United States Government Publishing Office

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Government Publishing Office
Seal of the United States Government Printing Office.svg
Official seal
United States Government Publishing Office.svg
Logo
Agency overview
FormedMarch 4, 1861
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States
Headquarters732 North Capitol St. NW
Washington, D.C. [1]
Motto"Keeping America Informed" [2]
Employees1,920 [1]
Annual budget US$126,200,000 (2012); approx. US$135 million (2011) [1]
Agency executive
Parent agency United States Congress Joint Committee on Printing
Website gpo.gov
Footnotes
[1]

The United States Government Publishing Office (USGPO or GPO; formerly the United States Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States Federal government. The office produces and distributes information products and services for all three branches of the Federal Government, including U.S. passports for the Department of State as well as the official publications of the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, and independent agencies.

Contents

An act of Congress changed the office's name to its current form in 2014. [3]

History

U.S. Government Publishing Office GPOBuilding.JPG
U.S. Government Publishing Office

The Government Printing Office was created by congressional joint resolution (12  Stat.   117) on June 23, 1860. It began operations March 4, 1861, with 350 employees and reached a peak employment of 8,500 in 1972. [1] The agency began transformation to computer technology in the 1980s; along with the gradual replacement of paper with electronic document distribution, this has led to a steady decline in the number of staff at the agency. [1] For its entire history, the GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol Street NW and H Street NW in the District of Columbia. The large red brick building that houses the GPO was erected in 1903 and is unusual in being one of the few large, red brick government structures in a city where most government buildings are mostly marble and granite. (The Smithsonian Castle and the Pension Building, now the National Building Museum, are other exceptions.) An additional structure was attached to its north in later years. The activities of the GPO are defined in the public printing and documents chapters of Title 44 of the United States Code. The Director (formerly the Public Printer), who serves as the head of the GPO, is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director selects a Superintendent of Documents.

The Superintendent of Documents (SuDocs) is in charge of the dissemination of information at the GPO. This is accomplished through the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), the Cataloging and Indexing Program and the Publication Sales Program, as well as operation of the Federal Citizen Information Center in Pueblo, Colorado. Adelaide Hasse was the founder of the Superintendent of Documents classification system. [4]

The GPO first used 100 percent recycled paper for the Congressional Record and Federal Register from 1991 to 1997, under Public Printers Robert Houk and Michael DiMario. The GPO resumed using recycled paper in 2009.[ citation needed ]

In March 2011, the GPO issued a new illustrated official history covering the agency's 150 years of "Keeping America Informed". [5]

With demand for print publications falling and a move underway to digital document production and preservation, the name of the GPO was officially changed to "Government Publishing Office" in a provision of an omnibus government funding bill passed by Congress in December 2014. [6] Following signature of this legislation by President Barack Obama, the name change took place on December 17, 2014. [3]

Public Printers of the United States

By law, the Public Printer heads the GPO. The position of Public Printer traces its roots back to Benjamin Franklin and the period before the American Revolution, when he served as "publick printer", whose job was to produce official government documents for Pennsylvania and other colonies. When the agency was renamed in December 2014 the title "Public Printer" was also changed to "Director". Davita Vance-Cooks was therefore the first "Director" of the GPO.

Public Printers:

  1. Almon M. Clapp (1876–1877)
  2. John D. Defrees (1877–1882)
  3. Sterling P. Rounds (1882–1886)
  4. Thomas E. Benedict (1886–1889)
  5. Frank W. Palmer (1889–1894)
  6. Thomas E. Benedict (1894–1897)
  7. Frank W. Palmer (1897–1905), O.J. Ricketts (Acting, 1905–1905)
  8. Charles A. Stillings (1905–1908), William S. Rossiter (Acting, 1908–1908), Capt. Henry T. Brian (Acting, 1908–1908)
  9. John S. Leech (1908–1908)
  10. Samuel B. Donnelly (1908–1913)
  11. Cornelius Ford (1913–1921)
  12. George H. Carter (1921–1934)
  13. Augustus E. Giegengack (1934–1948), John J. Deviny (Acting, 1948–1948)
  14. John J. Deviny (1948–1953), Phillip L. Cole (Acting, 1953–1953)
  15. Raymond Blattenberger (1953–1961), John M. Wilson (Acting, 1961–1961), Felix E. Cristofane (Acting, 1961–1961)
  16. James L. Harrison (1961–1970)
  17. Adolphus N. Spence (1970–1972), Harry J. Humphrey (Acting, 1972–1973), L.T. Golden (Acting Deputy, 1973–1973)
  18. Thomas F. McCormick (1973–1977)
  19. John J. Boyle (1977–1980), Samuel Saylor (Acting, 1980–1981)
  20. Danford L. Sawyer, Jr. (1981–1984), William J. Barrett (Acting, 1984–1984)
  21. Ralph E. Kennickell, Jr. (1984–1988), Joseph E. Jenifer (Acting, 1988–1990)
  22. Robert Houk (1990–1993), [7] Michael F. DiMario (Acting, 1993–1993)
  23. Michael F. DiMario (1993 [8] –2002)
  24. Bruce James (2002–2007), [9] William H. Turri (Acting, 2007–2007)
  25. Robert C. Tapella (2007–2010) [10]
  26. William J. Boarman (2010–2012) [11]
  27. Davita Vance-Cooks (2013–2017) [12]
  28. Hugh Halpern (2019–present)

