This article needs additional citations for verification .(June 2012)
|Coordinates(Zhenjiang government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Runzhou District|
|• Party Secretary||Yang Xingshi (杨省世)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,837.259 km2 (1,481.574 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,084.8 km2 (418.8 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,084.8 km2 (418.8 sq mi)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,114,105|
|• Density||810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-JS-11|
|GDP (2013)|| ¥405.0 billion|
|GDP per capita||¥127,107 ($19,208)|
|Major Nationalities|| Han - 99.43%|
|License Plate Prefix||苏L|
|Literal meaning||Guarding the River |
|Literal meaning||Capital pass|
|Literal meaning||Southern Xuzhou|
Zhenjiang,alternately romanized as Chinkiang, is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu Province, China. It lies on the southern bank of the Yangtze River near its intersection with the Grand Canal. It is opposite Yangzhou (to its north) and between Nanjing (to its west) and Changzhou (to its east). Zhenjiang was formerly the provincial capital of Jiangsu and remains as an important transportation hub. As of the 2010 census, its total population was 3,114,105 inhabitants whom 1,200,760 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of the 3 urban districts.The town is best known both in China and abroad for its fragrant black vinegar, a staple of Chinese cooking.
Prior to the adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the city's name was typically romanized as Chin-keang-foo, Chen-kiang-fu, or Chinkiang.
Former names include Jingkou and Runzhou.[ citation needed ]
A part of Zhenjiang was the possession of Ce, who was created the Marquess of Yi in the early Western Zhou. Then the region was renamed Zhufang and Guyang, supposedly.[ clarification needed ][ citation needed ] After it was captured by the First Emperor of the Qin in 221 BC, it became a county seat and was given the name Dantu. A Chinese legend holds that the site's fengshui was so advantageous that the First Emperor ordered 3000 prisoners to dig a tunnel through one of Zhenjiang's hills to dissipate its qi. It became a prefectural seat during the middle of the 3rd century BC.
The Sui took the city in AD 581 and made it an important garrison on the lower Yangtze, the source of its present name. In 595, it was made a commandery seat. Its importance grew with the construction of the Grand Canal, after which it served as the chief collection and transit center for the grain tax paid by the farmers of the Yangtze delta. The city flourished from the 10th to 13th centuries, when it produced fine silks, satins, and silverware for the Song emperors. The 11th-century scientist and statesman Shen Kuo composed his 1088 Dream Pool Essays during his retirement in a garden estate on the outskirts of the city. It was taken by the Mongolians during their 1275 campaign against the Song capital at Hangzhou. Under the Yuan, some Nestorian Christians were reported living in the city. The city fell to Xu Da on 17 March 1356. According to Odoric of Pordenone, Zhenjiang had a vast amount of shipping, more so than any other city in the world. The ships which worked the city were all painted white and doubled as businesses such as taverns or other gathering spots The Southern Ming placed the town under Zheng Zhifeng, brother of Zheng Zhilong and favorite uncle of Koxinga, although he was fooled into wasting most of his ammunition against a feint and abandoned the city to the Qing on 1 June 1645.
Under the Qing, Zhenjiang was a city of half a million surrounded by a series of brick city walls up to 35 feet (11 m) high. It was captured by the British on 21 July 1842 during the First Opium War and after a fierce resistance, leaving the path open to Nanjing and prompting a concessionary treaty to avoid its loss. A decade later, massive floods of the Yellow River altered its course north of Shandong and closed the northern path of the Grand Canal. Soon after, the town was sacked by the Taiping rebels in 1853. It was recaptured by the Qing in 1858 and opened as a treaty port in 1861. Into the 1870s, Chaozhou merchants used their connections in Zhenjiang to make it a regional distribution center for opium purchased from the foreign merchants in Shanghai; when David Sassoon attempted to avoid taxation by delivering his cargoes directly to the opium merchants in Zhenjiang, the Chinese organized to intimidate his customers and then bought out his failed organization. The population was estimated at 168,000 in 1904.
The southern part of the Grand Canal was obstructed in the early 20th century,[ citation needed ] although by that point the city was connected by rail to Shanghai and Nanjing. The Nationalist government revoked the British concession at Zhenjiang in 1929.
