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Hangchow, Hang Tsei, Hangchou
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Location of Hangzhou City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
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Location of the city center in Zhejiang
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Location of the city center in China
Coordinates(Zhejiang Municipal People's Government): 30°16′01″N120°09′11″E / 30.267°N 120.153°E / 30.267; 120.153
CountryFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Province Zhejiang
Municipal seat Shangcheng District
  Type Sub-provincial city
  Body Hangzhou Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Liu Jie
   Congress ChairmanLi Huolin
  MayorYao Gaoyuan
   CPPCC ChairmanMa Weiguang
   Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city 16,821.1 km2 (6,494.7 sq mi)
8,259.9 km2 (3,189.2 sq mi)
8,107.9 km2 (3,130.5 sq mi)
 (2020 census) [1]
   Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city 11,936,010
  Density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
  Urban density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
  Metro density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
  National rank
Demonym(s) Hangzhounese [2] [3] [4]
( 杭州 , Hángzhōurén)
GDP [5]
   Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city CN¥ 1.875 trillion
US$ 278.857 billion
  Per capitaCN¥ 175,587
US$ 27,223
  MetroCN¥ 3.970 trillion
US$ 590.339 billion
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
ISO 3166 code CN-ZJ-01
Licence plate prefixes浙A
Regional variety Wu: Hangzhou dialect
Website Hangzhou.gov.cn
City tree
Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora)
City flower

Sweet Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans)

Early history

A ceremonial jade cong of the Liangzhu culture. Jade cong, Liangzhu Culture, 5200-2200 BC, Shanghai Museum.JPG
A ceremonial jade cong of the Liangzhu culture.

The celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao, 100 km (62 mi) south-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago. [12] It was during this time that rice was first cultivated in southeast China. [13] Excavations have established that the jade-carving Liangzhu culture (named for its type site just northwest of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the present city around five thousand years ago. [14] The first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which probably preserves an old Baiyue name. [15]

In 222 BC, Emperor Qin Shi Huang established Qiantang County, located in the area of Wulin Mountains and Wulin Lakes, Hangzhou's aliases Qiantang ( 錢唐 ) and Wulin ( 武林 ) began to appear during the Qin and Han dynasties. [16]

Hangzhou was made the seat of the prefecture of Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall which was constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities like Guangzhou and Fuzhou, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing. The canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609. [17]

Tang dynasty

In the Tang dynasty, Bai Juyi, a renowned poet, was appointed governor of Hangzhou. [18] He noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but due to negligence the old dyke had collapsed, and the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a dam to control the flow of water, mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local people of Hangzhou improved over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the West Lake, visiting it almost daily. He then had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a landmark.

It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China. It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 [19] :86 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Named Xifu ( 西府 ) at the time, [20] it was one of the three great bastions of culture in southern China during the tenth century[ according to whom? ], along with Nanjing and Chengdu. [21] Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of Buddhist temple architecture and artwork. The dyke built to protect the city by King  Qian Liu gave the Qiantang its modern name. [22] Hangzhou also became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, and also with Japan, Goryeo, and the Khitan Liao dynasty.

Song dynasty

In 1089, another renowned poet governor Su Shi (Su Dongpo) used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km (1.7 mi) long causeway across West Lake made of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western sides. The Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake.

Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the Southern Song dynasty in 1132, [23] when most of northern China had been conquered by the Jurchens in the Jin–Song wars. [24] The surviving imperial family had retreated south from its original capital in Kaifeng after it was captured by the Jurchens in the Jingkang Incident of 1127. [25] [26] Emperor Gaozong moved to Nanjing, then to modern Shangqiu, then to Yangzhou in 1128, and finally to Hangzhou in 1129. [25] [27]

Once the prospect of retaking northern China had diminished, buildings in Hangzhou were extended and renovated to become a permanent imperial capital. The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was expanded in 1133 with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an extension of the palace walls. [28] The city walls were built with tamped earth and stone and was 30 feet high and 10 feet thick at its base. There were 13 gates and several towers on the walls. The walls covered the city by four miles north to south and only one mile east to west. [29] According to the Italian explorer Odoric of Pordenone, Hangzhou was the greatest city in the world. It was heavily populated and filled with large family estates. It had 12,000 bridges. Bread, pork, rice, and wine were abundant despite the large population. [30] Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. [31] The Phoenix Mosque was constructed by a Persian settler in Hangzhou at this time. [32]

From 1132 until the Mongol invasion of 1276, Hangzhou remained the capital of the Southern Song dynasty and was known as Lin'an ( 臨安 ). It served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the civil service. During that time the city was a gravitational center of Chinese civilization as what used to be considered "central China" in the north was taken by the Jin, an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by Jurchens.

Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as Su Shi, Lu You, and Xin Qiji came here to live and die. Hangzhou is also the birthplace and final resting place of the scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095 AD), his tomb being located in the Yuhang district. [33]

During the Southern Song dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica , Hangzhou had a population of over 2 million at that time, while historian Jacques Gernet has estimated that the population of Hangzhou numbered well over one million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the year 1270 listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably failed to count non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that Hangzhou was the largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from 1348 to 1358. [34] [35]

Because of the large population and densely crowded (often multi-story) wooden buildings, Hangzhou was particularly vulnerable to fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275. The 1237 fire alone destroyed 30,000 dwellings. However, the worst was the 1208 fire which burned for 4 days in a 3-mile diameter and burnt 58,097 houses as well as killing 59 people. To combat this threat, the city constructed storage buildings that were rented out to merchants where watchmen patrolled by night and was enclosed by water on all sides. [29] Besides this, the government established an elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers with the task of putting out fire.

