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Chengtu, Ch'eng-tu
Chengdu montage.png
Logo of Chengdu
Hibiscus City, Brocade City, Turtle City [1]
Sichuan subdivisions - Chengdu.svg
Location of Chengdu City jurisdiction in Sichuan
China Sichuan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of the city center in Sichuan
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Chengdu (China)
Coordinates(Tianfu Square): 30°39′25″N104°03′58″E / 30.657°N 104.066°E / 30.657; 104.066 Coordinates: 30°39′25″N104°03′58″E / 30.657°N 104.066°E / 30.657; 104.066
Country People's Republic of China
Province Sichuan
Established311 BC
Municipal seat Wuhou District
 - County-level

10 districts, 5 county-level cities, 5 counties
  Type Sub-provincial city
   CPC Party Chief Fan Ruiping
   Mayor Luo Qiang
   Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 14,378.18 km2 (5,551.45 sq mi)
 (2018) [2]
1,761 km2 (680 sq mi)
4,558.4 km2 (1,760.0 sq mi)
  Downtown465.88 km2 (179.88 sq mi)
500 m (1,600 ft)
Highest elevation
5,364 m (17,598 ft)
Lowest elevation
378 m (1,240 ft)
   Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 14,427,500 [3]
  Density1,003/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
 (2018) [2]
  Urban density6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
18.1 million [4]
  Major Nationalities
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code(s) (0)28
ISO 3166 code CN-SC-01
GDP (nominal) Total (2018) ¥ 1.534 trillion (US$ 231.8 billion) [5]
GDP (nominal) Per Capita (2017) ¥ 98,011 (US$ 14,534) [6]
License Plate Prefix 川A and 川G
Tree Ginkgo biloba
Flower Hibiscus mutabilis
Chengdu (Chinese characters).svg
"Chéngdū" in Chinese characters
Chinese 成都
Hanyu Pinyin Chéngdū
Cen2-du1 ( [tsʰən˨˩tu˥] )
Postal Chengtu
Literal meaning"Become a Capital" or "Established Capital"
Former name
Chinese 西京
Literal meaningWestern Capital
City of the Turtle
Traditional Chinese 龜城
Simplified Chinese 龟城
Hanyu Pinyin Guīchéng
Literal meaningTurtle City
City of the Brocade Official
Traditional Chinese 錦官城
Simplified Chinese 锦官城
Hanyu Pinyin Jǐnguānchéng
Literal meaningThe Brocade Official City
City of Brocade
Traditional Chinese 錦城
Simplified Chinese 锦城
Hanyu Pinyin Jǐnchéng
Literal meaningBrocade City
City of Hibiscus
Chinese 蓉城
Hanyu Pinyin Róngchéng
Literal meaningHibiscus City

Chengdu (Chinese: 成都; Sichuanese: Cengtu UK: /ˌtʃɛŋˈd/ , US: /ˌtʃʌŋ-/ , [7] [8] [9] Standard Mandarin: [ʈʂʰə̌ŋ.tú] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan. It is one of the three most-populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an. As of 2014, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, the largest in Sichuan, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the fifth-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification, according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. [10]

British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is globally considered to be one of the most influential dialects in the world; more so than any other dialect of English.

Chinese postal romanization system of romanization of Chinese place names

Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office of China in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s, when it was largely replaced by Hanyu Pinyin.


Chengdu is located in central Sichuan. The surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" (Chinese: ; pinyin:Tiānfǔ zhi Guó) and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. The site of Dujiangyan, an ancient irrigation system, is designated as a World Heritage Site. The Jin River flows through the city.

The Chengdu Plain (Chinese: 成都平原; Pinyin: Chéngdū Píngyuán), known as Cuanxi Bazi (Chinese: 川西坝子; Sichuanese Pinyin: Cuan1xi1 Ba4zi3) in Sichuanese, is an alluvial plain located in the western part of the Sichuan Basin in southwestern China. Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan, is located on it.

Sanxingdui Ancient culture in China

Sanxingdui is the name of an archaeological site and a major Bronze Age culture in modern Guanghan, Sichuan, China. Largely discovered in 1986, following a preliminary finding in 1929, archaeologists excavated remarkable artifacts that radiocarbon dating placed in the 12th–11th centuries BCE. The type site for the Sanxingdui culture that produced these artifacts, archeologists have identified the locale with the ancient kingdom of Shu. The artifacts are displayed in the Sanxingdui Museum located near the city of Guanghan.

Dujiangyan irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China

The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China. Originally constructed around 256 BC by the State of Qin as an irrigation and flood control project, it is still in use today. The system's infrastructure develops on the Min River (Minjiang), the longest tributary of the Yangtze. The area is in the west part of the Chengdu Plain, between the Sichuan basin and the Tibetan plateau. Originally, the Min would rush down from the Min Mountains and slow down abruptly after reaching the Chengdu Plain, filling the watercourse with silt, thus making the nearby areas extremely prone to floods. Li Bing, then governor of Shu for the state of Qin, and his son headed the construction of the Dujiangyan, which harnessed the river using a new method of channeling and dividing the water rather than simply damming it. The water management scheme is still in use today to irrigate over 5,300 square kilometres (2,000 sq mi) of land in the region. The Dujiangyan, the Zhengguo Canal in Shaanxi and the Lingqu Canal in Guangxi are collectively known as the "three great hydraulic engineering projects of the Qin."

Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name mostly unchanged throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras. It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. [11] During World War II, refugees from eastern China fleeing from the Japanese settled in Chengdu. After the war, Chengdu's importance as a link between Eastern and Western China expanded, with railways built to Chongqing in 1952, and Kunming and Tibet afterwards. [11] In the 1960s, Chengdu became an important centre of China's national defense industry.

Ancient Chinese states historical state within China prior to Chinas unification in 221 BCE

Ancient Chinese States were typified by variously sized city states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BCE. In many cases these were vassal states characterized by tribute paid to the ruling Zhou dynasty. Such states and fiefdoms would again emerge during later dynasties as a political expedient when required.

History of China Account of past events in the Chinese civilisation

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.

Liu Bei Shu Han emperor

Liu Bei, courtesy name Xuande, was a warlord in the late Eastern Han dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler. Despite early failings compared to his rivals and lacking both the material resources and social status they commanded, he gathered support among disheartened Han loyalists who opposed Cao Cao, the warlord who controlled the Han central government and the figurehead Emperor Xian, and led a popular movement to restore the Han dynasty through this support. Liu Bei overcame his many defeats to carve out his own realm, which at its peak spanned present-day Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunan, and parts of Hubei and Gansu.

Chengdu is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, and communication centers in Western China. Its economy is diverse, characterized by the machinery, automobile, medicine, food, and information technology industries. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines, is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, and the Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu also hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates; more than 270 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu. [12] Chengdu is the seat of the Western Theatre Command region of the People's Liberation Army. [13] Chengdu will host the Summer Universiade in 2021, an international multi-sport event. It is considered one of the most livable cities in China. [14] [15]

Western China geographical and cultural region in China

Western China is the west of China. In the definition of the Chinese government, Western China covers one municipality: Chongqing; six provinces: Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai; and three autonomous regions: Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang.

Machine industry industry that produces and maintains machines

The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, and most other companies in the economy.

Automotive industry Organizations involved with motor vehicles

The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

Chengdu's culture largely reflects that of its province, Sichuan; in 2011, it was recognized by UNESCO as a city of gastronomy. [16] It is associated with the giant panda, a Chinese national symbol, which inhabits the area of Sichuan; the city is home to the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding.

UNESCO Specialised agency of the United Nations

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris, France. Its declared purpose is to contribute to promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

Giant panda species of mammal

The giant panda, also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China. It is easily recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the red panda. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda is a folivore, with bamboo shoots and leaves making up more than 99% of its diet. Giant pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food.

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding non-profit research and breeding facility

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, or simply Chengdu Panda Base, is a non-profit research and breeding facility for giant pandas and other rare animals. It is located in Chengdu, Sichuan, China.


The name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras, [17] although it also had other names, for example it was briefly known as Xijing in the 17th century. [18] The Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, and three to become a metropolis". [lower-alpha 1] [19] (The character for cheng may mean "turned into" while du can mean either a metropolis or a capital.) There are, however, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters.[ citation needed ]

Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign country that existed between 1912 and 1949 based in Mainland China, which is now controlled by the People's Republic of China. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era.

History of the Peoples Republic of China aspect of history

The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen. The PRC has for seven decades been synonymous with China, but it is only the most recent political entity to govern mainland China, preceded by the Republic of China (ROC) and thousands of years of imperial dynasties. The paramount leaders have been Mao Zedong (1949-1976), Hua Guofeng (1976-1978), Deng Xiaoping (1978-1989), Jiang Zemin (1989-2002), Hu Jintao (2002-2012) and Xi Jinping. They took China from a traditional peasant society with unrelenting poverty and frequent deadly famines to the world second-largest and fastest growing economy with a specialty in high productivity factories and leadership in some areas of high technology. After support from the USSR in the 1950s the two nations became bitter enemies on a worldwide basis until communism collapsed in the USSR in 1991. Communism remains the official ideology, with the party in full control, but with a new large middle class and hundreds of very rich entrepreneurs in the 21st century. The new wealth and technology led to a contest for primacy in Asian affairs versus India, Japan and the United States, and after 2017 a growing trade war with the U.S.

Song dynasty Chinese historical period

The Song dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.

The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization; its Postal Map romanization was "Chengtu". Its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c. [20] [21] and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo. [22]

Although the official name of the city has remained (almost) constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou ( 益州 ). Chinese nicknames for the city include the Turtle City, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the Brocade City, a contraction of the earlier "City of the Brocade Official", after an imperial office established under the Western Han; the Hibiscus City, from the hibiscus which King Mengchang of the Later Shu ordered planted upon the city wall during the 10th century. [1] [23]

The city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird, an ancient artifact unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins. [24]


The archaeological site of Jinsha is a major discovery in Chengdu in 2001. Archaeological Site of Jinsha.jpg
The archaeological site of Jinsha is a major discovery in Chengdu in 2001.

