United States Government Publishing Office

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Government Publishing Office
US-GovernmentPrintingOffice-Seal.svg
Official seal
United States Government Publishing Office.svg
Logo
Agency overview
FormedMarch 4, 1861
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States
Headquarters732 North Capitol St. NW
Washington, D.C. [1]
MottoKeeping America Informed
Employees1,920 [1]
Annual budget US$126,200,000 (2012); approx. US$135 million (2011) [1]
Agency executive
  • Herbert H. Jackson Jr. (acting), Deputy Director [2]
Parent agency United States Congress Joint Committee on Printing
Website gpo.gov
Footnotes
[1]

The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the United States Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office produces and distributes information products and services for all three branches of the Federal Government, including U.S. passports for the Department of State as well as the official publications of the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, and independent agencies.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

Supreme Court of the United States Highest court in the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U.S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors. It also has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction. The court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.

United States Congress Legislature of the United States

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

Contents

An act of Congress changed office's name to its current form in 2014. [3]

An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals.

History

The Government Printing Office was created by congressional joint resolution (12  Stat.   117) on June 23, 1860. It began operations March 4, 1861, with 350 employees and reached a peak employment of 8,500 in 1972. [1] The agency began transformation to computer technology in the 1980s; along with the gradual replacement of paper with electronic document distribution, this has led to a steady decline in the number of staff at the agency. [1] For its entire history, GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol Street NW and H Street NW in the District of Columbia. The large red brick building that houses the GPO was erected in 1903 and is unusual in being one of the few large, red brick government structures in a city where most government buildings are mostly marble and granite. (The Smithsonian Castle and the Pension Building, now the National Building Museum, are other exceptions.) An additional structure was attached to its north in later years. The activities of GPO are defined in the public printing and documents chapters of Title 44 of the United States Code. The Director (formerly the Public Printer), who serves as the head of GPO, is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director selects a Superintendent of Documents.

In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires passage by the Senate and the House of Representatives and is presented to the president for his or her approval or disapproval. Generally, there is no legal difference between a joint resolution and a bill. Both must be passed, in exactly the same form, by both chambers of Congress, and signed by the President to become a law. Only joint resolutions may be used to propose amendments to the United States Constitution and these do not require the approval of the President. Laws enacted by virtue of a joint resolution are not distinguished from laws enacted by a bill, except that they are designated as resolutions as opposed to Acts of Congress.

<i>United States Statutes at Large</i>

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

National Building Museum museum in Washington, D.C.

The National Building Museum is located at 401 F Street NW in Washington, D.C., United States. It is a museum of "architecture, design, engineering, construction, and urban planning". It was created by an act of Congress in 1980, and is a private non-profit institution; it is adjacent to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial and the Judiciary Square Metro station. The museum hosts various temporary exhibits in galleries around the spacious Great Hall.

U.S. Government Publishing Office GPOBuilding.JPG
U.S. Government Publishing Office

The Superintendent of Documents (SuDocs) is in charge of the dissemination of information at the GPO. This is accomplished through the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), the Cataloging and Indexing Program and the Publication Sales Program, as well as operation of the Federal Citizen Information Center in Pueblo, Colorado. Adelaide Hasse was the founder of the Superintendent of Documents classification system. [4]

Federal Depository Library Program government program created to make U.S. federal government publications available to the public at no cost

The Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) is a government program created to make U.S. federal government publications available to the public at no cost. As of March 2018, there are 1,141 depository libraries in the United States and its territories. A "government publication" is defined in the U.S. Code as "informational matter which is published as an individual document at Government expense, or as required by law".

Pueblo, Colorado City in Colorado, United States

Pueblo is a home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County, Colorado, United States. The population was 106,595 in 2010 census, making it the 267th most populous city in the United States and the 9th largest in Colorado. Pueblo is the heart of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area totaling over 160,000 people and an important part of the Front Range Urban Corridor. As of 2014, Pueblo is the primary city of the Pueblo–Cañon City combined statistical area (CSA) totaling approximately 208,000 people, making it the 134th largest in the nation.

Adelaide Hasse American librarian

Adelaide Rosalie Hasse is listed as one of the "100 most important leaders we had in the 20th century" in the December 1999 edition of American Libraries. She is credited with having developed the Superintendent of Documents Classification system used by the Government Printing Office and Federal Depository Library Program.

GPO first used 100 percent recycled paper for the Congressional Record and Federal Register from 1991-1997, under Public Printers Robert Houk and Michael DiMario. GPO resumed using recycled paper in 2009.

<i>Congressional Record</i> official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress

The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress, published by the United States Government Publishing Office and issued when Congress is in session. Indexes are issued approximately every two weeks. At the end of a session of Congress, the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition. Chapter 9 of Title 44 of the United States Code authorizes publication of the Congressional Record.