Yuan dynasty

Hangzhou was besieged and captured by the advancing Mongol armies of Kublai Khan in 1276, three years before the final collapse of the Southern Song. [36] Historian Patricia Buckley Ebrey noted that the Mongol Yuan dynasty killed the Jurchen Wanyan royal family by the hundreds in the Mongol siege of Kaifeng, while sparing the city of Hangzhou including the Chinese Zhao royal family of the Southern Song. The Mongols rehired Southern Song government officials and had Han Chinese artisans in Shangdu marry the palace women. [37] The capital of the new Yuan dynasty was established in the city of Dadu (Beijing), but Hangzhou remained an important commercial and administrative center for their southern territory.

Foreign descriptions

Yuan China was very open to foreign visitors, and several returned west describing Hangzhou—under the names Khinzai, [38] Campsay, [39] etc. [note 1] as one of the foremost cities in the world. The Venetian merchant Marco Polo supposedly visited Hangzhou in the late 13th century. In his book, he records that the city was "greater than any in the world" [27] and that "the number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man could form a just estimate thereof." Polo's account greatly exaggerates the city's size, although it has been argued that the "hundred miles" of walls would be plausible if Chinese miles were intended instead of Italian ones [42] and that the "12,000 stone bridges" might have been a copyist error born from the city's 12 gates. [43] In the 14th century, the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta arrived; his later account concurred that al-Khansā was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face of the earth." [44] [45] [46] He visited Hangzhou in 1345 and noted its charm and described how the city sat on a beautiful lake and was surrounded by gentle green hills. [47] He was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers. [48]

West Lake Hangzhou (15730606661).jpg
West Lake

Modern history

Hangzhou CBD Hangzhou CBD (Cropped).jpg
Hangzhou CBD

The city remained an important port until the middle of the Ming dynasty era, when its harbor slowly silted up. Under the Qing, it was the site of an imperial army garrison. [49]

In 1856 and 1860, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom occupied Hangzhou. The city was heavily damaged during its conquest, occupation, and eventual reconquest by the Qing army.

Hangzhou was ruled by the Republic of China government under the Kuomintang from 1927 to 1937. From 1937 to 1945, the city was occupied by Japan. The Kuomintang returned in 1945, and governed until 1949. On May 3, 1949, the People's Liberation Army entered Hangzhou and the city came under Chinese Communist Party (CCP) control. After Deng Xiaoping's reformist policies began in the end of 1978, Hangzhou took advantage of being situated in the Yangtze Delta to bolster its development. It is now one of China's most prosperous major cities.

During the Cultural Revolution, Hangzhou was stage to a series of labor unrest and factional fighting known as the Hangzhou incident.

Hangzhou was the third city in China to host the Asian Games after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. [50] It also hosted the eleventh G20 summit in 2016. [51]

In February 2020, the city was under curfew measures due to the outbreak of coronavirus beginning in Wuhan that spread across China. [52] [53]


A satellite image of the Yangtze River Delta. The Yangtze's natural sediment discharge can be seen. Eastchina and Eastchina Sea tmo 2017313 geo.tif
A satellite image of the Yangtze River Delta. The Yangtze's natural sediment discharge can be seen.

Hangzhou is located in northwestern Zhejiang province, at the southern end of the Grand Canal of China, which runs to Beijing, in the south-central portion of the Yangtze River Delta. Its administrative area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the mountainous parts of Anhui province, and east to the coastal plain near Hangzhou Bay. [19] :86 The city center is built around the eastern and northern sides of the West Lake, just north of the Qiantang River. [19] :86


Hangzhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Hangzhou" in Chinese characters
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
Imperial conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters, albeit with occasional snow. The mean annual temperature is 17.0 °C (62.6 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,438 mm (56.6 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In late summer (August to September), Hangzhou suffers typhoon storms, but typhoons seldom strike it directly. Generally they make landfall along the southern coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong winds and stormy rains. [54] Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −9.6 °C (15 °F) on 6 February 1969 up to 41.6 °C (107 °F) on 9 August 2013; [55] unofficial readings have reached −10.5 °C (13 °F), set on 29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to 42.1 °C (108 °F), set on 10 August 1930. [56] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 30% in March to 51% in August, the city receives 1,709.4 hours of sunshine annually.