Early history

Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago, in 18–10th century BC. At the time of China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu. [25] [26] In the early 4th century BC, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in 316 BC and the settlement re-founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. (A Chinese legend explains the town's nickname "Turtle City" by claiming Zhang planned the course of his city walls by following a turtle's tracks.) Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States which had succeeded the Zhou.

Imperial era

The Dujiangyan Irrigation System built in 256 BC still functions today. Dujiangyan.jpg
The Dujiangyan Irrigation System built in 256 BC still functions today.
Holding Shield and Holding Broom tomb doors, 1 of 2, China, unearthed from Lanjia Yard, Pixian County, Sichuan, Eastern Han dynasty, 25-220 AD, stone - Sichuan Provincial Museum - Chengdu, China - DSC04745.jpg
Holding Shield and Holding Broom tomb doors, 2 of 2, China, unearthed from Lanjia Yard, Pixian County, Sichuan, Eastern Han dynasty, 25-220 AD, stone - Sichuan Provincial Museum - Chengdu, China - DSC04747.jpg
Tomb doors from Pi County showing men in hanfu , one with a shield and the other a broom (1st or 2nd century).

Under the Han, the brocade produced in Chengdu became fashionable and was exported throughout China. A "Brocade Official" (錦官; jǐnguān) was established to oversee its quality and supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu. His minister Zhuge Liang called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu was considered the second most prosperous city in China after Yangzhou. [lower-alpha 2] Both Li Bai and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai praised it as "lying above the empyrean". The city's present Caotang ("Grass Hall") was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong ("Green Goat Temple") was built in the 9th century.

Chengdu was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han. The Later Shu was founded by Meng Zhixiang in 934, with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls.

The Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first widely used paper money in the world. Su Shi praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived kingdom known as Great Shu ( 大蜀 , Dàshǔ). The Mongols sacked Chengdu in 1279 with a general slaughter that Horner estimated at over a million. [27] During their Yuan dynasty, Marco Polo visited Chengdu [20] [28] and wrote about the Anshun Bridge or an earlier version of it. [lower-alpha 3]

At the fall of the Ming, the rebel Zhang Xianzhong established his Great Western Kingdom ( 大西 ) with its capital at Chengdu; it lasted only from 1643 to 1646. [18] Zhang was said to have massacred large number of people in Chengdu and throughout Sichuan. In any case, Chengdu was said to have become a virtual ghost town frequented by tigers [29] and the depopulation of Sichuan necessitated the resettlement of millions of people from other provinces during the Qing dynasty. Following the Columbian Exchange, the Chengdu Plain became one of China's principal sources of tobacco. Pi County was considered to have the highest quality in Sichuan, which was the center of the country's cigar and cigarette production, the rest of the country long continuing to consume snuff instead. [22]

Modern era

Huangchengba in 1911 Huangcenba of Chengdu.jpg
Huangchengba in 1911

In 1911, Chengdu's branch of the Railway Protection Movement helped trigger the Wuchang Uprising, which led to the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty. [30] [31]

During World War II, the capital city of China was forced to move inland from Nanjing to Wuhan in 1937 and from Wuhan to Chengdu, then from Chengdu to Chongqing in 1938, as the Kuomintang (KMT) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ultimately retreated to Sichuan to escape from the invading Japanese forces. They brought with them into Sichuan business people, workers, and academics who founded many of the industries and cultural institutions which continue to make Chengdu an important cultural and commercial production center.

Chengdu became a military center for the KMT to regroup in the War of Resistance. Chengdu was beyond the reach of the Imperial Japanese ground forces and escort fighter planes. However, the Japanese frequently flew in the then-highly advanced twin-engine long-ranged G3M "Nell" medium bombers to conduct massive aerial bombardments of both civilian and military targets in Chongqing and Chengdu. [32] The massed formation of the G3M bombers provided heavy firepower against Chinese fighter planes assigned to the defense of Chongqing and Chengdu, which continued to cause problems for the Japanese attacks. [33] [34]

However, in late 1940, unbeknownst to the Americans and European allies, the Imperial Japanese appeared in the skies over Chongqing and Chengdu with the world's most advanced fighter plane at the time: the A6M "Zero" fighter that dominated the skies over China against the increasingly obsolete Russian-made Polikarpov I-15/I-153s and I-16s that were the principal fighter planes of the Chinese Nationalist Air Force. This would later prove to be a rude awakening for the Allied forces in the Pacific War following the attack on Pearl Harbor. [35] One of the first American ace fighter pilots of the war and volunteer for the Chinese Nationalist Air Force, Major Wong Sun-shui (nicknamed "Buffalo" by his comrades) died as a result of battling the Zero fighters in defense of Chengdu on 14 March 1941. [36] [37]

40th Bombardment Group Boeing B-29-5-BW Superfortress 42-6281 "20th Century Unlimited" at Hsinching Airfield (A-1), China, advanced China Base of the 40th Bomb Group after completion of a raid on Anshan, Manchuria. Mission #4, 29 July 1944 40th Bombardment Group Boeing B-29-5-BW Superfortress 42-6281.jpg
40th Bombardment Group Boeing B-29-5-BW Superfortress 42-6281 "20th Century Unlimited" at Hsinching Airfield (A-1), China, advanced China Base of the 40th Bomb Group after completion of a raid on Anshan, Manchuria. Mission #4, 29 July 1944

In 1944, the American XX Bomber Command launched Operation Matterhorn, an ambitious plan to base B-29 Superfortresses in Chengdu and strategically bomb the Japanese Home Islands. [38] The operating base was located in Xinjin Airport in the southwestern part of the Chengdu metropolitan area. [39] [40] Because the operation required a massive airlift of fuel and supplies over the Himalayas, it was not a significant military success, but it did earn Chengdu the distinction of launching the first serious retaliation against the Japanese homeland. [41]

People's Liberation Army troops entered Chengdu on 27 December 1949 PLA Troops entered to Chengdu.jpg
People's Liberation Army troops entered Chengdu on 27 December 1949

During the Chinese Civil War, Chengdu was the last city on the Chinese mainland to be held by the Kuomintang. President Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo directed the defense of the city from Chengdu Central Military Academy until 1949, when the city fell into Communist hands. The People's Liberation Army took the city without any resistance after a deal was negotiated between the People's Liberation Army and the commander of the KMT Army guarding the city. On 10 December the remnants of the Nationalist Chinese government evacuated to Taiwan. [42] [43]

The industrial base is very broad, including light and heavy manufacturing, aluminum smelting and chemicals. The textile industry remains important, with cotton and wool milling added to the traditional manufacturing of silk brocade and satin.

Chengdu is the headquarters of the Chengdu Military Region. Until the end of the year 2015, due to the revocation of military reform in Chengdu, the West Theater is founded and headquarters was stationed in Chengdu.

The Chengdu Tianfu District Great City is a sustainable planned city that will be outside of Central Chengdu, and is expected to be completely built later in the decade.[ when? ] The city is also planned to be self-sustaining, with every residence being a two-minute walk from a park. [44]


The vast plain on which Chengdu is located has an elevation ranging from 450 to 720 metres (1,480 to 2,360 feet).

Northwest Chengdu is bordered by the high and steep Longmen Mountains in the north-west and in the west by the Qionglai Mountains, the elevation of which exceeds 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and includes Miao Jiling (5,364 m, 17,598 ft) and Xiling Snow Mountain (5,164 m, 16,942 ft). The western mountainous area is also home to a large primitive forest with abundant biological resources and a giant panda habitat. East of Chengdu stands the low Longquan Mountains and the west bordering area of the hilly land of middle reaches of Min River, an area noted by several converging rivers. Since ancient times, Chengdu has been known as "the Abundant Land" owing to its fertile soil, favorable climate, and novel Dujiangyan Irrigation System.

Chengdu is located at the western edge of the Sichuan Basin and sits on the Chengdu Plain; the dominating terrain is plains. The prefecture ranges in latitude from 30° 05' to 31° 26' N, while its longitude ranges from 102° 54' to 104° 53' E, stretching for 192 kilometres (119 mi) from east to west and 166 km (103 mi) south to north, administering 12,390 square kilometres (4,780 sq mi) of land. Neighbouring prefectures are Deyang (NE), Ziyang (SE), Meishan (S), Ya'an (SW), and the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (N). The urban area, with an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft), features a few rivers, three of them being the Jin, Fu, and Sha Rivers. Outside of the immediate urban area, the topography becomes more complex: to the east lies the Longquan Mountains (龙泉山脉) and the Penzhong Hills (盆中丘陵); to the west lie the Qionglai Mountains, which rise to 5,364 m (17,598 ft) in Dayi County. The lowest point in Chengdu Prefecture, at 378 m (1,240 ft), lies in the southeast in Jintang County.


Chengdu has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and is largely warm with high relative humidity all year. It has four distinct seasons, with moderate rainfall concentrated mainly in the warmer months, and relieved from both sweltering summers and freezing winters. The Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the far north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter; because of this, the short winter is milder than in the Lower Yangtze. The 24-hour daily mean temperature in January is 5.6 °C (42.1 °F), and snow is rare but there are a few periods of frost each winter. The summer is hot and humid, but not to the extent of the "Three Furnaces" cities of Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing, all which lie in the Yangtze basin. [45] The 24-hour daily mean temperature in July and August is around 25 °C (77 °F), with afternoon highs sometimes reaching 33 °C (91 °F); sustained heat as found in much of eastern China is rare. Rainfall is common year-round but is the greatest in July and August, with very little of it in the cooler months. Chengdu also has one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, with less sunshine annually than much of Northern Europe, and most days are overcast even if without rain. This is especially so in the winter months, when it is typically interminably grey and dreary, compounding the poor air quality. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 16 percent in December to 38 percent in August, the city receives 1,073 hours of bright sunshine annually. Spring (March–April) tends to be sunnier and warmer in the day than autumn (October–November). The annual mean is 16.27 °C (61.3 °F), and extremes have ranged from −4.6 °C (24 °F) to 37.5 °C (99.5 °F).