Published government documents

Official journals of government

The GPO contracts out much of the Federal government's printing but prints the official journals of government in-house, including:

Passports

The new e-passport produced by GPO Us-passport.jpg
The new e-passport produced by GPO

GPO has been producing U.S. passports since the 1920s. The United States Department of State began issuing e-passports in 2006. The e-Passport includes an electronic chip embedded in the cover that contains the same information that is printed in the passport: name, date and place of birth, sex, dates of passport issuance and expiration, passport number, and photo of the bearer. GPO produces the blank e-Passport, while the Department of State receives and adjudicates applications and issues individual passports. [13] [14] [15] [16] GPO ceased production of legacy passports in May 2007, shifting production entirely to e-passports.

In March 2008, the Washington Times published a three-part story about the outsourcing of electronic passports to overseas companies, including one in Thailand that was subject to Chinese espionage. [14] [17] [18]

Trusted Traveler Program card

GPO designs, prints, encodes, and personalizes Trusted Traveler Program cards (NEXUS, SENTRI and FAST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection (CBP).

GPO publications

External video
Defense.gov News Photo 090120-D-0000W-001.jpg Official Presidential Photograph
printed by GPO
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg American Artifacts: Government Printing Office (29:47), C-SPAN [19]

GPO publishes the U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual . [20] Among the venerable series are Foreign Relations of the United States for the Department of State (since 1861), and Public Papers of the Presidents , covering the administrations of Presidents Herbert Hoover onward (except Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose papers were privately printed). GPO published the Statistical Abstract of the United States for the Census Bureau from 1878 to 2012.

Internet access to GPO publications

Govinfo logo, 2016 Govinfo logo 2016.png
Govinfo logo, 2016

In 1993, President Bill Clinton signed the GPO Electronic Information Access Enhancement Act, which enabled GPO to put Government information online for the first time. [21] One year later, GPO began putting Government information online for the public to access. In 2009, GPO replaced its GPO Access website with the Federal Digital System, or FDsys. In 2016, GPO launched "govinfo", a mobile-friendly website for the public to access Government information. [22] Govinfo makes available at no charge the Congressional Record, the Federal Register, Public Papers of the Presidents, the U.S. Code, and other materials.

GPO Police

Security for GPO facilities is provided by the Government Publishing Office Police. [23] The force is part of the GPO's Physical Security Group, and in 2003 it had 53 officers. [24] Officers are appointed under Title 44 USC § 317 by the Public Printer (or their delegate). [25] Their duty is to "protect persons and property in premises and adjacent areas occupied by or under the control of the Government Printing Office". Officers are authorized to bear and use arms in the performance of their duties, make arrests for violations of Federal and state law (and that of Washington, D.C.), and enforce the regulations of the Public Printer, including requiring the removal from GPO premises of individuals who violate such regulations. Officers have concurrent jurisdiction with the law enforcement agencies where the premises are located. [25] [26]

See also

Related Research Articles

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A work of the United States government, as defined by the United States copyright law, is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain.

<i>Federal Register</i> Official journal of the US federal government

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The Public Printer of the United States was the head of the United States Government Publishing Office (GPO). Pursuant to 44 U.S.C. § 301, this officer was nominated by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. In December 2014, Congress passed and President Obama signed into law H.R. 83, which consolidated and continued appropriations for FY 2015. Section 1301 of that act changed the name of the Government Printing Office to the Government Publishing Office and the title of Public Printer to Director. Thus, Davita Vance-Cooks was the last Public Printer of the United States and the first Director of the U.S. Government Publishing Office.

<i>Congressional Record</i> Official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress

The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress, published by the United States Government Publishing Office and issued when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record Index is updated daily online and published monthly. At the end of a session of Congress, the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition. Chapter 9 of Title 44 of the United States Code authorizes publication of the Congressional Record.

Federal Depository Library Program Government program created to make U.S. federal government publications available to the public at no cost

The Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) is a government program created to make U.S. federal government publications available to the public at no cost. As of April 2021, there are 1,114 depository libraries in the United States and its territories. A "government publication" is defined in the U.S. Code as "informational matter which is published as an individual document at Government expense, or as required by law".