Climate data for Hangzhou (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1951–present)
Record high °C (°F)25.4
Mean maximum °C (°F)17.4
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)8.6
Daily mean °C (°F)5.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)2.2
Mean minimum °C (°F)−3.9
Record low °C (°F)−8.6
Average precipitation mm (inches)93.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)12.411.714.913.813.315.412.213.711.
Average snowy days4.
Average relative humidity (%)74737270717973757673757274
Mean monthly sunshine hours 95.697.7120.4144.7158.9120.0204.6187.9139.9141.6118.9112.61,642.8
Percent possible sunshine 30313237382848463840383637
Source: China Meteorological Administration [57] [58] [59]


Historical population
1990 1,845,055    
2000 3,662,054+98.5%
2010 5,849,537+59.7%
2020 9,236,032+57.9%
sources: (census dates, urban area qu 区) [60]
Historical population
2000 6,878,722    
2010 8,700,373+26.5%
2020 11,936,010+37.2%
2022 12,376,000+3.7%
2023 12,522,000+1.2%
sources: (census dates, administrative division) [61]

and (yearend est.) [62]

2023年杭州市人口主要数据公报: (website only visible inside China)
2023年末全市常住人口中,男性为652.1万人,占总人口的52.1%;女性为600.1万人,占总人口 的47.9%。性别比(以女性为100,男性对女性的比例)为108.7。

Hangzhou is a city in China and had a population of 5,162,039 (including Xiaoshan and Yuhang) at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.8% per year since the 2000 census. [63] The most recent estimates of the city's urban area population are between 6,658,000 and 6,820,000. [64] [65]

During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2 (13,353 sq mi). [66] Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015. [67] The entire province had a population of 8,700,373, [68] and the encompassing urban agglomeration (including Shaoxing) is estimated to have population of 8,450,000. [69]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 13.4 million, [70] although other sources put the figure at over 21 million. The Hangzhou metropolitan area includes the major cities of Shaoxing, Jiaxing and Huzhou. [66] [71]

The population of Hangzhou is likely influenced by Zhejiang being chosen for model common prosperity drive.



Danghui.svg National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) logo.svg
Title Party Committee Secretary HMPC ChairpersonMayorHangzhou CPPCC Chairman
Name Liu Jie Liu HuolinYao GaoyuanMa Weiguang
Ancestral home Danyang, Jiangsu Taizhou, Zhejiang Cixi, Zhejiang Shaoxing, Zhejiang
BornJanuary 1970 (age 54)November 1961 (age 62)August 1968 (age 55)October 1962 (age 61)
Assumed officeDecember 2021February 2021November 2022January 2022

Administrative divisions

Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city [72] and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, [66] the fourth-largest in China. [73] It is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China. [19] :86 Hangzhou comprises 10 districts, 1 county-level city, and 2 counties. The ten urban districts occupy 8,292.31 km2 (3,201.68 sq mi) and have a population of 8,241,000, in which there are six central urban districts and four suburban districts. The central urban districts occupy 706.27 km2 (272.69 sq mi) and have a population of 3,780,000 and the suburban districts occupy 7,586.04 km2 (2,928.99 sq mi) and have a population of 4,461,000.

In the early 90s, the urban districts of Hangzhou only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Gongshu, Jianggan.

On December 11, 1996, Binjiang District was established. On March 12, 2001, Xiaoshan and Yuhang, formerly two county-level cities under the administration of Hangzhou prefecture-level city, were re-organized as two districts. On December 13, 2014, and in July 2017, Fuyang and Lin'an, formerly two county-level cities under the administration of Hangzhou prefecture-level city, were re-organized as two districts. On April 9, 2021, Linping District and Qiantang District was established. [74] [75]

SubdivisionChinesePinyinPopulation (2020)Area (km2)Density
Central Urban Districts
Shangcheng District 上城区Shàngchéng Qū1,323,467119.6813,238.68
Gongshu District 拱墅区Gǒngshù Qū1,120,98598.588,288.81
Xihu District 西湖区Xīhú Qū1,112,992309.412,876.44
Binjiang District 滨江区Bīnjiāng Qū503,85972.225,427.86
Suburban Districts
Xiaoshan District 萧山区Xiāoshān Qū2,011,6591000.641,212.42
Yuhang District 余杭区Yúháng Qū1,226,673942.381,304.94
Linping District 临平区Línpíng Qū1,175,841286.0317,933.86
Qiantang District 钱塘区Qiántáng Qū769,150523.575,930.00
Fuyang District 富阳区Fùyáng Qū832,0171,821.03407.46
Lin'an District 临安区Lín'ān Qū634,5553,118.77190.14
Tonglu County 桐庐县Tónglú Xiàn453,1061,829.59236.12
Chun'an County 淳安县Chún'ān Xiàn328,9574,417.4881.04
County-level City
Jiande City 建德市Jiàndé Shì442,7092,314.19192.72


Zhejiang Stock Exchange in the Qianjiang Central Business District Qianjiang guoji shidai plaza 09.jpg
Zhejiang Stock Exchange in the Qianjiang Central Business District
Alibaba Group Headquarters Alibaba Center in Binjiang Hangzhou2021.jpg
Alibaba Group Headquarters
CityArea km2 Population (2020) GDP (CN¥) [5] GDP (US$)
Hangzhou16,82111,936,010CN¥ 1,875.3 billionUS$278.857 billion
Shaoxing 8,2795,270,977CN¥ 735.1 billionUS$109.309 billion
Jiaxing 4,0095,400,868CN¥ 673.9 billionUS$100.209 billion
Huzhou 5,8183,367,579CN¥ 385.0 billionUS$57.250 billion
Quzhou 8,8462,276,184CN¥ 200.3 billionUS$29.785 billion
Huangshan 9,8071,470,000CN¥ 100.2 billionUS$14.900 billion
Hangzhou metropolitan area53,58229,721,618CN¥ 3.970 trillion US$590.339 billion

Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in 1992. It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China. [76] Additionally, the city is an e-commerce and technology hub. [77] The 2001 GDP of Hangzhou was RMB 156.8 billion, which ranked second among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB 156.8 billion in 2001 to RMB 1.3509 trillion in 2018 and GDP per capita increasing from US$3,020 to $21,184. [76] [78] As of 2019, the Hangzhou metropolitan area was estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (nominal) of 3.2 trillion yuan ($486.53 billion), [79] making it larger than the economies of Argentina, with a GDP of $452 billion (the 26th biggest in the World) and Nigeria with a GDP of $448 billion (the largest in Africa). [80]

A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". [81] Hangzhou is also considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC. [82] Hangzhou ranked 89 in the Global Financial Centres Index in 2018. [83] It was also ranked first in the China Emerging City Rankings of the Economist Intelligence Unit, which assesses Chinese cities growth potential, in both 2021 and 2022. [84]

Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou) in terms of the number of billionaires according to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020. [85]

As of August 2023, Hangzhou has the tenth-most Fortune Global 500 headquarters of any city in the world and the fourth-most in China after Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen within its city limits. [9]


Hangzhou is the headquarters of several technology companies including Alibaba Group, NetEase, [19] :90 Ant Group, and HikVision. As a result of its internet industry, many programmers from other cities such as Shanghai or Beijing have come to Hangzhou. [86] The city has developed many new industries, including medicine, information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components, household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing. [87] The city describes its important industries as "1 + 6" industrial clusters, with the "1" referring to the digital economy and the "6" referring to cultural/creative economy, finance, tourism, fashion manufacturing, and high-end equipment manufacturing. [19] :91 As of at least 2023, Hangzhou's economic growth has been led by the digital sector and the creative/cultural sectors. [19] :91

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Hangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was established and approved as a national development zone by the State Council in 1993. It covers an area of 104.7 km2 (40.4 sq mi). Encouraged industries include electronic information, biological medicine, machinery and household appliances manufacturing, and food processing. [88] Hangzhou Export Processing Zone was established on April 27, 2000, upon approval of the State Council. It was one of the first zones and the only one in Zhejiang Province to be approved by the government. Its total planned area is 2.92 km2 (1.13 sq mi). It is located close to Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport and Hangzhou Port. [89]

Hangzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was set up with approval from the State Council as a state-level high-tech Industrial Development Zone in March 1991. The HHTZ is composed of three parts, with the main regions being the Zhijiang Sci-Tech Industrial Park and Xiasha Sci-Tech Industrial Park. HHTZ has become one of the most influential high-tech innovation and high-tech industry bases in Zhejiang Province. As of 2013, HHTZ hosts more than 1,100 software developers and BPO enterprises. Major companies such as Motorola, Nokia and Siemens have established R&D centers in the zone. In 2011, the GDP of the zone rose by 13.1 percent, amounting to RMB 41.63 billion. This accounted for 5.9 percent of Hangzhou's total GDP. The HHTZ positions itself as the "Silicon Valley" of China. The Alibaba Group is headquartered in the zone. [90] [91]


The coastline of Hangzhou's West Lake during sunset. December 2023. The coastline of Hangzhou's West Lake during sunset. December 2023.jpg
The coastline of Hangzhou's West Lake during sunset. December 2023.
Aerial panorama of West Lake sunset and its lakeside district. December 2023. Aerial panorama of West Lake sunset and its lakeside district. December 2023.jpg
Aerial panorama of West Lake sunset and its lakeside district. December 2023.
Aerial panorama of West Lake and its surrounding mountains. December 2023. Aerial panorama of West Lake and its surrounding mountains. December 2023.jpg
Aerial panorama of West Lake and its surrounding mountains. December 2023.
West Lake and Leifeng Pagoda Leifang Pagoda Sunset.jpg
West Lake and Leifeng Pagoda
West Lake at night West Lake at night in Hangzhou.jpg
West Lake at night
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou Former Residence of Hu Xueyan 3.jpg
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou

Although Hangzhou has been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and cultural heritage and natural environment. Today, tourism remains an important factor for Hangzhou's economy. [92] One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The West Lake Cultural Landscape covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the lake is an area which includes historical pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural environment of the lake and hills, including Phoenix Mountain. There are two causeways across the lake. [92]

Other places of interest

In March 2013 the Hangzhou Tourism Commission started an online campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In a press conference in Hangzhou on 20 May 2014, Liam Bates was announced as the successful winner and won a $55,000 contract, being the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an official role. [94]

Song Cheng, located at No. 148 Zhijiang Road, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, in Hangzhou Zhijiang Tourism Resort, opened on May 18, 1996, is the first large-scale man-made theme park in Hangzhou.

Lingyin Temple was founded in the first year of Xianhe in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 326). It has a history of about 1,700 years and is the earliest famous temple in Hangzhou.