Administrative divisions

Chengdu is a sub-provincial city [47] which has served as the capital of Sichuan since Chongqing's restoration to provincial status in 1997. [48] It has direct jurisdiction over 11 districts, 5 county-level cities and 5 counties:

Administrative divisions of Chengdu
Division code [49] DivisionArea in km2Population 2010 [50] SeatPostal codeSubdivisions [51]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Residential communities Administrative villages
510100Chengdu14,378.1814,047,625 Wuhou 6100001122055515492735
510104 Jinjiang 60.24690,422 Shuyuan Subdistrict 61000016  117 
510105 Qingyang 65.89828,140 Xinhua West Road Subdistrict 61000014  76 
510106 Jinniu 107.031,200,776 Fuqin Subdistrict 61000015  109 
510107 Wuhou 123.441,083,806 Jiangxi Street Subdistrict 61000017  113 
510108 Chenghua 109.28938,785 Mengzhuiwan Subdistrict 61000014  101 
510112 Longquanyi 558.74767,203 Longquan Subdistrict 61010047(5)16576
510113 Qingbaijiang 392.41381,792 Hongyang Subdistrict 61030028(4)12794
510114 Xindu 480.65775,703 Xindu Subdistrict 610500310(10) 128127
510115 Wenjiang 276.91457,070 Liucheng Subdistrict 61110046(3) 7935
510116 Shuangliu 1,067.831,158,516 Dongsheng Subdistrict 610200718 153116
510117 Pidu 437.45756,047 Pitong Subdistrict 611700313 60139
510121 Jintang Co. 1,155.60717,225 Zhaozhen Subdistrict 610400118247185
510129 Dayi Co. 1,318.80502,198 Jinyuan Subdistrict 611300116366152
510131 Pujiang Co. 579.17239,562 Heshan Subdistrict 61160017425107
510132 Xinjin Co. 329.93302,199 Wujin Subdistrict 61140011012680
510181 Dujiangyan 1,207.98657,996 Guankou Subdistrict 611800513169197
510182 Pengzhou 1,419.38762,887 Tianpeng Town 611900119 102251
510183 Qionglai 1,384.44612,753 Linqiong Subdistrict 611500117662202
510184 Chongzhou 1,088.01661,120 Chongyang Subdistrict 611200118665188
510185 Jianyang 2,215.021,071,215 Jiancheng Subdistrict 6114004252949796


As of July 2013, the world's largest building in terms of floor area, the New Century Global Centre is located in the city. The 100-metre-tall (330 ft) structure is 500 by 400 metres (1,600 by 1,300 ft) in size with 1,700,000 square metres (18,000,000 sq ft) of floor area. The centre houses retail outlets, a 14-theater cinema, offices, hotels, a water park with artificial beach and waves and a Mediterranean-style village comprising a large 5-star hotel, a 164 yards (150 m)-long LED screen, a skating rink and a 15,000-spot parking area. [52]

Ancient fortress wall

The ancient fortress wall of Chengdu, 10 metres (33 ft) high and 11 km (6.8 mi) long, was built during the Qing Empire Era. Surrounding the city, the wall's bottom measures 10 m (33 ft) wide while the top measures 6 m (20 ft) wide, almost equivalent to the width of a street. 8,122 crenels, four octagons and four turrets were built on the wall.

Four gates were constructed on all sides of the wall, with hibiscus trees planted outside.


Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

According to the 2010 census, the municipality had 14,047,625 inhabitants, of whom 8,311,752 reside in the city, considered as 11 urban and suburban administrative districts. The built-up (or metro) area was home to 10,484,996 inhabitants including the 11 previous districts plus Guanghan City (in Deyang) and Xinjin County being urbanized quickly. [53]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 18.1 million. [54] [4]


Jinli historical district of Chengdu Jingli.jpeg
Jinli historical district of Chengdu

In 2006, China Daily named Chengdu China's 4th-most-livable city. [55]


Some of China's most important literature comes from Chengdu. The city has been home to literary giants, such as Sima Xiangru and Yang Xiong, two masters of Fu, a mixture of descriptive prose and verse during the Han dynasty; Li Bai and Su Shi, the most eminent poets of the Tang and Song dynasties respectively; Yang Shen'an, a famous scholar of the Ming dynasty; and Guo Moruo and Ba Jin, two well-known modern writers. Chang Qu, a historian of Chengdu during the Jin dynasty, compiled the earliest local historical records, the Record of Hua Yang State. Zhao Chongzuo, a poet in Chengdu during the Later Shu Kingdom, edited Among the Flowers, the first anthology of Ci in China's history. Meng Chang, the king of Later Shu, wrote the first couplet for the Spring Festival, which says, "A harvest year accepts celebrations, good festivals foreshadow long springs."

Fine art

During the period of the Five Dynasties, Huang Quan, a painter in Chengdu, initiated the Fine-Brush Flower-and-Bird Painting school with other painters. At that time, "Hanlin Painting Academy" was the earliest royal academy in China.


Chengdu contains official, [56] Roman Catholic [57] and Protestant congregations, some of which are underground churches.

15 October 1696: The Roman Catholic Church established as Apostolic Vicariate of Szechwan

In 1890, the Methodist Missions of Canada was searching for more stations in Asia. In February 1891, Dr. Virgil Hart, who had been Superintendent of the New York Methodist Mission Society of Central China recommended that Chengtu be its first Mission sight. During the meeting, it was proposed he lead this contingency; having built western hospitals, Boy's and Girl's schools at Missions he established on the Yangtze and Gan Rivers from 1866 – 1888. On 9 May 1891 Dr. Virgil Hart arrived in Chengtu and two weeks later bought a home and had it subdivided into living quarters and a dispensary, for the later arriving Missionary staff to move into.

On 24 June 1892, the doors of Chengtu's first Protestant Mission Headquarters were opened with over one thousand people of the community attending. The first Methodist religious service was held the following Sunday with only several attendants. The first western dispensary in Sichuan was opened 3 November 1892 with sixteen patients seeking care. The mission site became so popular that a larger space was secured near Chengtu's East Gate in the spring of 1893. This site is where the city's first Methodist church and hospital were built. These were later raized by rioting Chinese in 1895 and the Mission staff retreated to Chongqing and later Shanghai to escape the marauders. Dr. Virgil Hart traveled to Peking to demand redress and full payment of retribution was collected from Sichuan Viceroy Liu Ping Chang. The mission compound was quickly rebuilt only to be destroyed once more in the riots of 1901. These were rebuilt a third time and later missionaries would relocate and expand the Boys' and Girls' Schools just south of the city, dedicating the Divinity College as Hart College in 1914; a part of the West China Union University, that is now Sichuan University and the West China School of Medicine (Huaxiyida). [58]

The Methodist Church near the East Gate would be closed by the CCP and became a grain storage facility. It was reopened as a Methodist church in the mid-1980s.

In December 2018 the authorities attempted to close a 500-member underground church: "The Early Rain Covenant Church", led by Pastor Wang Yi. Over 100 members of the church were arrested including the pastor and his wife. The church's kindergarten and theological college were raided and the church's media outlets were closed down. Before his arrest, church member Li Yingqiang declared: "Even if we are down to our last five, worship and gatherings will still go on because our faith is real. […] Persecution is a price worth paying for the Lord". Police are said to have told one member that the church had been declared an illegal organisation. Chinese media were banned from reporting the events. Video footage which found its way onto western social media showed arrests and photographs alleged to be of injuries inflicted by the police. [59] [60] [60] [61] From a photo of Ms. Jiang's detention warrant it appears that the authorities have charged the church's leaders with "inciting subversion of state power", which carries a maximum sentence of 15 years. [62]


Wen Weng, administer of Chengdu during the Han dynasty, established the first local public school now named Shishi (literally a stone house) in the world. The school site has not changed for more than 2,000 years, which remains the site of today's Shishi High School. [63] No. 7 High School and Shude High School are also two famous local public school in Chengdu.


The saying "Shu opera towers above all other performances in the world" reflects the achievement of Sichuan opera and Zaju (an ancient form of comedic drama involving dancing, singing, poetry, and miming). In the city, the first named opera "Bullfighting" was written in the Warring States Period.[ clarification needed ] The first detailed recorded opera was staged in the royal court of Shu Kingdom during the Three Kingdom Period. China's first clearly recorded Zaju was also performed in Chengdu. Tombs of witty Han dynasty poets were excavated in Chengdu. And face-changing masks and fire breathing remain hallmarks of the Sichuan opera.


The native language in Chengdu is Sichuanese, otherwise referred as Sichuan dialect. More precisely, "Chengdu Dialect" (成都话/成都方言) is widely used in lieu of "Sichuanese" due to the largely different accents of Sichuanese speakers residing elsewhere.

Culinary art and tea culture

Teahouse in Chengdu Teehaus chengdu.jpg
Teahouse in Chengdu

The distinct characteristic of Sichuan cuisine is the use of spicy chilies and peppercorns. Local dishes include Mapo doufu, Chengdu Hot pot, and Dan Dan Mien. Mapo Doufu and Dan Dan Mien contain Sichuan peppers. An article [64] by the Los Angeles Times (2006) called Chengdu "China's party city" for its carefree lifestyle. Chengdu has more tea houses and bars than Shanghai despite having less than half the population. Chengdu's tea culture dates back over a thousand years, including its time as the starting point of the Southern Silk Road.

Common snacks in Chengdu include noodles, wontons, dumplings, pastries, tangyuan (sweet rice balls), drinks, salads and soups.