From 1928 to 1949, while Nanjing served as the capital of the Republic of China, Zhenjiang served as the provincial capital for Jiangsu. During World War II, the city fell to Japan's Shanghai Expeditionary Army in the morning of 8 December 1937, [ citation needed ] When the Communists won the Chinese Civil War and relocated the capital to Beijing, Nanjing resumed its role as Jiangsu's capital.shortly before the capture of Nanjing, but local resistance to the Japanese is still celebrated among the Chinese.
Zhenjiang is still one of China's busiest ports for domestic commerce, serving as a hub for trade among Jiangsu, Anhui, and Shanghai. The trade mostly consists of grain, cotton, oils, and lumber. The other main industries are mostly in the field of food processing and paper pulp manufacturing.
|Climate data for Zhenjiang proper (1981−2010 normals)|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.7|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||50.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||140.2||130.8||150.3||174.1||202.5||163.2||199.3||204.8||175.5||172.1||157.4||153.0||2,023.2|
|Source: 镇江概况 [ dead link ]|
The prefecture-level city of Zhenjiang administers 6 county-level divisions, including three districts and three county-level cities.
These are further divided into 77 township-level divisions, including 66 towns, 1 township and 10 subdistricts.
|Subdivision||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
|Jingkou District||京口区||Jīngkǒu Qū||601,671||343.69||1,750.62|
|Runzhou District||润州区||Rùnzhōu Qū||296,453||124.03||2,390.17|
|Dantu District||丹徒区||Dāntú Qū||302,276||617.08||489.85|
|Satellite cities (County-level cities)|
|Danyang City||丹阳市||Dānyáng Shì||960,418||1,047.24||917.09|
|Yangzhong City||扬中市||Yángzhōng Shì||334,886||327.35||1,023.02|
|Jurong City||句容市||Jùróng Shì||617,680||1,377.86||448.29|
As in Nanjing, Zhenjiang's old Wu dialects have been entirely supplanted by a dialect of Eastern Mandarin. It is incomprehensible to the residents of neighboring Changzhou, whose dialect remains a form of Taihu Wu.
Zhenjiang is most famous for its fragrant black vinegar. Chinese legend traces it to Heita, the son of Dukang, the supposed inventor of alcoholic beverages. Having forgotten about a vat of wine for 21 days, he found it had spoiled but now possessed a pleasant sour taste that could be used to complement foods.The present recipe is said to date back 1400 years, with its major modern manufacturer—the Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co.—dating to 1840.
Other local specialties include crab cream bun,[ clarification needed ] Chinkiang pork (鎭江肴肉, akin to head cheese), and pickled vegetables.[ citation needed ] Formerly, households in Zhenjiang would prepare for the new year by eating a red-bean dish and avoiding rice. One bowl of beans was left on the table to feed the home's flies, from the belief that they would then avoid disturbing the family during the new year festivities.
A natural spring in a park on the edge of Zhenjiang has been famed since the Tang (7th–9th century) as the best in Jiangsu for making tea. It is now marketed as the "First Spring under Heaven".
The hilly scenery in Zhenjiang's southern suburbs was considered beautiful enough to be the theme of many landscapes by Chinese painters.[ citation needed ] The 15th-century Japanese ink-wash master Sesshū Tōyō studied in Zhenjiang.
The local Jinshan temple appears in the tale of Madame White Snake and inspired a replica in the Kangxi Emperor's garden at Chengde.
Zhenjiang is located in the convenient Yangtze River Delta transport corridor, at the crossroads of the Grand Canal and the Yangtze, and between the Shanghai and Nanjing economic regions. The Port of Zhenjiang is the third largest port on the Yangtze. The city has two Yangtze River crossings. The Runyang Yangtze River Bridge complex, which has one of the longest suspension bridge spans in the world, connects to Yangzhou. The Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, connects Yongzhong with Taizhou.
Zhenjiang has been connected by rail since 1906, at the completion of the Nanjing-Shanghai Railway. The railway was extended to Beijing after the completion of the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge in 1968, connecting Zhenjiang to China's political and commercial hubs. The primary railway station was Zhenjiang West Railway Station, which was demolished in 2004 due to congestion it caused in the city center. Since then Zhenjiang Railway Station has served as the city's principal railway station.