The tomb of Wu Hanyue is located at the foot of Yuhuangshan Mountain in Hangzhou. The tomb is rectangular and divided into two chambers. It is 7.6 meters long, 2.87 meters wide and 3.1 meters deep. The stone doors of the front room were carved with nails and knockers, and on the doors were carved cameos of delicate statues.

Liuhe Tower, located in the Xihu District of Hangzhou, covers an area of 890 square meters, the Liuhe Tower is 59.89 meters high, the internal tower core is divided into seven floors of brick structure, the external wooden structure of the pavilion style corridor has eight sides and 13 floors.


In 2019, Hangzhou established a pilot program artificial intelligence-based Internet Court to adjudicate disputes related to ecommerce and internet-related intellectual property claims. [95] :124 Parties appear before the court via videoconference and AI evaluates the evidence presented and applies relevant legal standards. [95] :124


Chenghuangmiao located on Wushan, Hangzhou Hangzhou City 2 WB (2568).jpg
Chenghuangmiao located on Wushan, Hangzhou

Scenic places near West Lake

Other religious buildings


In 1848, during the Qing dynasty, Hangzhou was described as the "stronghold" of Islam in China, the city containing several mosques with Arabic inscriptions. [97] A Hui from Ningbo also told an Englishman that Hangzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of around 30 families in Ningbo for his mosque. [98] Within the city of Hangzhou are two notable mosques: New Hangzhou Great Mosque and the Phoenix Mosque.


As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the city was an important center of Chinese Jewry, and may have been the original home of the Kaifeng Jewish community. [99]

There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China were in Kaifeng. [100]


Two of the Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou. There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the city. [101]


Gilt silver Hokyointounearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site, Zhejiang Provincial Museum Relics Unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site 03 2017-12.jpg
Gilt silver Hōkyōintō unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site, Zhejiang Provincial Museum

The native residents of Hangzhou, including those of Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu, speak the Hangzhou dialect, a Wu dialect unique to the area. Hangzhou's dialect differs from those of regions in southern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu. As the official language defined by China's central government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language, though it is mutually unintelligible with the Hangzhou dialect. The Hangzhou dialect has an estimated total of 1.2 to 1.5 million speakers.

There are several museums located in Hangzhou including China National Silk Museum (中国丝绸博物馆), the largest silk museum in the world, China National Tea Museum (中国茶叶博物馆), and Zhejiang Provincial Museum (浙江博物馆), which has a collection of integrated human studies, exhibition and research with over 100,000 collected cultural relics.

Many theaters in Hangzhou host opera shows such as Yue opera. There are several big shows themed with the history and culture of Hangzhou like Impression West Lake and the Romance of Song Dynasty. The landscapes in Hangzhou bridges stories of celebrities in Chinese history and feelings of ordinary people visiting Hangzhou with joy and enthusiasm. [102]

Hangzhou is home to the China Academy of Art and prominent painters such as Lin Fengmian and Fang Ganmin.

The local government of Hangzhou heavily invests in promoting tourism and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas, and Chinese hand-held folding fans. [ citation needed ]


Xihu Longjing (Xi Hu Long Jing 
), Longjing tea planted near the West Lake Xi Hu Longjing Tea 01.jpg
Xihu Longjing (西湖龙井), Longjing tea planted near the West Lake

Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of Zhejiang provincial cuisine, one of China's eight fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender, soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance." [ citation needed ]

Generally, Hangzhou's cuisines tend to be sweeter rather than savoury. The local people enjoy a light diet incorporating river fishes from the Yangtze River. There are historical stories revolving around the origins of local dishes.

Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (片儿川), West Lake Vinegar Fish (西湖醋鱼), Dongpo Pork (东坡肉), Longjing Shrimp (龙井虾仁), Beggar's Chicken (叫化鸡), Steamed Rice and Pork Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(荷叶粉蒸肉), Braised Bamboo Shoots (油焖笋), Lotus Root Pudding (藕粉) and Sister Song's Fish Soup (宋嫂鱼羹) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's regional cuisine.

Longjing tea is the most famous green tea and rank first among top ten famous teas in China. Those planted by the West Lake is the best Longjing tea. Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou is best known for originating Longjing, a notable variety of green tea. [103]


6-5859 at Guodongyuan Alley, Jiangcheng Rd (20190807101902).jpg
Hangzhou trolleybus
6-6892 at Hangzhoudong Railway Station West Bus Terminal (20190224055507).jpg
Hangzhou BRT Line 4 (Closed)
201607 Z176 departs from Hangzhou.jpg
Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway (Original route to Hangzhou Station)


The Port of Hangzhou is a small river port with a cargo throughput that exceeds 100 million tons annually. [104]


Hangzhou is served by the Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport, which provides direct service to many international destinations such as Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Netherlands, [105] Qatar, Portugal and the United States, as well as regional routes to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. It has an extensive domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports.[ citation needed ]


Hangzhou sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail corridors in China. The city's main station is Hangzhou East station (colloquially "East Station" 东站). It is one of the biggest rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the High Speed services to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and beyond. The metro station beneath the rail complex building is a stop along the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent departures for Shanghai with approximately 20-minute headways from 6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between Hangzhou and Shanghai takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in China can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The Hangzhou railway station (colloquially the "City Station" Chinese:城站) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened again.

