Hangzhou

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Hangzhou
杭州市
Hangchow, Hang Tsei, Hangchou
20201012Cong Qian Tang Jiang Jiang Mian Shang Kong Guan Kan Qian Jiang Xin Cheng .jpg
China Travel China Tour China.jpg
Lingyin Temple, 2020-11-29 15.jpg
Changqiao Park 8.jpg
Leifeng Pagoda DJI 0593 (2).jpg
Xiao Qiao , Liu Shui , Ren Jia  - panoramio.jpg
Entrace to Yue Fei Temple, Hangzhou.jpg
Hangzhou City Seal.png
Hangzhou
Location map of Hangzhou, Zhejiang.png
Location of Hangzhou City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
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Red pog.svg
Hangzhou
Location of the city center in Zhejiang
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Red pog.svg
Hangzhou
Location of the city center in China
Coordinates(Zhejiang People's Government): 30°16′01″N120°09′11″E / 30.267°N 120.153°E / 30.267; 120.153 Coordinates: 30°16′01″N120°09′11″E / 30.267°N 120.153°E / 30.267; 120.153
CountryFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Province Zhejiang
Municipal seat Shangcheng District
Government
  Type Sub-provincial city
  Body Hangzhou Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Liu Jie
   Congress ChairmanLi Huolin
  MayorLiu Xin [1]
   CPPCC ChairmanMa Weiguang
Area
   Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city 16,821.1 km2 (6,494.7 sq mi)
  Urban
8,259.9 km2 (3,189.2 sq mi)
  Metro
8,107.9 km2 (3,130.5 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 census) [2]
   Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city 11,936,010
  Density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
   Urban
10,711,238
  Urban density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
   Metro
13,035,329
  Metro density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
  National rank
5th
Demonym Hangzhouians
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
310000
ISO 3166 code CN-ZJ-01
GDP (Nominal) 2021 [3]
 - Total CN¥1.811 trillion
(US$280.76 billion)
 - Per capitaCN¥151,717
(US$23,522)
 - GrowthIncrease2.svg 8.5%
 - Metro (2018)CN¥2.6517 trillion [4]
(US$400.7 billion)
Licence plate prefixes浙A
Regional variety Wu: Hangzhou dialect
Website Hangzhou.gov.cn
City tree
Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora)
City flower

Sweet Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans)
Hangzhou
Hangzhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Hangzhou" in Chinese characters
West Lake and Leifeng Pagoda Leifang Pagoda Sunset.jpg
West Lake and Leifeng Pagoda
West Lake at night West Lake at night in Hangzhou.jpg
West Lake at night
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou Former Residence of Hu Xueyan 3.jpg
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou

Hangzhou is known for its historic relics and natural environment. Although Hangzhou has been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and cultural heritage. Today, tourism remains an important factor for Hangzhou's economy. [80] One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The West Lake Cultural Landscape covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the lake is an area which includes historical pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural environment of the lake and hills, including Phoenix Mountain. There are two causeways across the lake. [80]

Other places of interest

In March 2013 the Hangzhou Tourism Commission started an online campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In a press conference in Hangzhou on 20 May 2014, Liam Bates was announced as the successful winner and won a $55,000 contract, being the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an official role. [82]

Religion

Chenghuangmiao located on Wushan, Hangzhou Hangzhou City 2 WB (2568).jpg
Chenghuangmiao located on Wushan, Hangzhou

Scenic places near West Lake

Other religious buildings

Islam

In 1848, during the Qing dynasty, Hangzhou was described as the "stronghold" of Islam in China, the city containing several mosques with Arabic inscriptions. [84] A Hui from Ningbo also told an Englishman that Hangzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of around 30 families in Ningbo for his mosque. [85] Within the city of Hangzhou are two notable mosques: New Hangzhou Great Mosque and the Phoenix Mosque

Judaism

As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the city was an important center of Chinese Jewry, and may have been the original home of the better-known Kaifeng Jewish community. [86]

There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China were in Kaifeng. [87]

Christianity

Two of the Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou. There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the city. [88]

Culture

Gilt silver Hokyointo Unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site, now in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum Relics Unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site 03 2017-12.jpg
Gilt silver Hōkyōintō Unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site, now in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum

The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu, speak the Hangzhou dialect, which is a Wu dialect. However, Wu Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence, Hangzhou's dialect differs from those of regions in southern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu. As the official language defined by China's central government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language.

