber (2021-01-21). "RSUD Gunungsitoli Berganti Nama Jadi RSUD dr M Thomsen Nias". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2021-05-03. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  48. "RSUD dr. M. THOMSEN NIAS". RSUD dr. M. THOMSEN NIAS (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2021-05-03. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  49. "5 Gerai Alfamidi Beroperasi di Gunungsitoli, Wali Kota Lakhomizaro: Saya Dihujat". Archived from the original on 2021-01-24. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  50. "Terminal Faekhu Kota Gunungsitoli Akhirnya Difungsikan". Warta Nias. Archived from the original on 2018-04-25. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  51. Sayuti, Uspan (2021-02-01). "Bus Damri Telukdalam-Gunungsitoli, Pemkab Nias Selatan dapat Bantuan Bus dari Pemerintah Pusat". Kliksaja Sumut (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2021-05-18. Retrieved 2022-01-13.