A second high-speed rail channel through Hangzhou is operational along with another major station, Hangzhou West, opened on September 22, 2022. [106]

Direct trains link Hangzhou with more than 50 main cities, including 12 daily services to Beijing and more than 100 daily services to Shanghai; they reach as far as Ürümqi. The China Railway High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the duration of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes. [107]


Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the former east station), north, south, and west long-distance coach stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within Zhejiang province, as well as surrounding provinces.


Hangzhou has a bus network consisting of a fleet of diesel, hybrid and electric buses, as well as trolleybus es. Hangzhou was once known for its extensive bus rapid transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city. However, as of mid-2021, all but one BRT routes and feeding routes had closed or been transformed to regular routes. Only route B1 is still in operation.

Cycle hire

Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city. Hangzhou has an extensive public bike rental system called the Hangzhou Public Bicycle system. There is a dock-and-station system like those of Paris or London and users can hire bicycles with IC card or mobile phone application. Journeys within 60 minutes are free of charge.


Hangzhou Metro has a network of 323 km as of mid-2021, not including the Hangzhou-Haining Intercity Railway which has a length of 46 km. Major expansion plans continue. It is the 17th city in China to have a rapid rail transit system. In 2018, the State Council approved the planning for 15 metro lines, including extensions to the three existing lines, scheduled to open in time for the 2022 Asian Games. [108] By then the Hangzhou Metro system is projected have a network of 617 km (383 mi). [109]

The construction of the Metro started in March 2006, and Line 1 opened on November 24, 2012. [110] Line 1 connects city centre with suburbs. It run from Xianghu to Wenze Road with a branch to Lingping, which would later become part of Line 9. By June 2015, the southeast section of Line 2 (starts in Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 and Line 2) were completed. The system is expected to have 15 lines upon completion; most lines are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (city centre and northwest Hangzhou) and Line 4 (east of Binjiang District) opened in 2018. Line 5/6/7/8 opened their first parts in 2019 and 2020.


Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats, and tight regulations. In early 2011, 30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were Zotye Langyues and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200 electric taxis by the end of 2011. [111] In 2014, a large number of new electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local company which produced televisions in the past) were deployed.

Education and research


Hangzhou hosts many universities, most notably the Zhejiang University, one of the world's top 100th comprehensive public research universities. [112] [113] [114] Hangzhou has a large student population, with college towns such as Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city. Universities in Hangzhou include:

Primary and secondary schools

Provincial key Public high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou No. 2 High School, Hangzhou Xuejun High School, Hangzhou High School, Hangzhou No. 14 High School, Hangzhou No. 4 High School, High School Attached to Zhejiang University, High School attached to Hangzhou Normal University, and Hangzhou Foreign Language School.

Private high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou Green Town Yuhua School, Hangzhou Chinese International School, Hangzhou International School and Hangzhou Japanese School (杭州日本人学校) (nihonjin gakkō).


Hangzhou is a major city for scientific research in China, ranking 9th in Asia-Oceania region and 16th globally by the Nature Index as of 2023. [10]

Twin towns – sister cities

Hangzhou is twinned with:

Sayama Flag of Saitama.svg  Saitama Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan1978
Gifu Flag of Gifu Prefecture.svg  Gifu Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan1979
Weert Flag of Limburg.svg  Limburg Flag of the Netherlands.svg NetherlandsUnknown
Boston Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts Flag of the United States.svg United States1982
Baguio N/A [116] Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines1982
Leeds West Yorkshire Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom1988
Fukui Flag of Fukui Prefecture.svg  Fukui Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan1989
Nice Flag of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur.svg  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Flag of France.svg France1994
Galway County Galway Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland1996
Paramaribo Paramaribo District Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname1988
Budapest N/A [117] Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary1999
Cape Town Western Cape Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa2005
Oviedo Principado de Asturias Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 2006
Curitiba Bandeira do Parana.svg  Paraná Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil2007
Dresden Flag of Saxony.svg  Saxony Flag of Germany.svg Germany2009
Indianapolis Flag of Indiana.svg  Indiana Flag of the United States.svg United States2009
Oulu Northern Ostrobothnia Flag of Finland.svg Finland2011
Atlanta Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg  Georgia Flag of the United States.svg United States2012
Hamamatsu Flag of Shizuoka Prefecture.svg  Shizuoka Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan2012
Lugano Flag of Canton of Ticino.svg  Ticino Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg  Switzerland2012 [118]
Dnipro Flag of Dnipropetrovsk Oblast.svg  Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine2013
El Calafate Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Cruz.svg  Santa Cruz Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina2013
Split Flag of Split-Dalmatia County.svg Split-Dalmatia County Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia2014
Queenstown Flag of Otago.svg  Otago Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand2015 [119]
Maribor City Municipality of Maribor Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia2017 [120]
Greenwich Flag of the Greater London Authority.svg  Greater London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom2017 [121]
Heidelberg Flag of Baden-Wurttemberg.svg  Baden-Württemberg Flag of Germany.svg Germany2018 [122]
Kota Kinabalu Flag of Sabah.svg  Sabah Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia2019 [123] [124] [125]
Tallinn Flag of et-Harju maakond.svg Harju County Flag of Estonia.svg EstoniaUnknown
Middlesbrough North Yorkshire Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomUnknown

Ancient proverbs about Hangzhou

An ancient Chinese proverb about Hangzhou and Suzhou is:

Paradise above, Suzhou and Hangzhou below. (上有天堂,下有苏杭)

This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on Earth". Marco Polo in his accounts described Suzhou as "the city of the earth" while Hangzhou is "the city of heaven". [126] The city presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in the city in 2016. [127]

Another saying about Hangzhou is:

Be born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, die in Liuzhou. (生在苏州,活在杭州,吃在广州,死在柳州)

The meaning here lies in the fact that Suzhou was renowned for its beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens, Hangzhou for its scenery, Guangzhou for its food, and Liuzhou (of Guangxi) for its wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely made from the camphor tree).

Notable residents

See also


  1. /hɑːŋˈ/ hahng-JOH [6] [7] or /hæŋˈ/ hang-JOH; [8] Chinese :杭州, Wu Chinese pronunciation: [ɦɑ̃.tse] , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: [xǎŋ.ʈʂóʊ] ), also romanized as Hangchow
  1. For a discussion of the many sources and variant spellings of the names, see Moule. [40] The ultimate Chinese source of these names has been variously given as Jīngshī ( 京師 , "the Capital"); Xingzai, an abbreviated form of Xíngzàisuǒ ( 行在 , "the Place of Temporary Residence"), which had formerly been a byname for the Song capital from the hope that the court would eventually return north to Kaifeng; and Hangtsei, the Hangzhounese pronunciation of the town's name. [41]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zhejiang</span> Province of China

Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou, and other notable cities include Ningbo and Wenzhou. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west and Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lies the Ryukyu Islands. The population of Zhejiang stands at 64.6 million, the 8th largest in China. It has been called "the backbone of China" because it is a major driving force in the Chinese economy and being the birthplace of several notable people, including the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and entrepreneur Jack Ma. Zhejiang consists of 90 counties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jiangsu</span> Province of China

Jiangsu is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Changsha</span> Capital of and prefecture-level city in Hunan, China

Changsha is the capital and the largest city of Hunan Province of China. Changsha is the 17th most populous city in China with a population of over 10 million, and the third-most populous city in Central China, located in the lower reaches of the Xiang River in northeastern Hunan. Changsha is also called Xingcheng and was once named Linxiang, Tanzhou, and Qingyang (青阳) in ancient times. It is also known as Shanshuizhoucheng (山水洲城), with the Xiang River flowing through it, containing Mount Yuelu and Orange Isle. The city forms a part of the Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region along with Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, also known as Changzhutan City Cluster. Greater Changsha was named one of the 13 emerging mega-cities in China in 2012 by the Economist Intelligence Unit. It is also a National Comprehensive Transportation Hub, and one of the first National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities in China. Changshanese, a kind of Xiang Chinese, is spoken in the downtown, while Ningxiangnese and Liuyangnese are also spoken in the counties and cities under its jurisdiction. As of the 2020 Chinese census, the prefecture-level city of Changsha had a population of 10,047,914 inhabitants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ningbo</span> Prefecture-level & sub-provincial city in China

Ningbo is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. It comprises six urban districts, two satellite county-level cities, and two rural counties, including several islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Ningbo is the southern economic center of the Yangtze Delta megalopolis. The port of Ningbo–Zhoushan, spread across several locations, is the world's busiest port by cargo tonnage and world's third-busiest container port since 2010.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Lake</span> Lake in Hangzhou, China

West Lake is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temples, pagodas, gardens, and natural/artificial islands within the lake. Gushan (孤山) is the largest natural island and three artificial islands: Xiaoyingzhou (小瀛洲), Huixin Pavilion (湖心亭), and Ruan Gongdun (阮公墩) stand at the middle of the lake. Leifeng Pagoda (雷峰塔) and Baochu Pagoda (保俶塔) are separated by the lake. Mirroring each other, the basic pattern of "one mountain, two towers, three islands, three banks, and five lakes" is formed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Quzhou</span> Prefecture-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Quzhou is a prefecture-level city in western Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. Sitting on the upper course of the Qiantang River, it borders Hangzhou to the north, Jinhua to the east, Lishui to the southeast, and the provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui to the south, southwest and northwest respectively. Its population was 2,276,184 inhabitants as of the 2020 census of whom 902,767 lived in the built-up area made of Qujiang and Kecheng urban Districts. Chinese actress and singer Zhou Xun was born in Quzhou.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jinhua</span> Prefecture-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Jinhua is a prefecture-level city in central Zhejiang province in eastern China. It borders the provincial capital of Hangzhou to the northwest, Quzhou to the southwest, Lishui to the south, Taizhou to the east, and Shaoxing to the northeast. Its population was 7,050,683 as of the 2020 census including 1,463,990 in the built-up area made of two urban districts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hangzhou Bay</span> Inlet of the East China Sea