Chengdu is an officially recognised UNESCO City of Gastronomy. [65]


Tea houses are ubiquitous in the city and range from ornate traditional establishments with bamboo furniture to simple modern tea houses. Teas on offer include jasmine, longjing and biluochun tea. Tea houses are popular venues for playing mahjong. Some larger tea houses offer live entertainment such as Sichuan opera performances. [66]

Hot Pot

Hot pot is a traditional Sichuanese food, made by putting vegetables, fish, or meat into a specially-made spiced soup. Chengdu residents eat hot pot often, sometimes inviting friends to go with them to one of the many hot pot restaurants that are widely distributed throughout Chengdu. Hot pot is a typical part of Chengdu residents' daily diet.


Mahjong Ma Jiang .JPG

Mahjong has been an essential part of most local peoples' lives. After every day' s working, people gather their friends in their home or in the tea houses on the street to play Mahjong. On sunny days, local people like to play Mahjong on the sidewalks to enjoy the sunshine and also the time with friends. Almost every person aims to play Mahjong with money.

Mahjong is the most popular entertainment choice among locals for several reasons. Chengdu locals have simplified the rules and made it easier to play as compared to, Cantonese Mahjong. Also, Mahjong in Chengdu is a way to meet old friends and to strengthen family relationships. In fact, many business people negotiate deals while playing Mahjong. [67] Furthermore, the elderly like to play Mahjong because they believe Mahjong makes them think and prevents dementia.

Rural tourism: Nong Jia Le

Chengdu claims to have first practiced the modern business model of 'Nong Jia Le' (Happy Rural Homes). It refers to the practice of suburban and rural residents converting their houses into restaurants, hotels and entertainment spaces in order to attract city dwellers.

Nong Jia Le features different styles and price levels and have been thriving around Chengdu. They provide gateways for city dwellers to escape the city, offer delicious and affordable home-made dishes, and provide mahjong facilities.

Some of the most popular ones are located in Sansheng Village east of Chengdu, and Nongke Village in Pidu District (欧特美家), northwest of Chengdu.

Customs and festivals

Grand Temple Fair

Chengdu's annual Grand Temple Fair is held every year during the Spring Festival (Chinese New Year) in Wuhou Shrine, Jinli, the Culture Park, and several other city parks. The 15-day-long festival showcases both traditional Sichuan folk art and modern fashions of the city. Food stalls on site offer over 100 varieties of freshly made local snacks.

Lantern Festival

Chengdu's annual Lantern Festival is held every year during the Spring Festival in Tazishan Park in the eastern part of Chengdu. Lanterns of different designs and themes are on display with traditional art performances including Sichuan opera, acrobatics shows, and local talk shows.

Dujiangyan Water Releasing Festival

The Dujiangyan Water-Releasing Festival takes place on 5 April each year in Du Jiang Yan, 58 km (36 mi) away from Chengdu. Residents dress up in ancient costumes and read elegies for Li Bing and his sons, in order to honor them for their contribution to the irrigation project they built over 2,000 years ago.

Huanglongxi Fire Dragon Festival

Fire Dragon Festival of HuangLongXi is celebrated from the 2nd to the 15th day of the first lunar month of each new year.

The festival originated from South Song dynasty (1127–1279 AD). Celebrations include lighting paper dragons, a lion dance, floating lanterns on the water, and various street activities.

South China Snow and Ice Festival

The South China Snow and Ice Festival takes place from January to March at the Xiling Snow Mountain Ski Resort, 95 kilometres (59 miles) west of downtown Chengdu. The festival is popular among locals, especially children, since it rarely snows in Chengdu and people relish the sight of snow. A large variety of snow activities are offered during the festival.

Home of the giant panda

Pandas at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding PandaChengdu.JPG
Pandas at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding

The giant panda, a Chinese national treasure, is one of the rarest animals in the world. The total number is estimated to be 1,500, including those living in the wild, 80 percent of which are in Sichuan Province.[ citation needed ]

A breeding center for giant pandas called Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding was founded in the north suburbs of Chengdu. It is the only one of its kind in the world that's located in a metropolitan area. In order to better protect wild giant pandas, Chengdu has established nature reserves in Dujiangyan City, Chongzhou City, and Dayi County. Sichuan Wolong Giant Panda Nature Reserve, the biggest of its kind in the world, is only 130 km (81 mi) outside Chengdu. After the Wenchuan earthquake, most of it was moved to Ya'an.

The western world came to know giant pandas only after a French missionary named David first encountered this species in Sichuan in 1869. [68] Now, the somewhat clumsy giant panda is a symbol representing the World Wildlife Fund. They are also a messenger of friendly communication between Chengdu and international cities. Currently, giant pandas are also reared in U.S.A, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Thailand as well as Mexico.

Chengdu has established the world-renowned breeding and research base for giant pandas, which attracts almost 100,000 visitors each year. Covering tens of hectares with bamboo groves and a native-like habitat, the base is the only one of its kind located in an urban area. A museum is open to the public throughout the year.

In 2008, after the release of the American animation movie Kung Fu Panda , DreamWorks CEO Jeffrey Katzenberg and other DreamWorks members visited the city of Chengdu. In addition to seeing live pandas, crew members learned about the local culture. Katzenberg has stated that Kung Fu Panda 2 incorporates many elements of Chengdu in the film. The film's landscape and architecture also found inspiration from those found at Mount Qingcheng, a renowned Taoist mountain. In an interview with Movieline, Berger stated that ‘we never really thought of this as a movie set in China for Americans; it's a movie set in a mythical, universalized China for everyone in the world'.[ citation needed ]

On 11 January 2012, six captive-bred pandas were released to a "semi-wild" environment in Dujiangyan, Chengdu. Scientists believe that success in the reintroduction project would potentially help save the endangered giant panda. Retired NBA basketball star and animal activist Yao Ming attended the ceremony.[ citation needed ]

Main sights

World natural and cultural heritage sites

Mount Qingcheng

Mount Qingcheng is amongst the most important centres of Taoism (Daoism) in China. It is situated in the suburbs of Dujiangyan City and connected to downtown Chengdu 70 km (43 mi) away by the Cheng-Guan Expressway.

With its peak 1,600 m (5,200 ft) above sea level, Mount Qingcheng enjoys a cool climate, but remains a lush green all year round and surrounded by hills and waterways. Mount Qingcheng's Fujian Temple, Tianshi Cave, and Shizu Hall are some of the existing more well-known Taoist holy sites. Shangqing Temple is noted for an evening phosphorescent glow locally referred to as "holy lights".

Dujiangyan Irrigation System

The Dujiangyan Irrigation System (58 km (36 mi) away from Chengdu proper) is the oldest existing irrigation project in the world with a history of over 2000 years diverting water without a dam to distribute water and filter sand with an inflow-quantity control. The system was built by Libing and his son. The irrigation system contains prevents floods and droughts throughout the Plain of Chengdu.

Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries

Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries Xiong Mao Ji Di 1.JPG
Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries

Covering a total of 9,245 km2 (3,570 sq mi) over 12 distinct counties and 4 cities, Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, lie on the transitional alp-canyon belt between the Sichuan Basin and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It is the largest remaining continuous habitat for giant pandas and home to more than 80 percent of the world's wild giant pandas. Globally speaking, it is also the most abundant temperate zone of greenery. The reserves of the habitat are 100–200 km (62–124 mi) away from Chengdu.

The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries are the most well-known of their kind in the world, with Wolong Nature Reserve, generally considered as the "homeland of pandas". It is a core habitat with unique natural conditions, complicated landforms, and a temperate climate with diverse wildlife. Siguniang Mountain, sometimes called the "Oriental Alpine" is approximately 230 km (140 mi) away from Chengdu, and is composed of four adjacent peaks of the Traversal Mountain Range. Among the four peaks, the fourth and highest stands 6,250 m (20,510 ft) above sea level, and is perpetually covered by snow.

Culture of poetry and the Three Kingdoms

Wuhou Shrine

Wuhou Shrine (Temple of Marquis Wu) is perhaps the most influential museum of Three Kingdoms relics in China. It was built in the Western Jin period (265–316) in the honor of Zhuge Liang, the famous military and political strategist who was Prime Minister of the Shu Han State during the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The Shrine highlights the Zhuge Liang Memorial Temple and the Hall of Liu Bei (founder of the Shu Han state), along with statues of other historical figures of Shu Han, as well as cultural relics like stone inscriptions and tablets. The Hui Mausoleum of Liu Bei represents a unique pattern of enshrining both the emperor and his subjects in the same temple, a rarity in China.

Du Fu thatched cottage

Du Fu was one of the most noted Tang dynasty poets; during the Lushan-Shi Siming Rebellion, he left Xi'an (then Chang'an) to take refuge in Chengdu. With the help from his friends, the thatched cottage was built along the Huanhua Stream in the west suburbs of Chengdu, where Du Fu spent four years of his life and produced more than 240 now-famous poems. During the Song dynasty, people started to construct gardens and halls on the site of his thatched cottage to honor his life and memory. Currently, a series of memorial buildings representing Du Fu's humble life stand on the river bank, along with a large collection of relics and various editions of his poems.

Ancient Shu civilization

Jinsha Ruins

The Jinsha Ruins are the first significant archeological discovery in China of the 21st century and were selected in 2006 as a "key conservation unit" of the nation. The Jinsha Relics Museum is located in the northwest of Chengdu, about 5 km (3.1 mi) from downtown. As a theme-park-style museum, it is for the protection, research, and display of Jinsha archaeological relics and findings. The museum covers 300,000 m2 (3,200,000 sq ft), and houses relics, exhibitions, and a conservation center. [69]

Golden Sun Bird

The Golden Sun Bird Jinsha sunbird golden foil.jpg
The Golden Sun Bird

The Golden Sun Bird was excavated by archaeologists from the Jinsha Ruins on 25 February 2001. In 2005, it was designated as the official logo of Chinese cultural heritage by the China National Relic Bureau.

The round, foil plaque dates back to the ancient Shu area in 210 BC and is 94.2 percent pure gold and extremely thin. It contains four birds flying around the perimeter, representing the four seasons and directions. The sun-shaped cutout in the center contains 12 sunlight beams, representing the 12 months of a year. The exquisite design is remarkable for a 3,000-year-old piece.