There are several museums located in Hangzhou with regional and national importance. China National Silk Museum (中国丝绸博物馆), located near the West Lake, is one of the first state-level museums in China and the largest silk museum in the world. China National Tea Museum (中国茶叶博物馆) is a national museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang Provincial Museum (浙江博物馆) features collection of integrated human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected cultural relics.

Many theaters in Hangzhou host opera shows. Yue opera, originated from Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big shows themed with the history and culture of Hangzhou like Impression West Lake and the Romance of Song Dynasty.

Hangzhou has historically been an important hub for artists and scholars. In modern times, Hangzhou was home to the China Academy of Art and prominent painters such as Lin Fengmian and Fang Ganmin.

Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou is best known for originating Longjing, a notable variety of green tea, the most notable type being Longjing Tea. [89] Known as the best type of Long Jing tea, Xi Hu Long Jing is grown in Longjing village [81] near West Lake in Hangzhou, hence its name.[ citation needed ]

The local government of Hangzhou heavily invests in promoting tourism and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas, and Chinese hand-held folding fans.

Cuisine

Xihu Longjing (Xi Hu Long Jing 
), Longjing tea planted near the West Lake Xi Hu Longjing Tea 01.jpg
Xihu Longjing (西湖龙井), Longjing tea planted near the West Lake

Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of Zhejiang provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of China's eight fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender, soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance."

Generally, Hangzhou's cuisines tend to be sweeter rather than savoury. Owing to the fact that Hangzhou is located near the Yangtze river, where the climate is mild, the local people enjoy a light diet incorporating river fishes. The rich history of the city provides the local people with stories revolving around the origins of local dishes.

Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (片儿川), West Lake Vinegar Fish (西湖醋鱼), Dongpo Pork (东坡肉), Longjing Shrimp (龙井虾仁), Beggar's Chicken (叫化鸡), Steamed Rice and Pork Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(荷叶粉蒸肉), Braised Bamboo Shoots (油焖笋), Lotus Root Pudding (藕粉) and Sister Song's Fish Soup (宋嫂鱼羹) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's regional cuisine.

The famous and signature[ citation needed ] restaurants in Hangzhou include Xin Feng restaurant (新丰小吃), Zhi Wei Guan (知味观), Grandma's Home (外婆家), Green Tea Restaurant (绿茶餐厅), etc. These restaurants create the advanced food and dishes of the traditional Hangzhou cuisine, and combine with the western cooking methods[ citation needed ].

Longjing tea is the most famous green tea and rank first among top ten famous teas in China. Those planted by the West Lake is the best Longjing tea.

Transportation

6-5859 at Guodongyuan Alley, Jiangcheng Rd (20190807101902).jpg
Hangzhou trolleybus
6-6892 at Hangzhoudong Railway Station West Bus Terminal (20190224055507).jpg
Hangzhou BRT Line 4 (Closed)
201607 Z176 departs from Hangzhou.jpg
Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway (Original route to Hangzhou Station)

Port

The Port of Hangzhou is a small river port with a cargo throughput that exceeds 100 million tons annually. [90]

Air

Hangzhou is served by the Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport, which provides direct service to many international destinations such as Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Netherlands, [91] Qatar, Portugal and the United States. Regional routes reach Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. It has an extensive domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports. Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B. The smaller Terminal A serves all international and regional flights while the larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The airport is located just outside the city in the Xiaoshan District with direct bus service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The ambitious expansion project will see the addition of a second runway and a third terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the fast-growing airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air China. A new elevated airport express highway is under construction on top of the existing highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The second phase of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 has a planned extension to the airport.