Since April 2010, Zhenjiang has been on the route of the Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Rail, the first high-speed rail with a design speed of over 300 km/h (186 mph) to serve the city. In 2011, the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway was completed. Trains on the line stop at Zhenjiang South Railway Station. The two high-speed lines have reduced travel time between Zhenjiang and Shanghai to under an hour, and travel time to Beijing to under five hours. Rail service to Shanghai is frequent - averaging one train in less than half an hour.
Zhenjiang does not have a commercial airport within its city limits, although there is a military airfield, Zhenjiang Dalu Airport (镇江大路机场), which may open to regional flights in the future. Zhenjiang city center is 62 km (39 mi) away from Changzhou Benniu Airport, about a one-hour drive (80 km or 50 mi) away from Nanjing Lukou International Airport via Nanjing Provincial Highway 243, and approximately a two-hour (143 km or 89 mi) drive away from Sunan Shuofang International Airport. Check-in facilities are available for Lukou Airport in the New Zhenjiang Bus Station (镇江汽车新站).
Zhenjiang is on the route of Beijing-Shanghai Expressway, and China National Highway 312.
As of 2014 [update] , Zhenjiang had an extensive number of bus routes - numbering nearly one hundred. Since 2012 the city's entire fleet of city buses are equipped with GPS and are managed centrally through a "smart transport network system."
Zhenjiang Export Processing Zone was approved by the State Council on March 10, 2003 with a total planned area of 2.53 square kilometres (0.98 square miles). The first-phrase project completed in December 2003 covers 0.91 square kilometres (0.35 square miles) and was certified by the Customs General Administration and other seven ministries for operation on Dec.24, 2003. Zhenjiang Export Processing Zone is located close to Changzhou Airport and Zhenjiang Port.
Public institutions having full-time Bachelor's degree programs include Jiangsu University (江苏大学) and the Jiangsu University of Science and Technology (江苏科技大学). Zhenjiang is home to the Silkworm Raising Research Institute of the Academy of Agricultural Science of China. The Shaozong Library includes a 100-volume collection of sayings and proverbs dating from the 7th to 11th centuries.
Senior high schools are Jiangsu Provincial Zhenjiang No. 1 High School (江苏省镇江第一中学), the Zhenjiang High School of Jiangsu Province (江苏省镇江中学) and the Jiangsu Provincial Dagang High School (江苏省大港中学).
Nanjing, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region. With 11 districts, Nanjing, which is located in southwestern Jiangsu, has an administrative area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 9,314,685 as of 2020.
Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.
Suzhou, alternately romanized as Soochow, is a major city in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, its city center being 100 km (62 mi) west of that of Shanghai – and outer suburbs of the two global hubs meet. It is a major economic center and focal point of trade and commerce, and Jiangsu's second-largest, surpassed by its capital Nanjing. The city's north waterfront is on a lower reach of the Yangtze whereas it has its more focal south-western waterfront on Lake Tai – crossed by several waterways, its district belongs to the Yangtze River Delta region. Administratively, Suzhou is a prefecture-level city with a population of 4.33 million in the city proper, and a total resident population of 10.58 million in its administrative area. Its urban population grew at an unprecedented rate of 6.5% between 2000 and 2014, which is the highest among cities with more than 5 million people.
Wuxi is a city in southern Jiangsu province, eastern China, 135 kilometers (84 mi) by car to the northwest of downtown Shanghai, between Changzhou and Suzhou. In 2017 it had a population of 3,542,319, with 6,553,000 living in the entire prefecture-level city area. By the end of 2019, the city's registered population was 5.0283 million.
Yangzhou, postal romanization Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province (Suzhong), East China. Sitting on the north bank of the Yangtze, it borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the southwest, Huai'an to the north, Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang across the river to the south. Its population was 4,414,681 at the 2010 census and its urban area is home to 2,146,980 inhabitants, including three urban districts, currently in the agglomeration.
Nantong is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Jiangsu province, China. Located on the northern bank of the Yangtze River, near the river mouth. Nantong is a vital river port bordering Yancheng to the north, Taizhou to the west, Suzhou, Wuxi and Shanghai to the south across the river, and the East China Sea to the east. Its population was 7,282,835 as of the 2010 census, 3,180,924 of whom lived in the built-up area made up of three urban districts plus Haimen City largely being conurbated.