Sanxingdui Museum

Situated in the northeast of the state-protected Sanxingdui Site, Sanxingdui Museum is 40 km (25 mi) north of Chengdu, covering a total area of 7,000 square metres (75,000 square feet).

The main collection highlights the Ancient City of Chengdu, Shu State & its culture, while displaying thousands of valuable relics including earthenware, jade wares, bone objects, gold wares, and bronzes that have been unearthed from Shang dynasty sacrificial sites.

Buddhist and Taoist cultures

Chengdu Daci Monastery

Known as the "Nonpareil Monastery" in China, the Daci Monastery in downtown Chengdu was first built during the Wei and Jin dynasties, with its cultural height during the Tang and Song dynasties. Xuanzang, an eminent Tang dynasty monk, was initiated into monkhood and studied for several years here; during this time, he gave frequent sermons in Daci Monastery.

Wenshu Monastery Wen Shu Yuan 1.JPG
Wenshu Monastery

Wenshu Monastery

Also named Xinxiang Monastery, Wenshu Monastery is the best preserved Buddhist temple in Chengdu. Initially built during the Tang dynasty, it has a history dating back 1,300 years. Parts of Xuanzang's skull are held in consecration here (as a relic). The traditional home of scholar Li Wenjing is on the outskirts of the complex.

Baoguang Monastery

Located in Xindu District, Baoguang (meaning divine light) Monastery enjoys a long history and a rich collection of relics. It is believed that it was constructed during the East Han period and has appeared in written records since the Tang dynasty. It was destroyed during the Ming dynasty in the early 16th century. In 1607, the ninth year of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty, it was rebuilt.

Qingyang Taoist Temple Qing Yang Gong 1.JPG
Qingyang Taoist Temple

Qingyang Taoist Temple

Located in the western part of Chengdu, Qingyang Temple ('Green Goat Temple') is not only the largest and oldest Taoist temple in the city, but also the largest Taoist temple in Southwest China. The only existing copy of "Daozang Jiyao", a collection of classic Taoist scriptures, is preserved in the temple.

According to history, Qingyang Temple was the place where Lao Tzu preached his famous Dao De Jing to his disciple, Ying Xi.

The Wide and Narrow Lanes

The Wide and Narrow Lanes (Kuan Xiangzi and Zhai Xiangzi) were first built during the Qing dynasty for Manchu soldiers. The lanes remained residential until 2003 when the local government turned the area into a mixed-use strip of restaurants, teahouses, bars, avant-garde galleries, and residential houses.

Historic architecture has been well preserved in the Wide and Narrow lanes.

The night of Jin Li Jin Li 2.JPG
The night of Jin Li


Nearby Wuhou Shrine, Jinli is a popular commercial and dining area resembling the style of traditional architecture of western Sichuan. "Jinli" (锦里) is the name of an old street in Chengdu dating from the Han dynasty and means "making perfection more perfect".

The ancient Jinli Street was one of the oldest and the most commercialized streets in the history of the Shu state and was well known throughout the country during the Qin, Han and Three Kingdoms periods.

Many aspects of the urban life of Chengdu are present in the current-day Jinli area: teahouses, restaurants, bars, theatres, handicraft stores, local snack vendors, and specialty shops.

Huanglongxi Historic Town Huang Long Xi 3.JPG
Huanglongxi Historic Town

Huanglongxi Historic Town

Facing the Jinjiang River to the east and leaning against Muma Mountain to the north, the ancient town of Huanglongxi is approximately 40 km (25 mi) southeast of Chengdu. It was a large military stronghold for the ancient Shu Kingdom. The head of the Shu Han State in the Three Kingdoms period was seated in Huanglongxi, and for some time, the general government offices for Renshou, Pengshan, and Huayang counties were also located here.

The ancient town has preserved the Qing dynasty architectural style, as seen in the design of its streets, shops, and buildings.

Chunxi Road

Located in the center of downtown Chengdu, Chunxi Road (春熙路) is a trendy and bustling commercial strip with a long history. It was built in 1924 and was named after a part of the Tao Te Ching.

Today, it is one of the most well-known and popular fashion and shopping centers of Chengdu, lined with shopping malls, luxury brand stores, and boutique shops.

Anren Historic Town

Anren Historic Town is located 39 km (24 mi) west of Chengdu. It was the hometown of Liu Wencai, a Qing dynasty warlord, landowner and millionaire. His 27 historic mansions have been well preserved and turned into museums. Three old streets built during the Republic of China period are still being used today by residents. Museums in Anren have a rich collection of more of than 8 million pieces of relics and artifacts. A museum dedicated to the memorial of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake was built in 2010.

Luodai Historic Town

Luodai was built, like many historic structures in the area, during the period of the Three Kingdoms. According to legend, the Shu Han emperor Liu Shan dropped his jade belt into a well when he passed through this small town. Thus, the town was named 'lost belt' (落带). It later evolved into its current name 洛带 with the same pronunciation, but a different first character.

Luodai Historic Town is one of the five major Hakka settlements in China. Three or four hundred years ago, a group of Hakka people moved to Luodai from coastal cities. It has since grown into the largest community for Hakka people.

Du Fu Thatched Cottage

Chinese name 杜甫草堂,24 acre, at the western outskirts of Chengdu, adjacent to the Huanhua Xi (Flower Rinsing Creek). Key buildings in the Du Fu Cao Tang Park were constructed in the early 16th century during the Ming dynasty and extensively renovated in 1811 during the Qing dynasty.


Map of Chengdu showing infrastructures and land use, made by the CIA in 1989. Note that city mostly ends at what is today's second ring road. Chengdu 1989 CIA.jpg
Map of Chengdu showing infrastructures and land use, made by the CIA in 1989. Note that city mostly ends at what is today's second ring road.
Chunxi Road The entrance of Chunxi street Chengdu.jpg
Chunxi Road

China's state council has designated Chengdu as the country's western center of logistics, commerce, finance, science and technology, as well as a hub of transportation and communication. It is also an important base for manufacturing and agriculture.

According to the World Bank's 2007 survey report on global investment environments, Chengdu was declared "a benchmark city for investment environment in inland China". [70]

Also based on a research report undertaken by the Nobel economics laureate, Dr. Robert Mundell and the celebrated Chinese economist, Li Yining, published by the State Information Center in 2010, Chengdu has become an "engine" of the Western Development Program, a benchmark city for investment environment in inland China, and a major leader in new urbanization.

In 2010, 12 of the Fortune 500 companies, including ANZ Bank, Nippon Steel Corporation, and Electricité de France, have opened offices, branches, or operation centers in Chengdu, the largest number in recent years. Meanwhile, the Fortune 500 companies that have opened offices in Chengdu, including JP Morgan Chase, Henkel, and GE, increased their investment and upgraded the involvement of their branches in Chengdu. By the end of 2010, over 200 Fortune 500 companies had set up branches in Chengdu, ranking it first in terms of the number of Fortune 500 companies in Central and Western China. Of these, 149 are foreign enterprises and 40 are domestic companies.

According to the 2010 AmCham China White Paper on the State of American Business in China, Chengdu has become a top investment destination in China.

The main industries in Chengdu—including machinery, automobile, medicine, food, and information technology—are supported by numerous large-scale enterprises. In addition, an increasing number of high-tech enterprises from outside Chengdu have also settled down there.

Chengdu is becoming one of the favorite cities for investment in Central and Western China. [71] Among the world's 500 largest companies, 133 multinational enterprises have had subsidiaries or branch offices in Chengdu by October 2009. [71] These MNEs include Intel, Cisco, Sony and Toyota that have assembly and manufacturing bases, as well as Motorola, Ericsson, and Microsoft that have R&D centers in Chengdu., [71] The National Development and Reform Commission has formally approved Chengdu's proposed establishment of a national bio-industry base there. The government of Chengdu has recently unveiled a plan to create a 90-billion-CNY bio pharmaceutical sector by 2012. China's aviation industries have begun construction of a high-tech industrial park in the city that will feature space and aviation technology. The local government plans to attract overseas and domestic companies for service outsourcing and become a well-known service outsourcing base in China and worldwide.

Electronics and IT industries

Chengdu has long been established as a national base for the electronics and IT industries. The first telecom R&D centre was set up by an Indian company called Primetel in 1996 and since then the city has developed as the global centre for the telecom R&D industry. Chengdu's growth accelerated alongside the growth of the telecom services sector in India and China, which together account for over 70 percent of the world telecommunications market. Several key national electronics R&D institutes are located in Chengdu. Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted a variety of multinationals, at least 30 Fortune 500 companies and 12,000 domestic companies, including Intel, IBM, Cisco, Nokia, Motorola, SAP, Siemens, Canon, HP, Xerox, Microsoft, Tieto, NIIT, MediaTek, and Wipro, as well as domestic powerhouses such as Lenovo. [72] Dell plans to open its second major China operations center in 2011 in Chengdu as its center in Xiamen expands in 2010. [73]

Intel Capital acquired a strategic stake in Primetel, Chengdu's first foreign technology company in 2001. Intel's Chengdu factory, set up in 2005 is its second in China, after its Shanghai factory, and the first such large-scale foreign investment in the electronics industry in interior mainland China. Intel, the world's largest chipmaker, has invested US$525 million in two assembly and testing facilities in Chengdu. Following the footsteps of Intel, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC), the world's third largest foundry, set up an assembly and testing plant in Chengdu. Intel's rival AMD is likewise set to open an R&D center in this city.

In November 2006, IBM signed an agreement with the Chengdu High-Tech Zone to establish a Global Delivery Center, its fourth in China after Dalian, Shanghai and Shenzhen, within the Chengdu Tianfu Software Park. Scheduled to be operational by February 2007, this new center will provide multilingual application development and maintenance services to clients globally in English, Japanese and Chinese, and to the IBM Global Procurement Center, recently located to the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen. [74] On 23 March 2008, IBM announced at the "West China Excellent Enterprises CEO Forum" that the southwest working team of IBM Global Business Services is now formally stationed in Chengdu. On 28 May 2008, Zhou Weikun, president of IBM China disclosed that IBM Chengdu would increase its staff number from the present 600 to nearly 1,000 by the end of the year. [75] [76]

Over the past few years, Chengdu's economy has flourished rapidly. Chengdu is a major base for communication infrastructure, with one of China's nine top level postal centers and one of six national telecom exchanges hub.