<i>Federal Register</i> official journal of the US Federal Government

The Federal Register is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices. It is published daily, except on federal holidays. The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are ultimately reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), which is updated annually.

In March 2011, GPO issued a new illustrated official history covering the agency's 150 years of Keeping America Informed. [5]

With demand for print publications falling and a move underway to digital document production and preservation, the name of the GPO was officially changed to "Government Publishing Office" in a provision of an omnibus government funding bill passed by Congress in December 2014. [6] Following signature of this legislation by President Barack Obama, the name change took place on December 17, 2014. [3]

Public Printers of the United States

By law, the Public Printer heads the GPO. The position of Public Printer traces its roots back to Benjamin Franklin and the period before the American Revolution, when he served as "publick printer", whose job was to produce official government documents for Pennsylvania and other colonies. When the agency was renamed in December 2014 the title "Public Printer" was also changed to "Director". Davita Vance-Cooks was therefore the first "Director" of GPO.

Public Printers:

  1. Almon M. Clapp (1876–1877)
  2. John D. Defrees (1877–1882)
  3. Sterling P. Rounds (1882–1886)
  4. Thomas E. Benedict (1886–1889)
  5. Frank W. Palmer (1889–1894)
  6. Thomas E. Benedict (1894–1897)
  7. Frank W. Palmer (1897–1905), O.J. Ricketts (Acting, 1905–1905)
  8. Charles A. Stillings (1905–1908), William S. Rossiter (Acting, 1908–1908), Capt. Henry T. Brian (Acting, 1908–1908)
  9. John S. Leech (1908–1908)
  10. Samuel B. Donnelly (1908–1913)
  11. Cornelius Ford (1913–1921)
  12. George H. Carter (1921–1934)
  13. Augustus E. Giegengack (1934–1948), John J. Deviny (Acting, 1948–1948)
  14. John J. Deviny (1948–1953), Phillip L. Cole (Acting, 1953–1953)
  15. Raymond Blattenberger (1953–1961), John M. Wilson (Acting, 1961–1961), Felix E. Cristofane (Acting, 1961–1961)
  16. James L. Harrison (1961–1970)
  17. Adolphus N. Spence (1970–1972), Harry J. Humphrey (Acting, 1972–1973), L.T. Golden (Acting Deputy, 1973–1973)
  18. Thomas F. McCormick (1973–1977)
  19. John J. Boyle (1977–1980), Samuel Saylor (Acting, 1980–1981)
  20. Danford L. Sawyer, Jr. (1981–1984), William J. Barrett (Acting, 1984–1984)
  21. Ralph E. Kennickell, Jr. (1984–1988), Joseph E. Jenifer (Acting, 1988–1990)
  22. Robert Houk (1990–1993), [7] Michael F. DiMario (Acting, 1993–1993)
  23. Michael F. DiMario (1993 [8] –2002)
  24. Bruce James (2002–2007), [9] William H. Turri (Acting, 2007–2007)
  25. Robert C. Tapella (2007–2010) [10]
  26. William J. Boarman (2010–2012) [11]
  27. Davita Vance-Cooks (2013–2017) [12]

Published government documents

Official journals of government

GPO contracts out much of the federal government's printing but prints the official journals of government in-house, including:

Passports

The new e-passport produced by GPO Us-passport.jpg
The new e-passport produced by GPO

GPO has been producing U.S. passports since the 1920s. The United States Department of State began issuing e-passports in 2006. The e-Passport includes an electronic chip embedded in the cover that contains the same information that is printed in the passport: name, date and place of birth, sex, dates of passport issuance and expiration, passport number, and photo of the bearer. GPO produces the blank e-Passport, while the Department of State receives and processes applications and issues individual passports. [13] [14] [15] [16] GPO ceased production of legacy passports in May 2007, shifting production entirely to e-passports.

In March 2008, the Washington Times published a three-part story about the outsourcing of electronic passports to overseas companies, including one in Thailand that was subject to Chinese espionage. [14] [17] [18]

Trusted Traveler Program card

GPO designs, prints, encodes and personalizes Trusted Traveler Program cards (NEXUS, SENTRI and FAST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection (CBP).

GPO publications

External video
Defense.gov News Photo 090120-D-0000W-001.jpg Official Presidential Photograph
printed by GPO
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg American Artifacts: Government Printing Office (29:47), CSPAN [19]

GPO publishes the U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual . [20] Among the venerable series are Foreign Relations of the United States for the Department of State (since 1861), and Public Papers of the Presidents , covering the administrations of Presidents Herbert Hoover onward (except Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose papers were privately printed). GPO published the Statistical Abstract of the United States for the Census Bureau from 1878 to 2012.