Hangzhou Bay is a funnel-shaped inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai, which lies north of the Bay. The Bay extends from the East China Sea to its head at the city of Hangzhou, from which its name is derived.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haining</span> County-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

is a county-level city in Zhejiang Province, China, and under the jurisdiction of Jiaxing. It is in the south side of Yangtze River Delta, and in the north of Zhejiang. It is 125 km (78 mi) to the southwest of central Shanghai, and 61.5 km (38.2 mi) east of Hangzhou, the provincial capital. To its south lies the Qiantang River. The city has a land area of 700.5 km2 (270.5 sq mi) and as of the 2020 census, had a population of 1,076,199 inhabitants. Haining is known for its leather industry and spectacular tide in the Qiantang River. Since June 2021, it's linked to Hangzhou by the new suburban Hangzhou - Haining subway Line.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hangzhou Metro</span> Metro system in Hangzhou, China

The Hangzhou Metro is a rapid transit system that serves Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China. The system opened on November 24, 2012. It is the 17th city in China to operate a rapid transit system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shangcheng, Hangzhou</span> District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Shangcheng District is the capital and one of ten urban districts of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China, it is located in the core urban area of Hangzhou. The district has an area of 18 square kilometers (6.9 sq mi) and a population of 310,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hangchow University</span> A defunct university in Hangzhou

Hangchow University, also spelled as Zhijiang University and formerly known as Hangchow Christian College, Hangchow College, and Hangchow Presbyterian College, is a defunct Protestant missionary university in China, which is one of the predecessors of Zhejiang University. Founded as the Ningpo Boys' Boarding School by Divie Bethune McCartee and colleagues of Northern Presbyterian Church in Ningbo in 1845, the university was one of the oldest missionary schools in China before it was shut down in 1952. The university was merged into Zhejiang University and other universities in China. Its campus was taken over by Zhejiang University as its Zhijiang Campus in 1961, which became a major nationally protected historic site in 2006.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zhijiang Campus, Zhejiang University</span> A Zhejiang University campus in Hangzhou

Zhijiang Campus is an urban campus of Zhejiang University located in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Located on riverside of the Qiantang River and close to the Liuhe Pagoda, it was the oldest university campus in Hangzhou. Built as the campus of Hangchow University, one of the oldest Christian colleges and universities in China, most of its buildings are protected as the Hangchow University Historic Site under the list of Major Sites Protected at the National Level. The campus is now home to James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences, Guanghua Law School and the Institute for Advanced Study in Humanities and Social Sciences.

is one of ten urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, in East China, it is located in the core urban area of Hangzhou. It is across the Qiantang River from West Lake and the older parts of Hangzhou. Like Pudong in Shanghai, it a very modern, and rapidly developing, area that was mostly farmland until ten years ago. The district's total area is 72.2 square kilometres (27.9 sq mi), and its permanent population totals 503,859 people as of 2020. The district people's government is situated on Xixing Road.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Linping, Hangzhou</span> District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Linping is a district of the prefecture-level city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, East China. It officially become a district on April 9, 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qiantang River</span> East Chinese river

The Qiantang River, formerly known as the Hangchow River or Tsientang River, is a river in East China. An important commercial artery, it runs for 459 kilometers (285 mi) through Zhejiang, passing through the provincial capital Hangzhou before flowing into the East China Sea via Hangzhou Bay south of Shanghai. Its original name, the "Zhe River" or "Zhe Jiang", is the origin of the name of Zhejiang province. The river is also known, along with Hangzhou Bay, for having what is called by locals as the "Silver Dragon", the world's largest tidal bore, a phenomenon where the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave that can rise to a height of 9 meters (30 ft) and travels up the river or narrow bay at top speeds of 40 km/h against the direction of the river or bay's current, and can be seen from miles away.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qianjiang New City</span> Area of Hangzhou, China

Qianjiang New City or Hangzhou CBD is a central business district situated in the west bank of Qiantang River in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Construction work of this district began in 2007, being a significant part of Hangzhou's resolution of expansion from "West-Lake-centered era" to "Qiantang-River-centered era". It is currently one of two central business districts and the financial district of Hangzhou city.

The Hangzhou Yuhang Economic Development Area, also known as the Qianjiang Economic Development Area, is an economic and technological development area in Yuhang District of Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qiantang, Hangzhou</span> District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Qiantang District is a district in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province in China. In August 2019, the Hangzhou Qiantang New Area, a provincial-level new area in Zhejiang established, and later has been transformed into a new area and integrated with the Hangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone, a national-level development zone established in 1990. A district was established on April 9, 2021, with a total area of 531.7 square kilometers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">White Pagoda Park</span> A park in Shangcheng, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

The White Pagoda Park, or romanised as the Baita Park, is a park in Shangcheng, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. The park opened on 1 May 2014. On the north bank of Qiantang River and the south border of the West Lake Scenic Area, the park is part of the Grand Canal National Cultural Park in Hangzhou. Within the park, there are the White Pagoda that can date back to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period and the historical relics of the Jianggan-Gongshu Railway, which was opened in 1908 as the first railway in Zhejiang.



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  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China, by Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions, a publication from 1854, now in the public domain in the United States.
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Further reading

Preceded by Capital of China (as Lin'an)
Succeeded by
Dadu (present Beijing)