In 2009, Chengdu hosted the World Cyber Games Grand Finals (11–15 November). It was the first time China hosted the world's largest computer and video game tournament. [77]

Financial industry

Chengdu is positioning itself to be a financial center for Western China and has attracted a large number of foreign financial institutions, including Citigroup, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, JPMorgan Chase, ANZ and MUFG Bank. In 1988, Dr. Joseph Fowler, a British professor of optoelectronics from Cambridge founded Scsi Capital, Asia's first venture capital firm focused on opportunities in the digital age, in Chengdu. Scsi currently manages an active portfolio in excess of CNY 300 billion and has operations in India, Israel, Singapore and USA. Scsi Capital is the world's largest private equity investor and fund of funds in the photovoltaic, compound semiconductor, multilayer cmos, ceramic packaging, display and advanced materials sector.

Historically, Chengdu has marked its name in the history of financial innovation. The world's first paper currency 'Jiao Zi' was seen in Chengdu in the year 1023, during the Song dynasty.

Now, Chengdu is not only the gateway of Western China for foreign financial institutions, but also a booming town for Chinese domestic financial firms. The Chinese monetary authority, People's Bank of China (China's central bank), set its southwest China headquarters in Chengdu City. In addition, almost all domestic banks and securities brokerage firms located their regional headquarters or branches in Chengdu. At the same time, the local financial firms of Chengdu are strengthening their presences nationally, notably, Huaxi Securities, Sinolink Securities and Bank of Chengdu. Moreover, on top of banks and brokerage firms, the flourish of local economy lured more and more financial service firms to the city to capitalise on the economic growth. Grant Thornton, KPMG, PWC and Ernst & Young are the four global accountants and business advisers with West China head offices in the city.

It is expected that by 2012, value-added financial services will make up 14 percent of the added-value service industry and 7 percent of the regional GDP. By 2015, those figures are expected to grow to 18 percent and 9 percent respectively.

Modern logistic industry

Because of its logistic infrastructure, professional network, and resources in science, technology, and communication, Chengdu has become home to 43 foreign-funded logistic enterprises, including UPS, TNT, DHL, and Maersk, as well as a number of well-known domestic logistic enterprises including COSCO, CSCL, SINOTRANS, CRE, Transfar Group, South Logistic Group, YCH, and STO. By 2012, the logistic industry in Chengdu will realize a value added of RMB 50 billion, with an average annual growth exceeding 18 percent. Ten new international direct flights will be in service; five railways for five-scheduled block container trains will be put into operation; and 50 large logistic enterprises are expected to have annual operation revenue exceeding RMB 100 million.

Modern business and trade

Chengdu is the largest trade center in western China with a market covering all of Sichuan province, exerting influence on a population of 250 million in six provinces, cities, and districts in western China. Chengdu ranks first among cities in western China in terms of the scale of foreign investment in commerce and trade. Out of the 40 World Top 250 retail enterprises based in China, 15 have opened branches in Chengdu. In downtown Chengdu, there are 71 department stores whose business area exceeds 10,000 sq. m, with the total business area reaching 2,600,000 sq. m. By 2012, total retail sales of consumer goods in Chengdu will exceed RMB 300 billion, up 18 percent annually on average; the total wholesales will exceed RMB 400 billion, with an annual increase of 25 percent. Total retail sales of the catering industry will exceed RMB 60 billion, up 20 percent annually; and the total exports and imports of Chengdu will be above US$35 billion, increasing 30 percent annually.

Convention and exhibition industry

Boasting the claim as "China’s Famous Exhibition City", Chengdu takes the lead in central and western China for its scale of convention economy. It has become one of the five largest convention and exhibition cities in China. In 2010, direct revenue from the convention and exhibition industry was RMB 3.2 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 26.9 percent. The growth reached a historical high.

More than 13.2 million people have come to Chengdu to participate in conventions and exhibitions from foreign countries and other parts of China. Numerous convention and exhibition companies have invested in Chengdu such as the UK-based Reed Exhibition, as well as domestic companies such as the Chinese European Art Center, Sanlian Exhibition, and Eastpo International Expo.

Software and service outsourcing industry

Chengdu is one of the first service outsourcing bases in China. More than 150,000 people in Chengdu are engaged in software-related work. Among the Top 10 service outsourcing enterprises in the world, Accenture, IBM, and Wipro are based in Chengdu. In addition, 20 international enterprises including Motorola, Ubi Soft Entertainment, and Agilent, have set up internal shared service centers or R&D centers in Chengdu. Maersk Global Document Processing Center and Logistic Processing Sub-center, DHL Chengdu Service Center, Financial Accounting Center for DHL China, and Siemens Global IT Operation Center will be put into operation. In 2010, offshore service outsourcing in Chengdu realized a registered contract value of US$336 million, 99 percent higher than the previous year.

New energy industry

Chengdu is the "National High-Tech Industry Base for New Energy Industry", as approved by the National Development and Reform Commission. Leading enterprises are operating in Chengdu and providing research and technology support such as Tianwei New Energy Holding Co., Ltd., Sichuan Sanzhou Special Steel Tube Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Tianma Bearing Co., Ltd., and key research institutions such as the Nuclear Power Institute of China, Southwestern Institute of Physics, Southwest Electric Power Design Institute.

In 2010, the new energy enterprises above realized 31.1 billion RMB in revenue from main operations, 43.2 percent more than the previous year. Chengdu ranked first again in the list of China's 15 "Cities with Highest Investment Value for New Energies" released at the beginning of 2011, and Shuangliu County under its jurisdiction entered "2010 China's Top 100 Counties of New Energies". By 2012, Chengdu's new energy industry will realize an investment over 20 billion RMB and sales revenue of 50 billion RMB.

Electronics and information industry

Chengdu is home to the most competitive IT industry cluster in western China, an important integrated circuit industry base in China, and one of the five major national software industry bases.

Manufacturing chains are already formed in integrated circuits, optoelectronics displays, digital video & audio, optical communication products, and original-equipment products of electronic terminals, represented by such companies as IBM, Intel, Texas Instruments, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Ericsson, Dell, Lenovo, Foxconn, Compal, Wistron, and others.

Automobile industry

Chengdu has built a comprehensive automobile industry system, and preliminarily formed a system integrated with trade, exhibitions, entertainment, R&D, and manufacturing of spare parts and whole vehicles (e.g., sedans, coaches, sport utility vehicles, trucks, special vehicles). There are whole vehicle makers, such as Dongfeng-PSA (Peugeot-Citroën), Volvo, FAW-Volkswagen, FAW-Toyota, Yema, and Sinotruk Wangpai, as well as nearly 200 core parts makers covering German, Japanese, and other lines of vehicles.

In 2011, Volvo announced that its first manufacturing base in China with an investment of RMB 5.4 billion was to be built in Chengdu. By 2015, the automobile production capacity of Chengdu's Comprehensive Function Zone of Automobile Industry is expected to reach 700,000 vehicles and 1.25 million in 2020.

Modern agriculture

Chengdu enjoys favorable agricultural conditions and rich natural resources. It is an important base for high-quality agricultural products. A national commercial grain and edible oil production base, the vegetable and food supply base as well as the key agricultural products processing center and the logistics distribution center of western China are located in Chengdu.

Defence industry

Located within the city limits is the Chengdu Aircraft Company which produces the recently declassified J-10 Vigorous Dragon combat aircraft as well as the JF-17 Thunder, in a joint collaborative effort with Pakistan Air Force. Chengdu Aircraft Company is also currently developing the J-20 Black Eagle stealth fighter. The company is one of the major manufacturers of Chinese Military aviation technology.


The Chengdu Statistics Bureau reports that the total investment in fixed assets in 2008 was 301.29 billion yuan (US$43.38 billion). Domestic investment was 180.52 billion yuan (US$26 billion), an increase of 23.5 percent from 2007. The total amount of foreign direct investment reached US$2.25 billion, an increase of 97.3 percent from 2007.

Industrial zones

Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone
Chengdu Export Processing Zone
Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Chengdu National Cross-Strait Technology Industry Development Park

This was established in 1992 as the Chengdu Taiwanese Investment Zone. [78]

Real estate

In 1988, The Implementation Plan for a Gradual Housing System Reform in Cities and Towns marked the beginning of overall housing reform in urban areas of China. More than 20 real estate companies set up in Chengdu, which was the first step for Chengdu's real estate development. The comprehensive Funan River renovation project in the 1990s had been another step towards promoting Chengdu environmental development. In 1992, Singapore capitals brought into Chengdu helped constructing Jinxiu Garden (锦绣花园), which was the first elite residential area. Its advertisement was "Driving Volkswagen, Living in Jinxiu Garden.". In 1992, the first real estate management service company set up in Chengdu.

Chengdu started the Five Main Roads & One Bridge project in 1997. Three of the roads supported the east part of the city, the other two led to the south. It established the foundation of the Eastern and Southern sub-centers of Chengdu. The two major sub-centers determined people's eastward and southward living trends. Large numbers of buildings appeared around the east and south of the 2nd Ring Road. The Shahe River renovation project together with Jin River project also set off a fashion for people living by the two rivers. It was said that the map of Chengdu should update every three months. [79]

In 2000, dozens of commercial real estate projects also appeared. [80] While promoting the real estate market, the Chinese government encouraged citizens to buy their own houses by providing considerable subsidies. Houses were included in commodities.

In 2013, Chengdu along with Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou were regarded as the Tier One Cities in terms of real estate market in mainland China.