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The United States Government Manual is the official handbook of the federal government, published annually by the Office of the Federal Register and printed and distributed by the United States Government Publishing Office. The first edition was issued in 1935; before the 1973/74 edition it was known as the United States Government Organization Manual.

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In the United States, a slip law is an individual Act of Congress which is either a public law (Pub.L.) or a private law (Pvt.L.). They are part of a three-part model for publication of federal statutes consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification. Session laws are compiled into the Statutes at Large (Stat.), and codification results in the United States Code (U.S.C.).

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William J. Boarman American printer and civil servant

William Joseph Boarman was an American printer who served as the 26th Public Printer of the United States. Boarman was a labor union leader and government consultant, and served as senior vice-president of the Communications Workers of America (CWA) and president of that union's Printing, Publishing & Media Works Sector.

Title 1 of the Code of Federal Regulations, titled General Provisions, is a United States federal government regulation.

Davita Vance-Cooks American government official

Davita Vance-Cooks is an American business executive who served as the 27th Public Printer of the United States and the 1st Director of the U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO). Vance-Cooks is a business executive with more than 30 years of private sector and federal government management experience. She was the first woman and first African-American to lead the agency, whose mission since its establishment in 1861 is to Keep America Informed. As the provider of official federal government information in digital and printed formats, the GPO produces the Congressional Record, the Federal Register, U.S. passports, and a wide variety of other publications. The agency provides free public access to government information products through federal depository libraries nationwide as well as free online access via GPO's Federal Digital System.

The Printing Act of 1895, was a law designed to centralize in the United States Government Printing Office the printing, binding, and distribution of U.S. Government documents. The Act revised public printing laws and established the roles of the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) and the Government Printing Office (GPO) in distributing government information. The act also assigned leadership of the program to the Superintendent of Public Documents, who would be under the control of the GPO,

Federal Register Modernization Act

The Federal Register Modernization Act was a bill that would require the Federal Register to be published, rather than printed, and that documents in the Federal Register be made available for sale or distribution to the public in published form.

John J. Boyle (printer) 19th Public Printer of the United States

John Joseph Boyle was the 19th Public Printer of the United States, the head of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), which produces and distributes information products for all branches of the U.S. Government.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rein, Lisa (January 25, 2012), "U.S. printing office shrinks with round of buyouts", The Washington Post , washingtonpost.com, retrieved January 26, 2012
  2. "Mission, Vision, and Goals". www.gpo.gov.
  3. 1 2 Somerset, Gary (December 17, 2014). "GPO is now the Government Publishing Office" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  4. "Home". www.access.gpo.gov. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  5. Keeping America Informed, the U.S. Government Publishing Office: A Legacy of Service to the Nation 1861–2016 (PDF) (Revised ed.). Washington, D.C.: United States Government Publishing Office. 2016. ISBN   9780160933196.
  6. Andrew Siddons, "Government Printer Renamed for Digital Age", The New York Times, December 12, 2014.
  7. "PIA Backs a Nominee For Public Printer Post.(Printing Industries of America, Robert Houk)(Brief Article)". June 1, 2001. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. BUBL.ac.uk Archived June 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  9. GPO.gov Archived September 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  10. "Presidential Nominations Sent to the Senate, 4/19/10". whitehouse.gov . April 19, 2010. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2010 via National Archives.
  11. SacBee.com [ dead link ]
  12. Hicks, Josh (August 2, 2013). "Davita Vance-Cooks confirmed as first female and African American public printer". The Washington Post . washingtonpost.com. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  13. "Congressional Relations" (PDF). www.gpo.gov.
  14. 1 2 Gertz, Bill (March 27, 2008). "GPO profits go to bonuses and trips". Washington Times.
  15. Gertz, Bill (March 26, 2008). "Outsourced passport work scrutinized". Washington Times.
  16. Goldfarb, Zachary A. (March 13, 2006). "Confronting Digital Age Head-On". Washington Post.
  17. Bill Gertz, Outsourced passports netting govt. profits, risking national security Archived April 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , Washington Times, March 26, 2008
  18. "GPO's backup plant on storm-prone Gulf". Washington Times. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
  19. "American Artifacts: Government Printing Office". C-SPAN. November 2, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2021.
  20. "U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual". United States Government Publishing Office. 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
  21. "Keeping America Informed" (PDF). www.govinfo.gov. U.S. Government Publishing Office. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
  22. "Meet govinfo, GPO's Next Generation of Access to Federal Government Information". blogs.loc.gov. The Library of Congress. February 10, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
  23. "GPO Uniformed Police". United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
  24. "Review of Potential Merger of the Library of Congress Police and/or the Government Printing Office Police with the U.S. Capitol Police". Government Accountability Office. July 5, 2002. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  25. 1 2 44 U.S.C.   § 317
  26. "GPO Uniformed Police Branch" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.

Further reading