GPO Police

Security for GPO facilities is provided by the Government Publishing Office Police. [21] The force is part of the GPO's Physical Security Group and in 2003 had 53 officers. [22] Officers are appointed under Title 44 USC § 317 by the Public Printer (or their delegate). Their duty is to "protect persons and property in premises and adjacent areas occupied by or under the control of the Government Printing Office". Officers are authorized to bear and use arms in the performance of their duties, make arrests for violations of federal and state law, (and that of Washington, DC) and enforce the regulations of the Public Printer, including requiring the removal from GPO premises of individuals who violate such regulations. Officers have concurrent jurisdiction with the law enforcement agencies where the premises are located. [23] [24]

See also

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<i>Code of Federal Regulations</i> law code

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation.

A work of the United States government, as defined by the United States copyright law, is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain.

The Public Printer of the United States was the head of the United States Government Publishing Office (GPO). Pursuant to 44 U.S.C. § 301, this officer was nominated by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. In December 2014, Congress passed and President Obama signed into law H.R. 83, which consolidated and continued appropriations for FY 2015. Section 1301 of that act changed the name of the Government Printing Office to the Government Publishing Office and the title of Public Printer to Director. Thus, Davita Vance-Cooks was the last Public Printer of the United States and the first Director of the U.S. Government Publishing Office.

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Title 1 of the Code of Federal Regulations, titled General Provisions, is a United States federal government regulation.

Davita Vance-Cooks American government official

Davita Vance-Cooks was the 27th Public Printer of the United States, the 1st Director of the U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO). Vance-Cooks is a business executive with more than 30 years of private sector and federal government management experience. She was the first woman and first African-American to lead the agency, whose mission since its establishment in 1861 is to Keep America Informed. As the provider of official federal government information in digital and printed formats, the GPO produces the Congressional Record, the Federal Register, U.S. passports, and a wide variety of other publications. The agency provides free public access to government information products through federal depository libraries nationwide as well as free online access via GPO’s Federal Digital System.

The Printing Act of 1895, was a law designed to centralize in the United States Government Printing Office the printing, binding, and distribution of U.S. Government documents. The Act revised public printing laws and established the roles of the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) and the Government Printing Office (GPO) in distributing government information. The act also assigned leadership of the program to the Superintendent of Public Documents, who would be under the control of the GPO,

Federal Register Modernization Act

The Federal Register Modernization Act is a bill that would require the Federal Register to be published, rather than printed, and that documents in the Federal Register be made available for sale or distribution to the public in published form.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rein, Lisa (January 25, 2012), "U.S. printing office shrinks with round of buyouts", The Washington Post , washingtonpost.com, retrieved January 26, 2012
  2. "Acting GPO Director Jim Bradley Retires". FDLP News and Events.
  3. 1 2 Somerset, Gary (December 17, 2014). "GPO is now the Government Publishing Office" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  4. "Home". www.access.gpo.gov. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  5. "Mission, Vision, and Goals". www.gpo.gov.
  6. Andrew Siddons, "Government Printer Renamed for Digital Age," New York Times, Dec. 12, 2014.
  7. "PIA Backs a Nominee For Public Printer Post.(Printing Industries of America, Robert Houk)(Brief Article)". June 1, 2001. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.
  8. BUBL.ac.uk Archived June 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  9. GPO.gov Archived September 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  10. "Presidential Nominations Sent to the Senate, 4/19/10". Archived from the original on August 18, 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
  11. SacBee.com [ dead link ]
  12. Hicks, Josh (August 2, 2013). "Davita Vance-Cooks confirmed as first female and African American public printer". The Washington Post . washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  13. "Congressional Relations" (PDF). www.gpo.gov.
  14. 1 2 Bill Gertz, GPO profits go to bonuses and trips, Washington Times, March 27, 2008
  15. Bill Gertz, Outsourced passport work scrutinized, Washington Times, March 26, 2008
  16. Confronting Digital Age Head-On, Washington Post, March 13, 2006
  17. Bill Gertz, Outsourced passports netting govt. profits, risking national security Archived April 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , Washington Times, March 26, 2008
  18. "GPO's backup plant on storm-prone Gulf". Washington Times. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
  19. "American Artifacts: Government Printing Office". C-SPAN. March 17, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
  20. "U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual". United States Government Publishing Office. 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  21. "GPO Uniformed Police". Website of the Government Printing Office. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  22. "Review of Potential Merger of the Library of Congress Police and/or the Government Printing Office Police with the U.S. Capitol Police". Government Accountability Office. 5 July 2002. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  23. 44 U.S.C.   § 317
  24. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

Further reading