Terminal 1, Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport Shuangliuairport1.jpg
Terminal 1, Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport

Chengdu is served by the Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport located in Shuangliu County 16 km (9.9 mi) southwest of downtown. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is the busiest airport in Central and Western China and the nation's 5th-busiest airport, with a total passenger traffic of 42.2 million in 2015[ citation needed ]. Shuangliu Airport is one of the two core hubs for Air China, together with Beijing, as well as the main hub and headquarters for Sichuan Airlines. Chengdu Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Lucky Air and Tibet Airlines also have bases at Shuangliu Airport.

Chengdu airport is also a 144-hour visa-free transit airport for foreigners from many countries (Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Brunei, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar).

The airport has two runways and is capable of landing the Airbus A-380, currently the largest passenger aircraft in operation. Chengdu is the fourth city in China with two commercial-use runways, after Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. On 26 May 2009, Air China, Chengdu City Government and Sichuan Airport Group signed an agreement to improve the infrastructure of the airport and increase the number of direct international flights to and from Chengdu. The objective is to increase passenger traffic to more than 40 million by 2015, making Chengdu Airport the fourth-largest international hub in China, after Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, top 30 largest airports in the world. [81] [82] Chengdu has already begun building a second international airport, the Chengdu Tianfu International Airport, which will have six runways and a capacity to handle between 80 and 90 million passengers per year.


Chengdu is the primary railway hub city and rail administrative center in southwestern China. The Chengdu Railway Bureau manages the railway system of Sichuan Province, Chongqing City, Guizhou Province and Yunnan Province. Chengdu has four main freight railway stations. Among them, the Chengdu North Marshalling Station is one of the largest marshalling stations in Asia. [83] Since April 2013, companies are able to ship goods three times a week (initially only once a week) [84] to Europe on trains originating from Chengdu Qingbaijiang Station bound for Łódź, Poland. It is the first express cargo train linking China and Europe, taking 12 days to complete the full journey.

There are three major passenger stations servicing Chengdu: Chengdu Railway Station (commonly referred to as the "North Station"), Chengdu South Railway Station (ChengduNan) and Chengdu East Railway Station (ChengduDong). In addition, Chengdu West Railway Station is scheduled to open by 2030. [85]

Chengdu is the terminus of the Baoji-Chengdu railway, the Chengdu-Chongqing railway, the Chengdu-Kunming railway, the Chengdu-Dazhou railway, the Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu high-speed railway, the Chengdu-Lanzhou railway, the Xi'an-Chengdu high-speed railway, the Chengdu-Guiyang high-speed railway, and the Chengdu-Dujiangyan high-speed railway.

The Chengdu–Dujiangyan high-speed railway is a high-speed rail line connecting Chengdu with the satellite city of Dujiangyan and the Mountain Qingcheng World Heritage Site. The line is 65 km (40 mi) in length with 15 stations. CRH1 train sets on the line reach a maximum speed of 220 km/h (140 mph) and complete the full trip in 30 minutes. The line was built in 18 months and entered operation on 12 May 2010. [86]

Metropolitan expressways

Chengdu's transport network is well developed, and Chengdu serves as the starting point for many national highways, with major routes going from Sichuan–Shanxi, Sichuan–Tibet, and Sichuan–Yunnan.

Several major road projects have been constructed: a 15 km (9.3 mi) tunnel from Shuangliu Taiping to Jianyang Sancha Lake; alteration of the National Expressway 321, from Jiangyang to Longquanyi. There will also be a road that connects Longquan Town to Longquan Lake; it is connected to the Chengdu–Jianyang Expressway and hence shorten the journey by 10 km (6.2 mi). By the end of 2008, there are ten expressways, connecting the centre of Chengdu to its suburbs. The expressways are Chenglin Expressway, extensions of Guanghua Avenue, Shawan Line, and an expressway from Chengdu to Heilongtan.

The toll-free Chengjin Expressway in the east of Chengdu is 38.7 km (24.0 mi) long. After it opens to the public, it will take only about half an hour to drive from central Chengdu to Jintang, half the time of the current journey.

The expressway between Chengdu to Heilongtan (Chengdu section), going to the south of the city, is 42 km (26 mi) long. It is also toll-free and a journey from downtown Chengdu to Heilongtan will only take half an hour.

The extension of Guanghua Avenue, going towards the west of the city. It make the journey time from Chongzhou City to Sanhuan Road to less than half an hour.

The extension of Shawan Road going north is designed for travel at 60 km/h (37 mph). After it is connected to the expressways Pixian–Dujiangyan and Pixian–Pengzhou, it will take only 30 minutes to go from Chengdu to Pengzhou.


There are many major intercity bus stations in Chengdu, and they serve different destinations.

Chadianzi (茶店子): Hongyuan, Jiuzhaigou, Rilong Town, Ruo Ergai, Songpan County, Wolong and Langzhong

Xinnanmen (新南门: Daocheng, Emei Shan, Jiǔzhàigōu, Kangding, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Ya'an and Leshan

Wuguiqiao (五桂桥): Chongqing

Jinsha (金沙): Qionglai, Pi County and Huayang (华阳) Chengdu East railway Station


Chengdu Metro

Luomashi Station of the Chengdu Metro Luomashi Station of Chengdu Metro.jpg
Luomashi Station of the Chengdu Metro

The Chengdu Metro officially opened on 1 October 2010. [87] Line 1 runs from Shengxian Lake to Guangdu (south-north). Line 2 opened on September 2012. Line 3 opened on July 2016. Line 4 opened on December 2015. Line 10 connects to the international and the domestic airport. [88] There are currently over 350 km (220 mi) of subway lines under construction in Chengdu. [89] Future plans call for more than twenty lines.


Bus transit is the most important mode of public transport in Chengdu. There are more than 400 bus lines in Chengdu with nearly 12,000 buses in total. In addition, the Chengdu BRT offers services on the Second Ring Road Elevated Road. Bus cards are available that permit free bus changes for three hours.

Chengdu BRT Chengdu Bus Rapid Transit.jpg
Chengdu BRT

River transport

Historically, the Jin River was used for boat traffic in and out of Chengdu. However, due to the size of the river itself and the reduced water depth over time, the Brocade River is no longer capable of carrying any type of water traffic. Therefore, Chengdu has no direct access to the Yangtze River or any other larger river. However, to ensure that Chengdu's goods have access to the river efficiently, inland port cities of Yibin and Luzhou—both of which are reachable from Chengdu within hours by expressways—on the Yangtze have commenced large-scale port infrastructure development. As materials and equipment for the rebuilding of northern Sichuan are sent in from the East Coast to Sichuan, these ports will see significant increases in throughput.


Chengdu is home to the greatest number of universities and research institutes in Southwestern China. It has 49 colleges and universities, including University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Sichuan University, and Southwestern University of Finance and Economics. In 2010, over 140,000 students graduated from the colleges and universities, more than half of them majored in IT, finance, economics, business management, or foreign languages studies.

Colleges and universities

West China Medical Center of Sichuan University Scuhuaxi.jpg
West China Medical Center of Sichuan University

Chengdu is the center of higher education and scientific research in Southwest China.

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International schools

Major secondary schools


The United States Consulate General at Chengdu opened on 16 October 1985. It was the first foreign consulate in west-central China since 1949. Currently Fourteen countries have consulates in Chengdu. The United Kingdom also has a visa application center in Chengdu.

ConsulateyearConsular District
Flag of the United States.svg United States Consulate General Chengdu 1986Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou/Tibet AR
Flag of Germany.svg Germany Consulate General Chengdu 2003Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of South Korea.svg Republic of Korea Consulate General Chengdu 2004Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand Consulate General Chengdu 2004Sichuan/Chongqing
Flag of France.svg France Consulate General Chengdu 2005Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore Consulate General Chengdu 2006Sichuan/Chongqing/Shaanxi
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Consulate General Chengdu 2007Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia Consulate General Chengdu 2013Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka Consulate General Chengdu 2013Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Israel.svg Israel Consulate General Chengdu 2014Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand Consulate General Chengdu 2014Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Poland.svg Poland Consulate General Chengdu 2015Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Consulate General Chengdu 2015Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss Consulate General Chengdu 2017Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Flag of Austria.svg Austrian Consulate General Chengdu 2018Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou



Football is a popular sport in Chengdu. Chengdu Tiancheng, Chengdu's football team, played in the 42,000-seat Chengdu Sports Stadium in the Chinese League One. The club was founded on 26 February 1996 and was formerly known as Chengdu Wuniu (Five Bulls) named after their first sponsor, the Wuniu (Five Bulls) Cigarette Company. The English professional football club, Sheffield United F.C., took over the club on 11 December 2005. [92] The club was later promoted into the China Super League until they were embroiled in a match-fixing scandal in 2009. Punished with relegation the owners eventually sold their majority on 9 December 2010 to Hung Fu Enterprise Co., Ltd and Scarborough Development (China) Co., Ltd. [93] [94] On 23 May 2013 the Tiancheng Investment Group announced the acquisition of the club. [95]

Chengdu Longquanyi Football Stadium was one of the four venues which hosted the 2004 AFC Asian Cup. Chengdu, along with Shanghai, Hangzhou, Tianjin and Wuhan, hosted the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup.


Chengdu is the hometown of Grand Slam champions Zheng Jie and Yan Zi, who won the women's double championships at both the Australian Open and Wimbledon in 2006, and Li Na who won the 2011 French Open and 2014 Australian Open, has led to increased interest in tennis in Chengdu. Over 700 standard tennis courts have been built in the city in the past 10 years (2006–2016), and the registered membership for the Chengdu Tennis Association have grown to over 10,000 from the original 2,000 in the 1980s. [96]

Thanks to the boom the country has now 30,000 tennis courts and an estimated 14 million people in China regularly playing tennis, up from 1 million when the sport returned to the Olympics in 1988, according to the WTA Tour. The Chinese government is aiming to increase that by 15 percent every year. The nation's tennis market has reached $4 billion annually, according to Tom Cannon, a professor and sports finance expert at the University of Liverpool Management School in England.