Railway

Hangzhou sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail corridors in China. The city's main station is Hangzhou East station (colloquially "East Station" 东站, official national rail translation: Hangzhoudong Station). It is one of the biggest rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the High Speed services to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and beyond. The metro station beneath the rail complex building is a stop along the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent departures for Shanghai with approximately 20-minute headways from 6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between Hangzhou and Shanghai takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in China can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The Hangzhou railway station (colloquially the "City Station" Chinese:城站) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened again.

A second high-speed rail channel through Hangzhou is under construction along with another major station, Hangzhou West.

Direct trains link Hangzhou with more than 50 main cities, including 12 daily services to Beijing and more than 100 daily services to Shanghai; they reach as far as Ürümqi. The China Railway High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the duration of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes. [92]

Coach

Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the former east station), north, south, and west long-distance coach stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within Zhejiang province, as well as surrounding provinces.

Bus

Hangzhou has an efficient bus network, consisting of a modern fleet of diesel, hybrid and electric buses, as well as trolleybus es. Hangzhou was once known for its extensive bus rapid transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city. However, as of mid-2021, all but one BRT routes and feeding routes had closed or been transformed to regular routes. Only route B1 is still in operation.

Cycle hire

Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city. Hangzhou has an extensive public bike rental system, the Hangzhou Public Bicycle system. A dock-and-station system similar to those in Paris and London is adopted and users can hire a bicycle with IC card or mobile phone application. Journeys within 60 minutes are free of charge.

Metro

Hangzhou Metro has a network of 323 km as of mid-2021, not including the Hangzhou-Haining Intercity Railway which has a length of 46 km. Major expansion plans continue. It is the 17th city in China to have a rapid rail transit system. In 2018, the State Council approved the planning for 15 metro lines, including extensions to the three existing lines, scheduled to open in time for the 2022 Asian Games. [93] By then the Hangzhou Metro system is projected have a network of 617 km (383 mi) . [94]

The construction of the Metro started in March 2006, and Line 1 opened on November 24, 2012. [95] Line 1 connects city centre with suburbs. It run from Xianghu to Wenze Road with a branch to Lingping, which would later become part of Line 9. By June 2015, the southeast section of Line 2 (starts in Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 and Line 2) were completed. The system is expected to have 15 lines upon completion; most lines are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (city centre and northwest Hangzhou) and Line 4 (east of Binjiang District) opened in 2018. Line 5/6/7/8 opened their first parts in 2019 and 2020

Taxis

Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats, and tight regulations. In early 2011, 30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were Zotye Langyues and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200 electric taxis by the end of 2011. [96] In 2014, a large number of new electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local company which produced televisions in the past) were deployed.

Education and Research

Universities

Hangzhou hosts many universities, most notably the Zhejiang University, which is one of the world's top 100th comprehensive public research universities. [97] [98] [99] Hangzhou has a large student population with many higher education institutions based in the city. Public universities include Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University of Technology, and Hangzhou Normal University etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns with a cluster of several universities and colleges. The universities in Hangzhou include:

Primary and secondary schools

Provincial key Public high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou No. 4 High School, Hangzhou No. 14 High School, Hangzhou NO.2 High School, Hangzhou Foreign Language School, High School Attached to Zhejiang University, High School attached to Hangzhou Normal university, Hangzhou No. 1 High School and Hangzhou Xuejun High School.

Private high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou Green Town Yuhua School, Hangzhou Chinese International School, Hangzhou International School and Hangzhou Japanese School (杭州日本人学校) (nihonjin gakkō).