Jiangnan or Jiang Nan is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta. The region encompasses the city of Shanghai, the southern part of Jiangsu Province, the southeastern part of Anhui Province, the northern part of Jiangxi Province and the northern part of Zhejiang Province. The most important cities in the area include Anqing, Changzhou, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Wenzhou, and Zhenjiang.
The Yangtze Delta or Yangtze River Delta is a triangle-shaped megalopolis generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. The area lies in the heart of the Jiangnan region, where the Yangtze River drains into the East China Sea. Having fertile soil, the Yangtze Delta abundantly produces grain, cotton, hemp and tea. In 2018, the Yangtze Delta had a GDP of approximately US$2.2 trillion, about the same size as Italy.
Changzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province, China. It was previously known as Yanling, Lanling and Jinling. Located on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Changzhou borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the west, Zhenjiang to the northwest, Wuxi to the east, and the province of Zhejiang to the south. Changzhou is located in the highly developed Yangtze Delta region of China extending from Shanghai going northwest. The population of Changzhou city was 4,592,431 at the 2010 census.
Kunshan is a county-level city in southeastern Jiangsu province with Shanghai bordering its eastern border and Suzhou on its western boundary. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Suzhou.
Tàizhōu is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province in eastern China. Situated on the north bank of the Yangtze River, it borders Nantong to the east, Yancheng to the north and Yangzhou to the west.
The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Because Jiangsu and Anhui were previously part of a single province, Jiangnan, they were thus known, along with Jiangxi, as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang".
Jingjiang is a county-level city under the administration of Taizhou, Jiangsu province, China. It is located on the northern (left) bank of the Yangtze River, and is the southernmost part of Taizhou City, bordering Nantong to the northeast, Suzhou to the southeast, Wuxi to the south, Changzhou to the southwest, and Zhenjiang to the west. The area of Jingjiang is 655.6 square kilometres and the population was 684,360 at the 2010 census.
Zhenjiang South railway station is a high-speed railway station in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. It is on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway. Zhenjiang also has Zhenjiang railway station, on the slower Beijing–Shanghai railway and Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway lines.
The Shanghai–Nanjing intercity high-speed railway or Huning intercity high-speed railway is a 301-kilometer (187 mi)-long high-speed rail line between Shanghai and Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province. Hù and Níng are shorthand Chinese names for Shanghai and Nanjing, respectively. The Huning intercity high-speed railway largely follows the route of the preexisting Nanjing-Shanghai section of the conventional Beijing–Shanghai railway and the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway. Construction of this high-speed railway began in July 2008. The line went into test operations in early April 2010, and opened for full service on July 1, 2010. The line has a design speed of 350 km/h (217 mph). The journey time between the two cities has been shortened from 120 minutes to 73 minutes on nonstop trains. According to the arrangements of related departments, 120 pairs of trains are operating on the line, and the time interval between services is 5 minutes at the shortest.
Suzhou High School, officially the Suzhou High School of Jiangsu Province, is a Chinese public high school of one-millennium rich history, located in Suzhou, Jiangsu. In AD 1035, the Northern Song politician and writer Fan Zhongyan founded the predecessor of Suzhou High school, Suzhou Prefecture School (苏州府学).
Jiangpu Senior High School is a Chinese Senior High School based in Nanjing, China.
The Port of Zhenjiang is a natural inland river port located on Zhengjiang Prefectural Level city, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. It is one of the succession of large shipping hubs lining the estuary and lower course of the Yangtze. The Port had a throughput of 140,984,000 tonnes of total cargo in 2013, an increase of 4.7%
Jiangnan is a former province of China whose capital was Jiangning, which covered the land from north of the Huai River to south of the Yangtze River in East China. The province existed during early Qing dynasty and was divided into the provinces of Jiangsu and Anhui during the era of the Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722) and Qianlong Emperor (1736–1795) and ceased to exist since then.
Han Liming is a Chinese female politician who has been communist party secretary of Nanjing, the top political position in the city, since June 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zhenjiang .|