The women's tour upgraded the China Open in Beijing to become the only combined event with the men's tour in Asia. Played at the Beijing Olympic Tennis Center with combined prize money of $6.6 million and a main stadium that holds 10,000 spectators, the China Open is now one of the WTA's top four tournaments. The ATP's other flagship tournament in Asia is the $8.1 million Shanghai Masters.

Chengdu is now part of an elite group of cities to host an ATP (Association of Tennis Professionals) Champions Tour tournament, along with London, Zürich, São Paulo and Delray Beach. Chengdu Open, an ATP Championships Tour starting in 2009, have successfully invited star players including Pete Sampras, Marat Safin, Carlos Moya, Tomas Enqvist, and Mark Philippoussis. [97]


Chengdu is represented in the Overwatch League by the Chengdu Hunters, the first major esports team to represent Chengdu. They play as part of the League's Pacific Division.

Multi-sport events

Chengdu will host the 2021 Summer Universiade, it will take place from 8–19 August 2021. The city will also host the 2025 World Games.

Major sports venues

The Chengdu Sports Centre is located in downtown Chengdu, covering 140 acres (57 ha) and has 42,000 seats. As one of the landmarks of Chengdu, it is the first large multi-purpose venue in Chengdu that can accommodate sports competitions, trainings, social activities, and performances. It is the home stadium of the Chengdu Blades, Chengdu's football team. The stadium hosted the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup.

The Sichuan International Tennis Center, located 16 km (10 mi) away from Chengdu's Shuangliu International Airport, covers an area of 250,000 square metres (2,700,000 square feet). It is the largest tennis center in southwest China and the fourth tennis center in China meeting ATP competition standards, after Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing. This center is equipped with 36 standard tennis courts and 11,000 seats. Since 2016, the Chengdu Open, an ATP Championship Tour tournament, is held here annually.

The Chengdu Goldenport Circuit is a motorsport racetrack that has hosted the A1 Grand Prix, Formula V6 Asia, China Formula 4 Championship and China GT Championship.

International Relations

See also


  1. Chinese :以周太王从梁王止岐山,一年而所居成聚,二年成邑,三年成都,因名之成都。
  2. traditional Chinese : ; simplified Chinese : ; literally: 'Yang[zhou] 1[st], Yi[zhou] 2[nd]'
  3. "Let us now speak of a great Bridge which crosses this River within the city. This bridge is of stone; it is seven paces in width and half a mile in length (the river being that much in width as I told you); and all along its length on either side there are columns of marble to bear the roof, for the bridge is roofed over from end to end with timber, and that all richly painted. And on this bridge there were houses in which a great deal of trade and industry is carried on. But these houses were all of wood merely, and they are put up in the morning and taken down in the evening. Also there stands upon the bridge the Great Kaan's _Comercque_, that is to say, his custom-house, where his toll and tax were levied." [21]

Related Research Articles

Sichuan Province

Sichuan is a landlocked province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 81 million.

Dujiangyan City County-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Dujiangyan is a county-level city of Sichuan Province, Southwest China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Chengdu. Its north-west region forms a border with southern Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture. It has an area of 1,208 km2 (466 sq mi) and had a population of 600,000 in 2003.

Sichuan Airlines Co., Ltd. is a Chinese airline based in Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, and is the largest airline in western China, operating mainly scheduled domestic and international flights out of Chengdu Shuangliu Airport, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport and Kunming Changshui International Airport.

Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport international airport in Sichuan, China

Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is the major international airport serving Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, China. Located about 16 kilometres (10 mi) southwest of downtown Chengdu to the north of Shuangliu District, Shuangliu airport is an important aviation hub for Western China. Shuangliu Airport is one of the two core hubs for Air China, together with Beijing, as well as the main hub and headquarters for Sichuan Airlines and Chengdu Airlines. China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Lucky Air and Tibet Airlines also have bases at Shuangliu Airport.

Chengdu Airlines Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Sichuan Airlines, is an airline headquartered in Chengdu, China. It operates a network of scheduled domestic passenger flights out of its hub at Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport. Chengdu Airlines is also the first user of ARJ21.

Shishi High School School in Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Shishi High School is a state secondary school in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. It stands on the site of the first Chinese public school, built in 143–141 BC by the Han dynasty governor Wén Wēng (文翁). It was originally constructed in stone, hence the name Shishi (石室), or stone chamber. The school is also known as Wenweng Shishi, the "Stone Chamber of Wen Weng".

Chengdu Metro

Chengdu Metro is the rapid transit system of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China. The system has six lines in operation. Line 1 was opened on 27 September 2010, making it the first heavy-rail metro line in southwest China. Line 2 began operations in September 2012. Line 4 opened to public at the end of December 2015, while Line 3 opened in July 2016. Metro lines are operated by Chengdu Rail Transit Group Company Limited. There are currently over 350 km (220 mi) of subway lines under construction in Chengdu. By 2020, the Chengdu Metro will have 13 lines reaching 508 km (316 mi) in length serving over 8 million trips per day.

Jinjiang District District in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Jinjiang District is one of 11 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. It is bordered by Longquanyi District to the east, Shuangliu County to the south, Wuhou District to the west, Qingyang District to the northwest, and Chenghua District to the north.

Jianyang, Sichuan County-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Jianyang is a county-level city of Sichuan Province, Southwest China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Chengdu. Situated only 48 kilometers south east of the city center of Chengdu, Jianyang is administratively under the jurisdiction of Chengdu from the prefecture-level city of Ziyang since May 2016. The urban center is located on the banks of the Tuo River.

Shifang County-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

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The Libing Square railway station is an underground railway station. The railway station is on the Lidui Branch Line of Chengdu–Dujiangyan Intercity Railway in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. This station has been fully built but no trains currently stop at Libing Square.

Chongqing–Lichuan railway railway line

The Chongqing–Lichuan railway, or the Yuli railway is a railway connecting central Chongqing with the Hubei city of Lichuan. The 244-km long railway, connecting Chongqing North railway station with the Lichuan Station on the Yiwan railway, is a section of the Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line, which extends to Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai.

Chengdu–Dujiangyan intercity railway railway line

The Chengdu–Dujiangyan intercity railway is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, higher-speed rail line in Sichuan Province, connecting the provincial capital, Chengdu with the satellite city of Dujiangyan. The line is 65 kilometres (40 mi) in length with 15 stations. China Railways CRH1 train set on the line reach a maximum speed of 220 kilometres per hour (140 mph) and make the full-trip in 30 minutes,before 2018. The line was built in 18 months and entered into operation on May 12, 2010. The railway is built to withstand an 8.0-magnitude earthquake. The Chengdu–Dujiangyan intercity railway has two branch lines : Pengzhou Branch line is 21.2 kilometres (13.2 mi) in length with 6 stations, and Lidui Branch line is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) in length with 3 stations. In 2019, China Railways CRH6A-A (Tianfu) train sets on the line started to operate up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph).

Chengdu-Chongqing dialect Variety of Mandarin Chinese

Chengdu-Chongqing dialect or Cheng–Yu is the most widely used branch of Southwestern Mandarin, with about 90 million speakers. It is named after Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan, and Chongqing, which was split from Sichuan in 1997. It is spoken mainly in northern and eastern Sichuan, the northeastern part of the Chengdu Plain, several cities or counties in southwestern Sichuan, southern Shaanxi and western Hubei.

Chengdu railway station railway station in Sichuan

Chengdu railway station is one of the 3 major railway stations in Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, the others being Chengdu South railway station and Chengdu East railway station.

Consulate General of the United States, Chengdu American consulate in Sichuan, China

The Consulate General of the United States, Chengdu is a diplomatic mission in Wuhou District, Chengdu.

Chengdu Tianfu International Airport

Chengdu Tianfu International Airport is an airport being constructed to serve Chengdu, the capital of China's Sichuan province and a major air hub. The site of the airport has been chosen at Lujia Town, Jianyang, Chengdu, 51 kilometres (32 mi) south-east of the center of Chengdu. It is also named after the Tianfu New Area, a development zone for Chengdu in which the airport is located. Construction began May 2016 and the airport is scheduled to open in 2020. It will operate as a second airport for Chengdu with the existing Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport continuing to operate.

Chengdu–Pujiang intercity railway, also known as the Cheng-Pu Express Railway, is a regional railway operated by China Railway High-speed within Sichuan province. It will connect the provincial capital of Chengdu with south-western cities along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin to Pujiang. It will start at Chengdu West railway station and will terminate and connect with the planned Chengdu–Ya'an intercity railway at Chaoyanghu railway station. It will be built as a National Railways Class I, double tracked electrified line with a design speed of 200 km/h (120 mph) and a total length of 99 km (62 mi). Construction and management of this line has been conducted by a joint venture limited liability company between Chengdu Metro and Chengdu Railway Bureau.

Chengdu BRT

Chengdu Bus Rapid Transit is a Bus Rapid Transit system in Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province in the People's Republic of China. The current system consists of a loop line integrated with the Chengdu Second Ring Road with dedicated bus lanes running in the center two lanes of the expressway. Transfers are available to several Chengdu Metro stations. The line began a free trial run on May 31, 2013, and started official operation on June 11, 2013. It has 29 center platform stations located in expressway median which requires special buses with the doors on the left. The loop is served by Lines K1, K1A, K2 and K2A. All buses have wifi. A new 7.8 km (4.8 mi) radial line heading northeast from the BRT loop to Qingbaijiang District is under construction. The line, called the Fenghuang Shan BRT, is scheduled to open in 2017. Another 4.5 km (2.8 mi) elevated BRT line heading south of the BRT loop is also currently under constriction. This line is known as the Jiannan Avenue BRT and is projected to open in 2018. Additional BRT lines are planned to radiate from the loop with lines heading west to Wenjiang District, east via Shanbanqiao Road and south to Tianfu New Area. Additionally another BRT loop along the Third Ring Road was proposed.

Chengdu Zoo Zoo in Chengdu, China

Chengdu Zoo is a zoo located in Chengdu, China. It is home to 3000 animals representing 300 species and is China's fourth largest zoo.



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Further reading

Preceded by
Capital of the Republic of China
30 November 1949 – 27 December 1949
Succeeded by