Research

Hangzhou is a major city for scientific research in China, ranking 23rd globally by the Nature Index as of 2021. [101]

Twin towns – sister cities

Hangzhou is twinned with:

CityDivisionCountrySince
Sayama Flag of Saitama.svg  Saitama Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan1978
Gifu Flag of Gifu Prefecture.svg  Gifu Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan1979
Weert Flag of Limburg.svg  Limburg Flag of the Netherlands.svg NetherlandsUnknown
Boston Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts Flag of the United States.svg United States1982
Baguio N/A [102] Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines1982
Leeds West Yorkshire Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom1988
Fukui Flag of Fukui Prefecture.svg  Fukui Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan1989
Nice Flag of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur.svg  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Flag of France.svg France1994
Galway County Galway Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland1996
Paramaribo Paramaribo District Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname1988
Budapest N/A [103] Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary1999
Cape Town Western Cape Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa2005
Curitiba Bandeira do Parana.svg  Paraná Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil2007
Dresden Flag of Saxony.svg  Saxony Flag of Germany.svg Germany2009
Indianapolis Flag of Indiana.svg  Indiana Flag of the United States.svg United States2009
Oulu Northern Ostrobothnia Flag of Finland.svg Finland2011
Atlanta Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg  Georgia Flag of the United States.svg United States2012
Hamamatsu Flag of Shizuoka Prefecture.svg  Shizuoka Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan2012
Lugano Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg  Ticino Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland2012 [104]
Dnipro Flag of Dnipropetrovsk Oblast.svg  Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine2013
El Calafate Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Cruz.svg  Santa Cruz Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina2013
Split Flag of Split-Dalmatia County.svg Split-Dalmatia County Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia2014
Queenstown Flag of Otago.svg  Otago Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand2015 [105]
Maribor Flag placeholder.svg City Municipality of Maribor Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia2017 [106]
Heidelberg Flag of Baden-Wurttemberg.svg  Baden-Württemberg Flag of Germany.svg Germany2018 [107]
Kota Kinabalu Flag of Sabah.svg  Sabah Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia2019 [108] [109] [110]
Tallinn Flag of et-Harju maakond.svg Harju County Flag of Estonia.svg EstoniaUnknown
Middlesbrough North Yorkshire Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomUnknown

Ancient proverbs about Hangzhou

An ancient Chinese proverb about Hangzhou and Suzhou is:

Paradise above, Suzhou and Hangzhou below. (上有天堂,下有苏杭)

This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on Earth". Marco Polo in his accounts described Suzhou as "the city of the earth" while Hangzhou is "the city of heaven". [111] The city presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in the city in 2016. [112]

Another saying about Hangzhou is:

Be born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, die in Liuzhou. (生在苏州,活在杭州,吃在广州,死在柳州)

The meaning here lies in the fact that Suzhou was renowned for its beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens, Hangzhou for its scenery, Guangzhou for its food, and Liuzhou (of Guangxi) for its wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely made from the camphor tree).

Notable residents

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. For a discussion of the many sources and variant spellings of the names, see Moule. [35] The ultimate Chinese source of these names has been variously given as Jīngshī ( 京師 , "the Capital"); Xingzai, an abbreviated form of Xíngzàisuǒ ( 行在 , "the Place of Temporary Residence"), which had formerly been a byname for the Song capital from the hope that the court would eventually return north to Kaifeng; and Hangtsei, the Hangzhounese pronunciation of the town's name. [36]

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Zhejiang is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou, and other notable cities include Ningbo and Wenzhou. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west and Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lies the Ryukyu Islands. The population of Zhejiang stands at 64.6 million, the 8th highest among China. It has been called 'the backbone of China' due to being a major driving force in the Chinese economy and being the birthplace of several notable persons, including the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and entrepreneur Jack Ma. Zhejiang consists of 90 counties.

Hangzhou University A defunct university in Hangzhou, China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xiaoshan District</span> District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport</span> Airport serving Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hangzhou Metro</span> Metro system in Hangzhou, China

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Hangchow University A defunct university in Hangzhou

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Further reading

Preceded by Capital of China (as Lin'an)
1127–1279
Succeeded by
Dadu (present Beijing)